Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performed by Bystanders: A Systematic Review
Keywords:Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), Bystander CPR
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the most popular treatment for unexpected cardiac arrest. In order to enhance the survival and neurological prognosis of out of hospital cardiac arrest patients, both healthcare practitioners and lay rescuers must learn this technique. Millions of people die each year as a result of sudden cardiac arrest across the world due to ineffective CPR performed by bystander. The aim of this review is to identify the existing literature on knowledge, attitude and practice of the community at the out of hospital cardiac arrest level. Guided by the PRISMA Statement review checklist, a systematic review of the Scopus and Web of Science database and Science Direct has identified 332 related studies. The articles were assessed and analysed after evaluation using The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative checklist. Total article accepted were n=11. We reviewed 1150 articles and selected 332 for complete evaluation. We included 11 of the 332 papers in this review that was published since 2018. We classified 11 recommendations; those with the highest scores were 1) Knowledge assisted CPR among bystander CPR remain poor, 2) CPR challenge on stranger, 3) CPR challenge on barrier, 4) The impact on quality CPR on survival rate and 5) Conventional CPR with mouth to mouth vs chest-compression only - CPR. CPR at out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, with several factors that influences such as knowledge, attitude, practice of community bystander CPR. While, the willingness (self-efficacy), the barriers and reluctant of bystander CPR still not clear. The targeted group for CPR training and tailored of training CPR for the bystander CPR give the effect and quality of CPR performance. Furthermore, the motivating factors to begin CPR at the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest level that emerged from a study of these publications. Recommendations not supported by evidence include mass training events, pulse taking prior to CPR by community and CPR using chest compressions alone. We evaluated and classified the potential impact of interventions that have been proposed to improve bystander CPR rates. Our results may help communities design interventions to improve their bystander CPR rates.
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