INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2023-04-30T22:15:35+08:00 Editor Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Care Scholars (IJCS) is the official journal of the Kulliyyah (Faculty) of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia. IJCS will publish original research articles and case reports as well as review articles in all related areas on the care of individual, family and community. Our expertise and interest, including the topics related to nursing care, medical care, collaborative care, transdisciplinary care, patient and healthcare provider education. It also covers management and ethics issues related to individual, family and community care. This is an open access journal, which implies that the user or his/her institution can access all of the content for free. Users may read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles for any lawful purpose without seeking permission from the publisher or author. IJCS is indexed in Google Scholar and MyJurnal. <strong>ISSN: 2600-898X</strong></p> "Alone We Can Do So Little; Together We Can Do So Much": Nurses’ Involvement in The Associations 2023-04-30T22:14:08+08:00 Nurul'Ain Ahayalimudin 2023-03-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Burnout Level and Its Associated Factors Among Critical Care Nurses: A Literature Review 2023-04-30T22:15:05+08:00 Siti Norsyuhada Ramli Nurul’Ain Ahayalimudin <p>Burnout is defined as a prolonged response to ongoing interpersonal and emotional stresses at work and has three dimensions: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and decreasing personal accomplishment (PA). Burnout is a condition that affects individuals working in a variety of professions, including healthcare, and is currently the subject of much national and worldwide interest. Burnout in critical care nurses can result from several different things. So, this review aimed to determine the prevalence of burnout among critical care nurses and the risk factors that affect it. The search, filtration, and selection procedures were carried out using the PRISMA 2020 flow diagram. The publications considered for the thematic review were located using Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Wiley Online Library. Items released in English between January 2010 and August 2020 were included in the inclusion period. The search criteria were selected by assessing the abstracts before studying the full-text documents. The keywords to be included in the final analysis were burnout, critical care nurses, critical care units, and the associated factor tied to burnout as the outcome. There was a total of 264 full texts discovered from the electronic databases searched. After the duplicate articles were eliminated and the initial examination of the abstract was finished, twenty studies satisfied the criteria for inclusion. Most of the research used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) questionnaire. The prevalence of burnout ranged widely, from 8.7% to 84.4%, according to the findings. EE was shown to have the highest levels of burnout, with DP coming in second with ranges of 38.4% to 84.0% and 26.1% to 77.0%, respectively. The range for PA, on the other hand, was 15.0% to 77.1%. The main risk factors for burnout were age, gender, marital status, having children, education level, and sociodemographic traits. While working shifts, the number of years of experience, the working environment, the nurse-to-patient ratio, workload, job discontent, and workplace conflict were all occupational characteristics associated with burnout. Burnout is a threat to the critical care nurse. It is unknown whether the factors contributing to burnout pose a significant problem for nurses.</p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performed by Bystanders: A Systematic Review 2023-04-30T22:14:58+08:00 Selamat Yasin Siti Azuna Abu Bakar Mohd Said Nurumal Syamsul Ahmad Arifin <p>Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the most popular treatment for unexpected cardiac arrest. In order to enhance the survival and neurological prognosis of out of hospital cardiac arrest patients, both healthcare practitioners and lay rescuers must learn this technique. Millions of people die each year as a result of sudden cardiac arrest across the world due to ineffective CPR performed by bystander. The aim of this review is to identify the existing literature on knowledge, attitude and practice of the community at the out of hospital cardiac arrest level. Guided by the PRISMA Statement review checklist, a systematic review of the Scopus and Web of Science database and Science Direct has identified 332 related studies. The articles were assessed and analysed after evaluation using The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative checklist. Total article accepted were n=11. We reviewed 1150 articles and selected 332 for complete evaluation. We included 11 of the 332 papers in this review that was published since 2018. We classified 11 recommendations; those with the highest scores were 1) Knowledge assisted CPR among bystander CPR remain poor, 2) CPR challenge on stranger, 3) CPR challenge on barrier, 4) The impact on quality CPR on survival rate and 5) Conventional CPR with mouth to mouth vs chest-compression only - CPR. CPR at out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, with several factors that influences such as knowledge, attitude, practice of community bystander CPR. While, the willingness (self-efficacy), the barriers and reluctant of bystander CPR still not clear. The targeted group for CPR training and tailored of training CPR for the bystander CPR give the effect and quality of CPR performance. Furthermore, the motivating factors to begin CPR at the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest level that emerged from a study of these publications. Recommendations not supported by evidence include mass training events, pulse taking prior to CPR by community and CPR using chest compressions alone. We evaluated and classified the potential impact of interventions that have been proposed to improve bystander CPR rates. Our results may help communities design interventions to improve their bystander CPR rates.</p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Experiences and Challenges Encounter Among Female Academics During Covid-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review 2023-04-02T14:08:54+08:00 Sumaiyah @ Thandar Soe Jamaludin Mohd Said Nurumal Nursyafini Mohd Zahir Mohd Danish Fu Mohd Ridzwan Muhammad Kamil Che Hasan Resti Yulianto Sutrisno <p>The declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic demonstrated the extent of virus contamination worldwide. The pandemic made people in dilemma. The COVID-19 pandemic gave off a huge impact towards face-to-face or physical learning and the world now is going to virtual online learning and teaching until this pandemic settless down. In the academic sector, academics are challenged by virtual teaching to deliver lectures and determine the most effective method. This systematic review aimed to identify the available studies on experiences and challenges encountered among female academics during Covid-19. Searching the literature was systematically done using the PRISMA flow diagram, and the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study were set prior to the literature search. The quality assessment was conducted by using the CASP and MMAT. There are five themes synthesised from the 21 articles included in this study. Those are experiences encountered by female academics as a mother, challenges encountered by academics as women, impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on academic females, opinions from academicians on Distance Education during Covid-19, and strategies, coping mechanisms and solution to overcome the barriers among female academics. This study recommended for the faculty and university have a serial discussion on how to increase the effectiveness of online teaching. Beforehand, a feedback survey can be given to the female academics to analyse their current condition such as insufficient technology or standardized guidance for them to enhance online teaching. It was advisable to review the calibre and efficacy of the teaching modalities and infrastructure for the academics, even though the university had previously provided the guidelines for online teaching.</p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Job Satisfaction and Perception Among Female Academics During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review 2023-04-30T22:14:34+08:00 Mohd Said Nurumal Sumaiyah @ Thandar Soe Jamaludin Nur Aishah Nor Azizan Muhammad Kamil Che Hasan Resti Yulianti Sutrisno <p>The COVID-19 pandemic gave off a huge impact on face-to-face or physical learning and the world now is going virtual online learning and teaching until this pandemic settles. The COVID-19 epidemic has created new obstacles for employees in terms of change adaptation and job security, as well as a significant impact on employee well-being and satisfaction, especially for women. Since 2005, female enrolment in academia has continued to grow, and in many countries, females make up more than fifty per cent of the total enrolment in higher education. However, women remain underrepresented in top academic positions globally. This systematic review aimed to look for available articles related to the job satisfaction and perception of female academics before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The PRISMA flow diagram was used to search the literature systematically, and the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria were established prior to the search. The CASP and MMAT were used to conduct the quality assessment. There are six themes emerged from 26 articles in this review and those are an overview of job satisfaction, factors that contribute to job satisfaction, gender gaps related to job satisfaction, academics perception, the mental health of academicians, and the relationship between work from home and job satisfaction. This study recommended for the faculty and university have a serial discussion about maintaining and increasing female academics’ job satisfaction. Therefore, surveys for academicians were vital to learn about their current circumstances, whether in teaching and learning or their psycho-social well-being. Although the university already provides the guidelines for online teaching, it was advisable to review the efficacy of the teaching modalities and infrastructure for the academicians.</p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Cultural Competence among Malaysian Nurses 2023-04-30T22:14:05+08:00 Wan Nur Rafikha Tirani Wan Ramzan Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad Ismail Siti Zuhaidah Shahadan <p> </p> <p> </p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Health Behaviors in School-Age Children and Quality of Life 2023-04-30T22:15:35+08:00 Gisely Vionalita Devi Angeliana Kusumaningtiar <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Health behaviour is commonly found such as smoking, consuming alcohol, unhealthy eating behaviour, physical activity, perception of school, violence and bullying currently are associated with better quality of life. School-age Children are at risk to adapt their environment in doing healthy risk behaviors. <br /><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe the health behaviors and examine the association between health behaviour and their quality of life.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> Health behaviour (i.e., eating habit, physical activity, smoking, drinking alcohol, sexual behaviour, violence, school behaviour, and social life) were examined among 200 School-age Children in a Junior High School in Teluk Naga, Tangerang, Indonesia using Indonesian-Health Behaviour School-age Children questionnaire, and also using translated PedsQL Questionnaire that developed for Pediatric quality of Life, which measures 4 domains of quality of life (physical functions, mental status, social and school functions). <br /><strong>Results:</strong> School-age children showed high prevalence of eating habit (n = 130), less physical activity (n= 77), smoking (n = 47), drinking alcohol (n = 55), sexual behaviour (n=62), violence (n= 90), low economy status (n= 65), school perception (n= 43), and difficulties in social life (n= 63). In addition, this study revealed for the quality-of-life school-age children have prevalence in good physical functions (47%), mental status (42%), social (58%) and school functions (43.5%). In a multivariate model, health behaviours (physical activity, smoking, sexual behaviour, social activity and violence) (P&lt;0.05) were dominantly correlated with quality of life. <br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The current study provides significant information on how health risk behaviour influenced the quality of life, and this study has the potential to develop better health education and promotion programs in school-age children.</p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Knowledge and Compliance on Infection Prevention and Control Among Healthcare Professionals in Teaching Hospital, Pahang Malaysia During Pandemic Covid-19: A Cross Sectional Study 2023-04-30T22:14:25+08:00 Siti Hazariah Abdul Hamid Wan Hasliza Wan Mamat Haliza Hassan Dina Syazana Ho Imran Ho Muhammad Kamil Che Hasan <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The European Centre for Disease and Prevention Control and World Health Organization (WHO) had established the guidelines for infection prevention and control (IPC) in managing possible and confirm cases of COVID-19. WHO has enforced an interim guideline for public and healthcare services for COVID-19 to be used together with the existing core component of IPC. <br /><strong>Objective</strong>: To investigate the level of knowledge on COVID-19 and IPC and its compliance among healthcare providers (HCPs) in one of teaching hospitals, Sultan Ahmad Shah Medical Centre (SASMEC@IIUM).<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: A quantitative cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted among 114 HCPs by using self-reported questionnaire from May 2021 to July 2021. Descriptive and correlation statistical analysis were employed in this study. The data was analysed using IBM SPSS Statistic version 20. <br /><strong>Results:</strong> Majority of the respondents (N=114) reported have good knowledge and 84.2% have good compliance on COVID-19, IPC There is a moderate positive correlation between level of knowledge on COVID-19 and knowledge on IPC, respectively (r=0.616, r=0.601), but fair correlation between knowledge on COVID-19 and compliance on IPC (r=0.374). There is a moderate positive correlation between knowledge on IPC and IPC compliance (r=0.601). <br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: HCPs in SASMEC@IIUM have good knowledge on COVID-19 and IPC as well as good compliance on IPC. This indicates regular training on IPC among HCPs provide great impact to the teaching hospital. </p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Physical Activity and Body Mass Index Among Hypertensive Patients Attending Outpatient Clinic at a Tertiary Hospital in Kelantan, Malaysia 2023-04-30T22:15:31+08:00 Nur Syamimi Ali Azlina Yusuf Paramesevary L. Subramaniam <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Hypertension is one of the predisposing factors for increased morbidity and mortality rate in Malaysia as it significantly contributes to the risk of non-communicable diseases such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney injuries. Non-pharmacological intervention such as physical activity (PA) helps to reduce the progression of hypertension severity and body mass index (BMI) among hypertensive patients. Limited studies were conducted among hypertensive patients at outpatient clinics in the east-coast region of Malaysia. <br /><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the level of PA and BMI of hypertensive patients attending outpatient clinics.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a cross-sectional study using purposive sampling. The study was conducted among 73 hypertensive patients who attended the outpatient clinic at a tertiary hospital in Kelantan state, the Northern East of Malaysia. Data was collected using a self -reported questionnaires for BMI and hypertension and the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure the level of PA. <br /><strong>Results:</strong> The findings show that most of the respondents above 50 years old are moderately active (54.8%, n=40) and nearly half (45.2%, n=33) were overweight. There is no significant association between the level of PA and BMI (p=0.854). A significant association was only found between the respondents’ marital status and their BMI (p=0.034). Conclusion: The majority of the respondents in the study were moderately active in performing physical activity and within the category of overweight. PA and BMI are not significantly associated in the study. The non-significance findings could be due to the small sample size in this study and other contributing factors such as co-morbidities, lifestyle variables including dietary habits, and sedentary behaviour that were not investigated in the study. Overall, the study underlined the importance of physical activity and body mass index in achieving public health recommendations. <br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Overall, the study underlined the importance of physical activity and body mass index in achieving public health recommendations. </p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS Stroke Knowledge and Informational Needs Among International Islamic University Malaysia Nursing Students: A Preliminary Study 2023-04-02T13:02:42+08:00 Siti Noorkhairina Sowtali Syaimaa Aishah Mohd Salleh Nur Hazelin Hanim Halid <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Stroke is one of the most recognisable diseases affecting the Malaysian population. The growing incidence of a stroke every year requires nursing students to get their knowledge updated. <br /><strong>Objective</strong>: To provide a baseline on our nursing student’s level of knowledge and information needs on stroke to prepare them as future healthcare providers in the community.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted using adapted questionnaires to assess the level of knowledge and information needs of stroke among 30 nursing students from Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia through a convenience sampling method. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis via SPSS version 27.0. <br /><strong>Results</strong>: The mean age of the students was 23.23 (±0.68), 96.7% were female and residents of Mahallah Ummu Kalthum, all of them were year four students, and 93.3% were single. Almost 43.3% had a family history of stroke while 50% have experience in taking care of stroke patients. The results highlighted that nursing students have good stroke knowledge with a mean score of 13.17 (±2.20) but a moderate score for information needs on stroke [125.83 (±15.62)]. <br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Overall, nursing students showed that they have better knowledge regarding stroke disease but require further information on stroke-related nursing skills. This is in lieu of the diversity of stroke and its subtype which affect different nursing care needed.</p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS The Relationship between Gadget Usage and the Mental Emotional State of Schoolchildren during the COVID-19 Pandemic 2023-04-30T22:14:40+08:00 Siew Pien Lee Siti Hazariah Abdul Hamid Nur Aifanadhirah Khalid <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The COVID?19 pandemic and associated public health measures have disrupted the mental health or well-being of children in some way. It is already evident that the increased use of gadgets and excessive screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic among children and adolescents has a significant influence on mental and emotional well-being among children. <br /><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to determine the association between device usage and the mental-emotional state of schoolchildren during the COVID-19 pandemic.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a quantitative cross-sectional study. A questionnaire survey was employed using the Malay Parent-Report Version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, conducted among 232 parents of schoolchildren aged 7 to 12 years. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to draw insights from the data. <br /><strong>Results:</strong> The findings indicate a statistically significant relationship between gadget usage (including the duration of playing a gadget per day, the frequency of playing a gadget per week, the type of gadget, ownership of the gadget, and the use of a gadget) and mental emotional state among schoolchildren (p value ? 0.05).<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The outcomes of the study indicate that the pattern of electronic gadget usage has significantly impacted schoolchildren's mental and emotional states.</p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS The Experience of Patients with Breast Cancer at Home During Chemotherapy Treatment: A Qualitative Approach 2023-04-30T22:13:51+08:00 Rosnani Sarkarsi Sharifah Munirah Syed Elias Siew Pien Lee <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Cancer is the primary cause of death worldwide and a significant barrier to increasing life expectancy. The estimates from World Health Organization (WHO) in 2019, cancer is the first or second leading cause of death before the age of 70 in 112 of 183 countries and ranks mortality third or fourth in 23 countries. Patients with breast cancer in Malaysia have one of the lowest survival rates in the Asia-Pacific region, with a 5-year survival of only 49%, compared with up to 90% in the United States. Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. It may be given with a curative intent (which almost involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or reduce symptoms (palliative). The challenges for the patient in dealing with the side effects of the chemotherapy treatment begin while they are at home.<br /><strong>Objective</strong>: To explore the experience of patients with breast cancer at home during chemotherapy treatment.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: This study employed a qualitative research design involving 20 patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy treatment. The participants were recruited via purposive sampling and data were collected by semi-structured interview with recorded. The thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the data. <br /><strong>Results</strong>: Two themes were revealed: including emotional changes and physiological changes. This theme revealed the preference described by emotional changes with the explanation of physiological changes.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Patients with breast cancer not only experience the side effects of chemo drugs but also have to deal with the changes at home during chemotherapy treatment. There is a need for healthcare workers in Malaysia to be able to provide support, especially in terms of emotional and physiological support at home for patients with breast cancer. </p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS