https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/issue/feed INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2022-01-02T15:20:53+08:00 Editor ijcs@iium.edu.my Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Care Scholars (IJCS) is the official journal of the Kulliyyah (Faculty) of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia. IJCS will publish original research articles and case reports as well as review articles in all related areas on the care of individual, family and community. Our expertise and interest, including the topics related to nursing care, medical care, collaborative care, transdisciplinary care, patient and healthcare provider education. It also covers management and ethics issues related to individual, family and community care. This is an open access journal, which implies that the user or his/her institution can access all of the content for free. Users may read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles for any lawful purpose without seeking permission from the publisher or author. IJCS is indexed in Google Scholar, MyJurnal and Malaysian Citation Index (MyCite). <strong>ISSN: 2600-898X</strong></p> https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/188 Knowledge, Attitude and Awareness of Basic Life Support Among Health Sciences University Students 2021-06-07T14:46:15+08:00 Nurhazirah Zainul Azlan nurhazirah@iium.edu.my Nik Hartini Mohd Noor nikhartini1@gmail.com Noratikah Othman atikahothman@iium.edu.my <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Basic life support (BLS) refers to the skills that require no or few equipment to save cardiac or respiratory arrest patients and it is a skill that required by all healthcare providers including medical-based students in order to save the life-threatening victims. This study determined the level of knowledge, attitude and awareness of BLS among students at International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Kuantan campus. <strong>Methods: </strong>A quantitative cross-sectional study with convenience sampling study was conducted among 167 students at IIUM Kuantan Campus, from November to December 2020. Data were gathered by using Google Forms which available in English Language and distributed to year 3, 4 and 5 students. The questionnaire was adapted from three sets questionnaires, which two sets questionnaires were from American Heart Association in 2015, and another set questionnaire from European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2010 Resuscitation Guidelines. <strong>Results: </strong>The majority of the respondents have high awareness and positive attitude towards BLS but having below average score for knowledge on BLS. There is a significantly association between courses and previous exposure of BLS training with BLS knowledge (p&lt;0.05). Age, courses and previous exposure of BLS training are significantly associated with awareness level of BLS (p&lt;0.05). A significant association also observed between previous exposure of BLS training with positive attitude towards BLS training (p&lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Health sciences university students was concluded to having positive attitude and high awareness towards BLS training despite having below average level of BLS knowledge score. Therefore, the university may provide more BLS educational programs and even practical to the students to promote their knowledge and improve their skills on BLS.</p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/193 Malnutrition Risk Among Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Attending the Nephrology Clinic in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Pahang 2021-06-10T16:36:28+08:00 Siti Noorkhairina Sowtali sitinoorkhairina@iium.edu.my Ali Aminuddin Mohd Rasani aliaminuddin@usm.my Dariah Mohd. Yusoff dariah@usm.my Azarisman Shah Mohd. Shah risman1973@hotmail.com Che Rosle Draman rosle@iium.edu.my Sakinah Harith sakinahharith@unisza.edu.my Nurul Alia Jasmin Zainol aliajasminzainol@gmail.com Nurul Atikah Mohd. Zuki nurulatikahnamz@gmail.com Nur Izzati Md. Nawi izzatinawi_1994@yahoo.com <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adult in Malaysia has been increasing and it is forecasted that the pattern will remain. The risk for malnutrition is prominent especially in the later stage of chronic kidney disease. Early detection of malnutrition is important to prevent further complications. However, limited studies on malnutrition risk has been conducted in Malaysia. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factor of malnutrition among chronic kidney disease patient attending Nephrology Clinic in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Pahang. <strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted among 70 chronic kidney disease patients using convenience sampling. All patients were explained about the study and informed consent obtained prior the administration of questionnaire. There were three parts of questionnaire to be answered which were on sociodemographic, clinical characteristic and dietary information along with Malnutrition Risk Screening Tool-Hospital to measure the risk for malnutrition. <strong>Results: </strong>Most of the participants were married (75.7%), had completed primary school (58.6%), currently not working (32.9%), had income between RM 1000 to RM 1999 (37.1%) and living with three or four members in a household (24.3%). Majority had at least one precipitating disease that causes chronic kidney disease such as hypertension (71.4%) followed by diabetes (61.4%) and high cholesterol (30.0%). Almost 21.4% of chronic kidney disease patients screened were at risk for malnutrition. Further inferential analysis shows an association between weight loss (p=0.001) towards risk for malnutrition. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Overall, the risk for malnutrition among chronic kidney disease patient was fairly high. This warrant close attention of the healthcare professional that caring for the patients particularly in detection of detrimental weight loss during each follow up visit. A referral to the dietician is important to ensure the patients received adequate counselling and education on dietary management. </p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/215 Perceived Stress Level and Its Stressors Among Malaysian Undergraduate Nursing Students During COVID-19 Pandemic 2021-09-18T18:00:40+08:00 Nurasikin Mohamad Shariff nurasikin@iium.edu.my Megat Ridzuan Megat Mohd Azlan megatridzuan3101997@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>As COVID-19 Pandemic hit across the globe, the closure of higher institutions and the shifting to online platform has become the stress factors related to learning activities for the nursing students. Hence, this study was conducted among Malaysian undergraduate nursing students to determine the level of perceived stress and to examine the relationship between the stressors and the perceived stress level. <strong>Methods: </strong>This is a cross-sectional study using convenience sampling conducted among undergraduate nursing students in one public university in Malaysia. The study participants (n=201) had been recruited by distributing an online survey which was consisted of three parts; socio-demographic characteristics, stressor factors, and Perceived Stress Score (PSS-10). <strong>Results: </strong>Majority of the respondents had moderate stress (n=154, 76.6%) with the total mean PSS-10 was 21.29 (SD=±5.57). Significant differences in PSS-10 score were found in terms of level of study, satisfaction in nursing study, current living location, and negative life events (p&lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results from the study indicated that most of the undergraduate nursing students had moderate stress and it is associated with level of study, satisfaction in nursing study, current living location and the present of negative life events. This finding could inform the nursing lecturers and the Malaysian educational institutions for establishing a mechanism of identification and support system for the nursing students associated with the stressors.</p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/216 Association between Social Media Addiction and Mental Health Among International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Undergraduate Nursing Students 2021-11-05T11:36:57+08:00 Cho Cho Zaw raheema@iium.edu.my Nur Amira Azenal mira_yaa@yahoo.com <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Addiction to the social media could interfere with an individual’s daily life and have an impact on their psychological well-being. The emergence of social media is seen to have many influences in students’ life, and they tend to neglect their studies by spending more time on social media. Very few studies were conducted regard to social media and mental health in Malaysia. <strong>Aim: </strong>To study the association between social media addiction and mental health among nursing students. Material and <strong>methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted on 208 undergraduate nursing students, IIUM Kuantan. A questionnaire consists of four sections; socio-demographic data, social media usage, social media addiction, and mental health were distributed. The data were analysed by using IBM Statistical Package Social Science (SPSS) version 22.0. <strong>Results: </strong>It is found that most of nursing students, 54.3% (N=113) are slightly addicted to social media, 37.0% (N=77) of them are moderately addicted, 5.3% (N=11) are highly addicted and 3.4% (N=7) have no addiction to social media. On average, the students experienced moderately severe depression and anxiety with the same mean score for each with 28.99 (9.637). They also had mild stress with mean score of 8.47 (5.436). It is found that there is an association between social media addiction with depression (r = 0.448, p&lt;0.05), anxiety (r = 0.448, p&lt;0.05) and stress (r = 0.313, p&lt;0.05) respectively. For sociodemographic, there is no relationship between age, gender, level of study and CGPA. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>It was found that there is an association between social media addiction and mental health status. Social media can have a negative impact on mental health among the students. These findings seek for initiation of interventions for better social media management and mental health improvement. It could serve as a reference for future researchers to conduct their studies in the related area.</p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/186 Dietary Supplements: A Survey Use, Attitudes and Knowledge Among IIUM Kuantan Students 2021-07-10T22:22:35+08:00 Siti Nur Atirah Mohd Radzi sitinuratirah90@gmail.com Redzuan Nul Hakim Abdul Razak redzuan@iium.edu.my Nik Fakhuruddin Nik Hassan nikf@usm.my <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: Dietary supplements have been recognized as products that are globally used, especially among university students due to its effectiveness and benefits towards health. In order to determine the efficiency of the supplements, the users must equip themselves with knowledge on the usage of dietary supplements. Hence, this study mainly aims to assess the usage, attitude and knowledge on dietary supplements among IIUM Kuantan students. <strong>Method</strong>: This study used a descriptive cross-sectional with stratified random sampling study among 349 undergraduate students at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Kuantan campus. Data was collected using online questionnaires and shared with students from IIUM Kuantan campus. The data was analyzed by using IBM Statistical Package Social Science (SPSS) version 25.0. <strong>Results</strong>: The overall prevalence of dietary supplements used by the students in the university was 31.8%. On the other hand, students show to have positive attitude and good knowledge, 70.8% and 84.0%, respectively. There was an association between course study and presence of illness with the level of attitudes based on Fisher exact test with p-values of &lt;0.05 representing statistical significance. The same test was used resulting in age and BMI were associated with the level of knowledge. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Prevalence of dietary supplements used was lower than other local findings and most of the students depict a good level of knowledge and positive attitudes towards dietary supplements. nevertheless, educational information regarding dietary supplements still needs to be provided to university students as the number of consumers keeps rising.</p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/218 Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Nurses in Assessing Patients using Early Warning Sign (EWS) Scoring in a teaching hospital in Kuantan Pahang, Malaysia 2021-10-18T11:13:34+08:00 Anati Liyana Alias anatiliyana9714@gmail.com Salizar Mohamed Ludin msalizar@iium.edu.my <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Early Warning Sign (EWS) is a tool made up of vital signs chart and scoring to detect any changes in patient so that immediate and appropriate care can be further determined and provided. The objectives of the study are to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of nurses in assessing patient using EWS scoring and to identify association between socio-demographic with knowledge, attitudes, and practice, as well as to determine the associations between knowledge with attitudes, attitudes with practice and knowledge of nurses in assessing patient using EWS scoring. <strong>Methods: </strong>A quantitative cross- sectional study with convenience sampling study was conducted on 132 nurses from medical, surgical and orthopedics wards in Sultan Ahmad Shah Medical Centre (SASMEC) from November 2020 until January 2021. Printed questionnaires were distributed to the nurses in English language. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. Part A was about socio-demographic data (area and on years of nursing practice, &amp; service, area of practice, educational level, as well as whether holding post-basic/ advance course certificate, attending life support training and ICU outreach participant). Part B was about knowledge, attitudes, and practices of EWS. Data analysis was interpreted in descriptive and inferential analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. <strong>Results: </strong>A total of 108 respondents involved in the study represents 82% response rate. Majority of respondents scored low in knowledge questions with grade F (n=106, 98.3%). One respondent scored grade D, correctly answering 8 over 13 questions (62%). Only one respondent obtained grade B with 85% score. Based on the result, there are more participants (n=58, 53.7%) achieving good attitudes while respondents with poor attitudes were (n=50, 46.3%). Moreover, 59 respondents (54.6%) have higher practice level than mean score, indicating good EWS practice. The remaining 49 respondents (45.4%) scored below the mean score cut off point indicating poor practice. The mean values are different depending on working areas in terms of attitudes and practice. The association between attitudes and practice (r= 0.641, p-value&lt;0.01) is confirmed having a positive and strong correlation. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study revealed that despite having poor knowledge on EWS, the nurses have demonstrated good attitudes and practice in detecting patients’ progressive deteriorating conditions; thus, confirming that there are associations in area of practice with attitudes and practice. The results also shows that there is a significant difference between attitudes and practice of nurses in assessing patient using EWS with (p- value&lt; 0.05).</p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/219 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Infection - Control Among IIUM Kuantan Nursing Students During Coronavirus 2019 Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak 2021-12-08T16:10:35+08:00 Nur Syuhada Jamiran adiknursyuhada@gmail.com Salizar Mohamed Ludin msalizar@iium.edu.my <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Infection Control (IC) is a procedure and evidence-based practice applied in healthcare settings that can prevent the transmission of pathogens and microorganisms to health care workers, patients and visitors. It is reported that nursing students were found lacking knowledge and skills regarding standard precautions in infection control. Low knowledge and skills were reported to have a negative effect on the students’ compliance to standard precautions. Objectives: This study aims to discover the knowledge, attitude and practice on infection control after COVID-19 outbreak among nursing students. <strong>Method: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted on 194 nursing students in IIUM Kuantan using online self-administered questionnaire. Data was interpreted in descriptive and inferential analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. <strong>Results: </strong>From 194 nursing students who participated in the study, the nursing students with good knowledge, attitude and practice were 57.2%, 56.2 % and 53.1%, respectively. There is association between gender and level of attitude (p=0.047). The results presented show that nursing students that have good knowledge showed significantly good attitude (p=0.002) and good attitude showed significantly good practice (p=0.001). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The nursing student’s level of knowledge, attitude and practice were fairly good. There are association between gender and level of attitude but there are no significant associations between the other sociodemographic characteristics and level of knowledge, attitude, and practice on infection control. There are also associations between level of knowledge, attitude, and practice on infection control.</p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/217 A Health Education of the Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine Systemic Reactions at University of Muhammadiyah Pekajangan Pekalongan 2021-10-14T12:04:16+08:00 Dian Kartikasari dian.kartikasari1989@gmail.com Dafid Arifiyanto dafidarifiyanto@yahoo.co.id Sugiharto gie_soma@yahoo.co.id Jumaroh jumarohjumaroh1990@gmail.com <p>This community service was carried out due to the skyrocketing cases of Covid-19 at the time, yet people kept reluctant to get vaccinated because of their insufficient understanding and doubt toward the vaccine. Hence, to alleviate this condition, health education about the systemic reactions of Covid-19 vaccine and how to handle them was essentially needed. The purpose of this activity was to assess the level of pre and post knowledge on the Covid-19 vaccine’s Moderna. The activities started by doing preparation, and followed by delivering the health education and processing the collected data from the pretest and post-test as an evaluation. The data were analyzed by using a paired sample T-test. The results showed that before the health education, the average value of knowledge was 70.87 and increased to 95.70 after the activity with a p-value of 0.001. Thus, it is expected that the participants of this community service can socialize the knowledge they have gotten to the surrounding community so that people at large can take part in preventing wider transmission of Covid-19. To say the least, it can be concluded that this health education could increase people’s knowledge about various systemic reactions of the Moderna Covid-19 vaccine and methods in overcoming the follow-up reactions.</p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/202 Educating parents on ‘Speaking up for hand hygiene’ in PICU: Perceptions and barriers 2021-10-06T14:04:24+08:00 Noor Azizah Mohd Ali noorazizah@iium.edu.my Jacqueline Jauncey j.jaunceycooke@uq.edu.au Emma L Ballard emma.ballard@qimrberghofer.edu.au Fiona Bogossian fbogossi@usc.edu.au <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hand hygiene is fundamental approach to prevent and control spread of infection. Many measures available to enhance compliance to hand hygiene, yet little is known of ‘speaking up for hand hygiene’ initiative among parents and nurses especially in paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). <strong>Aim</strong>: To assess parents’ and nurses’ perceptions on ‘speaking up for hand hygiene’ in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in a PICU. <strong>Methods</strong>: We revised evidence-based information related to VAP preventative strategies for a PICU population and updated education materials for staff and families using the ‘Speaking up for Hand Hygiene’ initiative. Parents of children receiving mechanical ventilation were provided with education on hand hygiene. Parents and staff groups were invited to participate in a survey exploring their confidence with this initiative. <strong>Results</strong>: Parents (78.9%) and nurses (91.2%) agreed the initiative would increase hand hygiene practice. Parents (94.5%) would welcome being reminded about hand hygiene but only 68.4% of parents were willing to remind nurses and 78.9% to remind other PICU staff. Nurses (88.2%) reported being willing to remind parents and other PICU staff and 88.2% indicated that they would welcome being reminded about hand hygiene from parents and 94.1% from other PICU staff. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Parents of children receiving mechanical ventilation and PICU nursing staff perceived ‘Speaking up for hand hygiene’ as an important initiative. There are, however factors that contribute to a reluctance to prompt hand hygiene that require further research.</p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/200 Community Nurses' Perception of Factors Influencing Knowledge and Understanding of Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct 2021-07-10T15:50:06+08:00 Nurul Nazurah Julaini 17B3122@ubd.edu.bn Hamidun Sanif hamidun.sanif@moh.gov.bn Yusrita Zolkefli yusrita.zolkefli@ubd.edu.bn <p><strong>Background: </strong>Nurses play a significant role in health care and have the most direct contact with patients, making them the most likely to encounter ethical questions regularly. Therefore, their knowledge and understanding of the code of ethics and professional conduct are essential. In Brunei Darussalam, these codes were developed in 2010 by the Nursing Board for Brunei, Ministry of Health. However, factors influencing nurses' knowledge and understanding of these codes have not yet been studied. <strong>Objectives: </strong>The purpose of this study was to examine community nurses' perception of factors influencing knowledge and understanding of the codes. <strong>Methods: </strong>A qualitative research approach was used as the study design. The data were collected through individual and group semi-structured interviews and analysed using the qualitative thematic analysis method. This study was conducted on community nurses who hold managerial responsibility in four health centres in Brunei. <strong>Findings: </strong>Three factors were identified to influence Bruneian nurses' knowledge and understanding of the codes. These factors were "a lack of reinforcement", "nurses' attitude", and "work environment". <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The knowledge of the codes by community nurses is deemed to be adequate. The findings, however, highlight the need for nurses to have an enhanced understanding of the codes.</p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/204 Community Nurse Managers’ Views of Incompetent Nursing Practice: An Interview Study 2021-08-10T14:49:58+08:00 Razileyana Abdul Razak 17b3109@ubd.edu.bn Norhalizawaty Abdul Razak norhalizawaty.razak@moh.gov.bn Yusrita Zolkefli yusrita.zolkefli@ubd.edu.bn <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Nurses' professional competence is a key factor for the quality of nursing practice, as the competence level directly influences the patient’s safety. A lack of competence among nurses raises several concerns and thus contributes to adverse effects of patient outcomes. These concerns, particularly how nurse managers understand and address incompetent practices, have not been thoroughly explored in the local context. <strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of the study was to explore nurse managers' views of incompetent nursing practice in a community healthcare setting. <strong>Methods: </strong>A descriptive qualitative research was conducted in one single district in Brunei Darussalam with a purposive sample of nine community nurse managers from six healthcare centres. Data collection was by audio recorded of in-depth interviews. These interviews were coded and thematically analysed. <strong>Findings: </strong>The study participants discussed their perspectives on incompetent practice, the reasons for incompetence, and nurse managers' reactions to incompetence. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings show that the standard views of 'incompetent' meant were elusive and inconsistent among nurse managers. Such inconsistency resulted in poor identification and management of ethical issues. Therefore, to ensure consistency, a clear view and understanding of what constitutes incompetent nursing practice must be established.</p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/198 Ethical Considerations in Nursing Research 2021-06-27T15:09:27+08:00 Yusrita Zolkefli yusrita.zolkefli@ubd.edu.bn 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/225 Ongoing Challenges for Nursing Towards Global Demand 2021-12-06T13:45:17+08:00 Muhammad Kamil Che Hasan mkamil@iium.edu.my Mohd Said Nurumal mohdsaid@iium.edu.my Mohd Khairul Zul Hasymi Firdaus zulhasyimi@iium.edu.my Thandar Soe Sumaiyah Jamaludin sumaiyah@iium.edu.my 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/209 Re-Intubation Among Critical Care Patients: A Scoping Review 2021-08-10T15:26:25+08:00 Thandar Soe Sumaiyah Jamaludin sumaiyah@iium.edu.my Mohd Said Nurumal mohdsaid@iium.edu.my Nur Syila Syahida Syaziman syilasyahida@gmail.com Syuhada Suhaimi syuhadasuhaimi132@gmail.com Muhammad Kamil Che Hasan mkamil@iium.edu.my <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This paper aimed to identify relevant literature about what are the factors that contributing to the re-intubation and current intervention to overcome it among critical care patients. <strong>Methods</strong>: A scoping review was carried out with the 17 articles which publish with the year 2010 to 2021. The literature search was systematically done by using PRISMA flow diagram. The quality assessment was conducted by using Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) assessment tool and the authors applied inter-rater reliability for the included articles. Results: Four themes were emerged in this scoping review. Those were the criteria for extubation, factors of extubation failure and re-intubation, medical conditions associated with re-intubation, and intervention to reduce reintubation rate among critical care patients. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The rate of re-intubation among critical care patients can be reduced when protective measures take place properly. Those are the use of non-invasive ventilation in between successful spontaneous breathing trials and extubation, the proper usage of analgesics and sedatives during extubation and monitoring the indicators like blood urea nitrogen and central venous pressure.</p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/194 Economic Burden and Parenting Stress Managing Special Healthcare Needs Children during COVID-19 Pandemic 2022-01-02T15:20:53+08:00 Haliza Hasan hhaliza@iium.edu.my Siti Mariam Muda sitimariam@iium.edu.my 2021-12-09T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS