Smokers’ Perception of Their Health Status and Health-Seeking Behaviour: A Narrative Review
Keywords:Smoking effect, Health status, Smoker's perception, Health seeking behaviour
Background: Smoking has been primarily studied as a public health problem involving mapping continued smoking patterns and interventions designed to decrease smoking prevalence. This paper aims to discuss the available literature on smokers’ perception on their health, the smokers’ health-seeking behaviour and factors influence the smokers’ continuity in smoking.
Method: Review literature conducted by using databases such as Science Direct, Sage Journals, Wiley, PubMed, and Scopus with the keywords smoking, health perception, health seeking behavior, health status, and health screening.
Result: Eighteen articles were reviewed, selected, and summarized. These include six qualitative studies, ten quantitative studies, and two randomized control studies. Findings showed that smokers underestimate the effects of smoking and overestimate their ability to quit before becoming addicted. Thus, communication of health risk must be in line with smokers’ perception of health risks which they tend to minimize and ignore. Smokers’ perceived smoking bring benefits and they could retain control over their actions but could not easily stop having frequent desires to smoke. Also, healthcare providers should develop passion, equipped with expected skills and aid while intervene smokers’, which might increase their motivation to quit smoking.
Conclusion: Further study perhaps could bring a better understanding on the factors contribute to smokers’ judgment in making decisions whether to continue or stop smoking and how these factors influence their actions. Smoking rates might be reduced if smokers understood the risks of smoking, which were more accurate as evidenced by a medical check-up and held to the beliefs on smoking-related risks that led to their firm decision to stop smoking.
World Health Organisation. Tobacco- World Health Organisation. 2022. .
NATIONAL HEALTH AND MORBIDITY SURVEY 2015 – REPORT ON SMOKING STATUS AMONG MALAYSIAN ADULTS.1.
Lei Hum W, Chan Mei Hsien C, Swarna Nantha Y. A Review of Smoking Research In Malaysia.
Rumsfeld JS. Health status and clinical practice: When will they meet? Vol. 106, Circulation. 2002. p. 5–7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000020805.31531.48
Chean KY, Goh LG, Liew KW, Tan CC, Choi XL, Tan KC, et al. Barriers to smoking cessation: A qualitative study from the perspective of primary care in Malaysia. Vol. 9, BMJ Open. BMJ Publishing Group; 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025491
Kay-Tee Khaw NWSBAWRLND. Combined Impact of Health Behaviours and Moetality in Men and Women. PLoS One. 2008 Mar 1;5(1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050012
Howe LC, Krosnick JA. Attitude Strength. Vol. 68, Annual Review of Psychology. Annual Reviews Inc.; 2017. p. 327–51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-122414-033600
Subramaniam M, Shahwan S, Fauziana R, Satghare P, Picco L, Vaingankar JA, et al. Perspectives on smoking initiation and maintenance: A qualitative exploration among singapore youth. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Jul 31;12(8):8956–70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120808956
Delaney H, MacGregor A, Amos A. " Tell them you smoke, you’ll get more breaks ": A qualitative study of occupational and social contexts of young adult smoking in Scotland. BMJ Open. 2018 Dec 1;8(12). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023951
Baumeister RF. Addiction, cigarette smoking, and voluntary control of action: Do cigarette smokers lose their free will? Vol. 5, Addictive Behaviors Reports. Elsevier Ltd; 2017. p. 67–84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2017.01.003
Lee M& HM& SA. Exploring the Reasons Smokers Dropped Out After Enrolling at the Quit Smoking Clinic (QSC) in Malaysia. 2011; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2011.08.1451
Hsieh CR, Lo TF. Are smokers too optimistic about their health status: Ex ante perception versus ex post observation. China Economic Review. 2017 Apr 1;43:169–83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2017.01.013
Peretti-Watel P, Seror V, Verger P, Guignard R, Legleye S, Beck F. Smokers’ risk perception, socioeconomic status and source of information on cancer. Addictive Behaviors. 2014;39(9):1304–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.04.016
Parkes G, Greenhalgh T, Griffin M, Dent R. Effect on smoking quit rate of telling patients their lung age: The Step2quit randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008 Mar 15;336(7644):598–600. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39503.582396.25
Samples H, Bandara S, Olfson M, Saloner B. Tobacco Screening and Counseling in the U.S.: Smokers With Mental Health and Substance Use Problems. Am J Prev Med. 2018 Oct 1;55(4):524–32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.05.024
Foulds J, Veldheer S, Hrabovsky S, Yingst J, Sciamanna C, Chen G, et al. The effect of motivational lung age feedback on short-term quit rates in smokers seeking intensive group treatment: A randomized controlled pilot study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Aug 1;153:271–7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.05.007
King J.L., Pomeranz J.L. Poor health among smokers obtaining colonoscopy screening- making the case for cessation intervention.
Raz D.J., Wu G., Nelson R.A. Perceptions and Utilization of Lung Cancer Screening Among Smokers Enrolled in a Tobacco Cessation Program.
Berlin I, Singleton E.G. Cross validation of the prognostic and diagnostic utility of tobacco craving in a general and a pregnant sample of treatment-seeking smokers.
Alkhubaizi Q, Khalaf ME, Dashti H, Sharma PN. Oral cancer screening among smokers and nonsmokers. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2018 Nov 1;8(6):553–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_197_18
Mahabee-Gittens EM, Collins BN, Murphy S, Woo H, Chang Y, Dempsey J, et al. The parent-child dyad and risk perceptions among parents who quit smoking. Am J Prev Med. 2014 Nov 1;47(5):596–603. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2014.07.010
Lim HK, Teh HC, Lim LH, Lau JK, Kee CC, Ghazali SM, et al. Smoking among secondary school students in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia - Findings from a cross-sectional study. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015;16(11):4563–70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.11.4563
Abu Hassan MSN, Mukhtar NAA, Kamaruddin AN, Jaafar HN, Jamaludin NA, Ismail SFS, et al. Gender differences of smoking perception among adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering. 2019 Jul 1;8(2 Special Issue 3):331–5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.35940/ijrte.B1057.0782S319
Yong HH, Hamann SL, Borland R, Fong GT, Omar M. Adult smokers’ perception of the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking and association with quitting: A comparison between Thai Buddhists and Malaysian Muslims. Soc Sci Med. 2009 Oct;69(7):1025–31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.07.042
Kungskulniti N, Charoenca N, Kengganpanich T, Kusolwisitkul W, Pichainarong N, Kerdmongkol P, et al. Smoking Prevalence Among Monks in Thailand. Vol. 35, Evaluation and the Health Professions. 2012. p. 305–22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0163278711426424
Lim KH, Teh CH, Pan S, Ling MY, Yusoff MFM, Ghazali SM, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adults in Malaysia: Findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015. Tob Induc Dis. 2018 Jan 1;16(January):1–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18332/tid/82190
Amer Nordin AS, Mohd Hairi F, Bullen C, Mohd Sobri MK. Knowledge and practices of tobacco dependence treatment among junior doctors in a Malaysian teaching hospital. J Smok Cessat [Internet]. 2015 Dec 31 [cited 2022 Oct 4];10(2):162–7. Available from: https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1834261214000085/type/journal_article DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/jsc.2014.8