INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-01-11T15:09:33+08:00 Editor Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Care Scholars (IJCS) is the official journal of the Kulliyyah (Faculty) of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia. IJCS will publish original research articles and case reports as well as review articles in all related areas on the care of individual, family and community. Our expertise and interest, including the topics related to nursing care, medical care, collaborative care, transdisciplinary care, patient and healthcare provider education. It also covers management and ethics issues related to individual, family and community care. This is an open access journal, which implies that the user or his/her institution can access all of the content for free. Users may read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles for any lawful purpose without seeking permission from the publisher or author. IJCS is indexed in Google Scholar and MyJurnal. <strong>ISSN: 2600-898X</strong></p> Effectiveness Management of Radiation Protection Program: A Short Review 2024-01-11T15:09:33+08:00 Siti Amira Othman <p>An effective radiation protection program requires an effective oversight and feedback mechanism to management. A main objective of the radiation protection program is to decrease radiation doses wherever and whenever reasonably possible, hence lowering the health risk that is thought to be proportionate to the radiation dosage. Justification of operations requiring radiation exposure, as well as the use of minimal radiation exposure simply adequate for diagnostic and interventional procedures, should all be part of a radiation protection policy. National authorities must support the development and implementation of radiological safety and security in organisations that employ radiation sources. Maintaining a high level of competence is critical for the development of future safe ionizing radiation applications. Patients, physicians, and employees across many departments, including radiology, interventional cardiology, and surgery, are concerned about radiation safety. Radiation released during fluoroscopic operations is the source of the highest radiation dosage for healthcare workers. Radiation from diagnostic imaging modalities such as computed tomography, mammography, and nuclear imaging are minimal factors to healthcare personnel's cumulative dose exposures. Radiation exposure, on the other hand, poses a risk to both patients and healthcare professionals. The medical use of ionizing radiation is a huge and growing global activity. While the use of ionizing radiation in medicine provides enormous advantages to the worldwide population, the inherent hazards owing to stochastic and deterministic effects necessitate the need to safeguard patients from potential injury. Current issues in radiation protection of patients include not only the rapidly increasing collective dose to the global population from medical exposure, but also the fact that a significant percentage of diagnostic imaging examinations are unnecessary, and the&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; cumulative dose to individuals from medical exposure is increasing.</p> 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Integration of Soft Skills in Nursing Clinical Evaluation: A Narrative Analysis 2024-01-11T15:07:49+08:00 Wan Umi Kalsum Wan Idris Norfadzilah Ahmad Hanida Hani Mohd Mokhtar Mohd. Said Nurumal <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Integration of soft skills components in clinical evaluation is essential for undergraduate nursing students. However, soft skills are a prerequisite for increasing confidence in providing services to patients. As future health professionals, these students must develop a complete set of competencies that go beyond technical competence. This paper is a report of a review conducted to identify, critically analyse and synthesize the integration of soft skills components in clinical evaluation for undergraduate nursing students<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: A comprehensive literature search was carried out using databases EBSCO, ProQuest Dissertation and Theses, ProQuest Nursing Journal. An inclusion and exclusion criterion were identified. A narrative review of evidence- and non-evidence-based papers was conducted, using a relevant methodological framework with additional scrutiny of secondary data sources in the latter.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 787 papers were identified, with 43 fully sourced and 17 included in the final review. There are three themes, which also provide a comprehensive understanding of the definition of soft skills component, the importance of soft skills among nursing students, and the outcomes and implications of soft skills in clinical assessment. <br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Soft skills need to be incorporated into the nursing curriculum. The integration of soft skills elements in clinical skills assessment can improve the quality of nursing graduates and improve the quality of care and safety for patients.</p> 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Nurse-Led Interventions for Diabetes Education: A Literature Review 2024-01-11T15:09:29+08:00 Rif’atunnailah Mat Isa Mei Chan Chong Wan Ling Lee Tajunisah Begam Mohamed Iqbal Sumaiyah @ Thandar Soe Jamaludin Mohd Iman Saiful Suhardi <p><strong>Background:</strong> The incidence of blindness is escalating to 439 billion patients by 2030. This study aims to review studies of health education related to diabetic retinopathy that have been implemented to inform nurse-led intervention to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A comprehensive search of the database was performed from October 2021 until March 2022. The databases include CINAHL, EMERALD insight, SAGE, Scopus, Web of Science and Science Direct. The Medical Subject Headings database was used to derive the following keywords: ‘T2DM' OR ‘Diabetes Mellitus type 2’, Diabetic Retinopathy’ OR ‘Diabetic eye’ OR ‘retinopathies') AND ‘education’, self-care’, ‘visual quality of life’, ‘mHealth’. All studies in English pertaining to the type of teaching and the effects of education on the visual quality of life among T2DM patients were included. Type 1 diabetes mellitus studies were excluded. Analysis of the themes arising from the results was performed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The search yielded 868 articles, of which 27 met our criteria. The studies ranged from cross-sectional, controlled studies, quasi-experimental studies, and qualitative studies. Overall, there was three types of health education interventions: personalised, group-based, and technology-based.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is paucity in nurse-led health education about diabetic retinopathy in East Asia. It appears that conventional health education helpful, but the mobile application might be an option to provide better health education, with an emphasis on diabetic retinopathy components.</p> 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Association Between Sleep Quality and Mental Illness Among Undergraduate Students 2024-01-11T15:07:52+08:00 Azlina Daud Nurul Ezam Asri Hasmat Hamidah Othman <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Understanding the association between sleep quality and mental illness is indeed crucial for promoting the well-being of undergraduate students and addressing potential challenges before they become clinically significant. There is an association between sleep quality and mental health, and disruptions in one can affect the other. Thus, this study was conducted to examine the association between sleep quality and mental illness among undergraduate students.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted using a probability simple random sampling method among 347 International Islamic University Malaysia undergraduate students from February to April 2022. The data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire via Google Form. Two questionnaires were used in this study, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for sleep quality and DASS-21 for mental health status.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study findings showed that 176 individuals (50.7%) experience mild sleep difficulty, moderate levels of depression (23.3%), extremely severe levels of anxiety (13.3%), and moderate levels of stress (14.4%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These findings highlight the importance of promoting good sleep habits for the overall students’ well-being.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Body Mass Index and Its Association with Daytime Sleepiness and Risk of Sleep Apnea Among Adults in International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Kuantan 2024-01-11T15:09:23+08:00 Siti Zuhaidah Shahadan Nursyafiqah Nabilah Mustapah Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad Ismail <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The prevalence of obesity keeps rising by the year, and Malaysia was revealed as the top country in Southeast Asia that has a high prevalence of obesity. Due to the rising obesity globally is feared that it may be associated with the increasing chance of having sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. Consequently, it may lead to poor work performance, unfortunate accidents, and premature death if not treated earlier. This research sought to identify the BMI values and their association with the risk of sleep apnea and daytime sleepiness among adults in IIUM Kuantan.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>By applying convenience sampling, 143 respondents were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The Berlin questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale were used as the research instruments to determine the risk of sleep apnea and daytime sleepiness among the respondents, respectively. Ordinal Logistic Regression and Pearson correlation were used to analyse the associations.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The mean (SD) BMI was 22.3 kg/m<sup>2 </sup>(4.33)- normal, and the mean score of daytime sleepiness was 9.92 (4.80)- higher than normal. Most respondents had a low risk of sleep apnea (87.4%), 5.6% showed a slightly increased risk, and 7.0% had a high risk of sleep apnea. There is a significant association between BMI and risk of sleep apnea (p&lt;0.05), as an increase in BMI (expressed in kg/m<sup>2</sup>) is associated with an increase in the odds of having a risk of sleep apnea. There is no significant association between BMI and daytime sleepiness (p&gt;0.05), as these variables are weakly and inversely correlated.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study found a significant association between BMI and risk of sleep apnea. However, we failed to confirm the association between BMI and daytime sleepiness. Due to the lack of BMI varieties, the researcher recommends focusing on overweight and obese to get a wide variation of BMI.</p> 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Evaluating Parental Knowledge and Awareness of Oral Care for Preschool Children in Kuantan, Pahang 2024-01-11T15:08:03+08:00 Nur Dina Farhani Arifin Haliza Hasan <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Good oral health is an essential component of general health. Children's dental health, in general, is greatly influenced by their oral health. Parents significantly influence their children's lives and motivate them to maintain good dental health. This study aims to determine the parents' knowledge and awareness of preschoolers’ oral care in Kuantan, Pahang.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A quantitative cross-sectional survey design was used to evaluate parents' knowledge and awareness of preschool oral care in Kuantan, Pahang. A total of 134 parents who have children aged between 4 and 6 years old at the registered kindergarten with the Department of Social Welfare that fulfil the inclusion criteria were recruited using the convenience sampling method. Descriptive and correlation statistical analysis were employed in this study. The data was analysed using IBM SPSS Statistic version 28.0</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study reported that most participants were parents of more than 32 years, completed tertiary education level, and had monthly income between RM4,000 – RM10,000, with 53.7%, 70.1%, and 38.8%, respectively. Regarding knowledge level, more than half of parents had high knowledge (73.1%) of children’s oral care, and all parents had positive awareness (100%). There is no significant correlation between the level of knowledge and awareness with r=0.138 and p-0.112.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Educational status may be associated with the knowledge level of children’s oral care. However, education may not influence parents’ awareness of pre-schooler’s children’s oral care. Thus, more awareness programmes on children’s oral care should be implemented in the community. </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Prevalence of Stress and Stressors During the COVID-19 Endemic Era Among Healthcare Students 2024-01-11T15:08:42+08:00 Nor Athirah Hassan Rusila Ruslan <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced challenges across diverse facets of human life, profoundly affecting the mental health of individuals, including students, regardless of their fields. This study delves into the intricate relationship between socio-demographic factors and stress among undergraduate healthcare students at IIUM during the endemic phase of COVID-19. Factors such as gender, race, academic year, kulliyyah, study support, family financial status, and psychological history are examined in connection to stress incidence. The motivation for this investigation stems from the limited and scattered data available for this specific pandemic phase.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Employing a cross-sectional design, the study utilized random stratified sampling, focusing exclusively on active undergraduate healthcare students who underwent clinical postings during the pandemic. The analysis included students from the Kulliyyah of Medicine, Nursing, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Allied Health Sciences. Data collection involved an online Google Form questionnaire encompassing the PSS-10, Undergraduate Source of Stress questionnaire, and an open-ended question.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Within the study participants, 26 individuals (14.7%) indicated experiencing low stress levels, while 126 students (71.2%) reported moderate stress, and 25 students (14.1%) expressed high perceived stress. Analyzing the distribution of stress among healthcare students at IIUM, it was observed that KON students had the highest proportion at 49.2%, followed by KAHS at 18.1%, KOM and KOD both at 11.3%, and KOP at 10.2%. SPSS version 27.0 facilitated data analysis, revealing no significant association between socio-demographic factors and stress levels. Contributing factors to stress included course material volume, time demands, uncertainty about course expectations, intellectual demands, and university fees.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Despite the challenges, most healthcare students exhibited controlled, moderate stress levels during the transition from pandemic to endemic phases.</p> 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Process of Accepting the Disease: A Self-management of Patient with Nasopharyngeal Cancer 2024-01-11T15:08:31+08:00 Che Azunie Che Abdullah Sanisah Saidi Siew Pien Lee Zamzil Amin Asha’Ari <p><strong>Background</strong>: To understand and explore in-depth the self-management experience of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer when accepting the cancer diagnosis as part of their cancer trajectory.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: An exploratory qualitative case study design was conducted based on the study objective. One-on-one in-depth semi-structured interviews were held among patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer (N=16) of two primary hospitals in Malaysia by using purposive sampling. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis approach (data management, descriptive account, explanatory account).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: This article presents patients’ experiences during diagnosis and how they managed this situation. A theme called the Process of accepting the disease emerged to portray this experience with a subtheme - emotional changes and management when they receive their nasopharyngeal cancer diagnosis. Feelings and situations were described by emotional discouragement and embracing fate, which had been self-managed by avoidance and trying to comprehend.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Patients experienced grief like other types of cancer patients, although nasopharyngeal cancer was reported to have a good prognosis with effective treatment provision. They were burdened by the cancer diagnosis and avoided having thought about it while struggling to comprehend their own health. It was evidenced that patients critically need and profound for health infacceptormation related to various aspects of cancer and treatment during this phase. Therefore, these findings strongly recommend that healthcare professionals to address this need particularly among those who are newly diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer to help them accepting their cancer diagnosis.</p> 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS What Nursing Students Hope from Clinical Mistakes 2024-01-11T15:07:40+08:00 Zulfa Mohamad Yusrita Zolkefli <p> </p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nursing students are vulnerable to committing mistakes in clinical practice due to various factors. These factors include the quality of supervision received and interpersonal dynamics. This study examined students’ expectations if they make mistakes during clinical placement.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A qualitative descriptive study design was employed in this study. Purposive sampling was adopted to recruit twelve undergraduate nursing students, and semi-structured interviews were conducted between October 2022 and December 2022. A thematic analysis strategy was utilised to analyse the data.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>Three themes were identified, namely: (1) The importance of supervision, (2) A dedicated clinical mentor, and (3) The value of reflective practice.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study showed that most nursing students emphasised the importance of clinical supervision from experienced nurses to handle clinical mistakes effectively. The findings emphasised the crucial role of the clinical mentor’s presence during the students’ clinical tasks. Furthermore, the students also expressed the significance of the student’s continued engagement in reflective practice</p> 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS When Things Go Wrong: A Qualitative Study of Nursing Students' Views of Clinical Mistakes 2024-01-11T15:07:36+08:00 Razanah Rosli Yusrita Zolkefli <p><strong>Background:</strong> The hospital environment is frequently perceived by students as both dynamic and complex. Thus, clinical mistakes are considered inevitable and have adverse patient outcomes. The study explored nursing students' insights and experiences of mistakes in their clinical practice.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study adopted an exploratory qualitative research design with a sample of 11 nursing students from a higher institution in Brunei Darussalam. Data was collected through semi-structured online interviews with seven open-ended questions.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study identified three key themes: the interpretation of clinical mistakes, perceived concern about clinical mistakes and the support required by students. This study emphasised the importance of effective communication, a nurturing educational setting, and reflective practice on clinical mistakes to enhance nursing students' professional development.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings of the study suggest that nursing students had an understanding of the negative implications associated with clinical mistakes. According to the students, the act of making mistakes is perceived to be valuable for both personal and professional development. Effective supervision, cultivating a constructive rapport, and developing trust make it possible to prevent clinical mistakes. Furthermore, the students emphasised the need to cultivate confidence, as it directly impacts their clinical proficiency. Therefore, a greater priority on patient safety should be incorporated into the curriculum to improve the management and prevention of clinical mistakes. Particular attention should also be paid to enhancing clinical learning through strengthened supervision by both supervisors and nurse educators. Most importantly, students must be able to recognise their responsibility to employ a proactive learning strategy to ensure patient safety and the efficacy of their clinical practicum.</p> 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Creating Workplace Environments that Support Ethical Practice 2024-01-11T15:08:06+08:00 Yusrita Zolkefli 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Enhancing Cultural Competence in Malaysian Nursing Students 2024-01-11T15:09:16+08:00 Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad Ismail Nur Syuhada Ilmi Shaari Ahmad Effat Mokhtar Siti Zuhaidah Shahadan <p> </p> <p> </p> 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Navigating ethical challenges in providing futile care 2024-01-11T15:08:09+08:00 Yusrita Zolkefli 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Virtual Reality in The Nursing Industry: A Malaysian Context 2024-01-11T15:08:34+08:00 Siti Noorkhairina Sowtali Ahmad Nu’man Abdul Rahman Azzah Quratuaini Awalludin 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Enhancing Bone Health in Aging Populations to Prevent Fragility Fractures 2024-01-11T15:08:17+08:00 Nik Noor Kaussar Nik Mohd Hatta Mohd Khairul Zul Hasymi Firdaus Muhammad Kamil Che Hasan 2023-11-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS