INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Care Scholars (IJCS) is the official journal of the Kulliyyah (Faculty) of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia. IJCS will publish original research articles and case reports as well as review articles in all related areas on the care of individual, family and community. Our expertise and interest, including the topics related to nursing care, medical care, collaborative care, transdisciplinary care, patient and healthcare provider education. It also covers management and ethics issues related to individual, family and community care. This is an open access journal, which implies that the user or his/her institution can access all of the content for free. Users may read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles for any lawful purpose without seeking permission from the publisher or author. IJCS is indexed in Google Scholar and MyJurnal. <strong>ISSN: 2600-898X</strong></p> IIUM Journal Publications en-US INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2600-898X The Educators’ Role in Navigating the Learning Experience of Male Nursing Students https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/346 Yusrita Zolkefli Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 1 3 10.31436/ijcs.v7i1.346 Knowledge and Attitude Towards Vasectomy Among Male Kuantan Community https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/357 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Vasectomy is a contraceptive procedure that involves cutting and tying the pathway of sperm to the testes. This procedure, performed under local anaesthesia, carries a lower risk of complications compared to Bilateral Tubal Ligation, which is the female sterilisation method. Unfortunately, there is limited research on this topic in Malaysia. Thus, this study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards vasectomy among males in Kuantan.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 219 responses were collected using convenience sampling. Researchers utilised email and social media to distribute Google Forms questionnaires to gather responses.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The study found that 67.1% of participants reported high knowledge about vasectomy, while 32.9% reported moderate knowledge. Regarding attitudes, 11.9% of participants showed a high attitude, while 88.1% exhibited a moderate attitude. No significant associations were found between knowledge and attitude towards vasectomy and demographic factors such as age, religion, ethnicity, education level, occupation, income, marital status, or number of children.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study revealed that the Kuantan community has both high and moderate levels of knowledge and attitude towards vasectomy. These findings underscore the importance of public health campaigns aimed at promoting contraceptive methods to enhance community understanding of vasectomy.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Noor Aqilah Norhisham Syamsul Ahmad Arifin Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 4 15 Successful Ageing and Social Support Among Older People Living in the Community https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/333 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Successful ageing of older people is influenced by the received social support. As the proportion of older people in Malaysia grows and the need for promoting successful ageing is apparent, it becomes increasingly important to investigate the relationship between successful ageing and social support among older people in the community.</p> <p>Methods: A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted on 200 older people living in the community of Kuantan, Pahang. A structured questionnaire, Successful Ageing Inventory and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were used to collect data regarding demographics. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics (version 25). Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s chi-square, and Fisher’s exact test were used or analysis. The statistical significance level was set at p ? 0.05.</p> <p>Results: The results showed that 98.5% and 75% of older people have highly successful ageing and social support, respectively. A statistically significant relationship was found between successful ageing and social support. However, no significant relationship was observed between successful ageing and demographic characteristics.</p> <p>Conclusion: The level of social support received by older people in the community plays a crucial role in determining successful aging. Therefore, implementing intervention programmes on the significant factors to enhance the successful ageing of older people is recommended.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Aniawanis Makhtar Nuraina Amira Mansor Hasna Tohpa Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 16 27 10.31436/ijcs.v7i1.333 Exploring a Qualitative Study on the Needs of Orthopaedic Muslim Patients During Period of Immobilisation https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/341 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background</strong>: The ramifications of immobilisation manifest in a spectrum of physical and mental complications across participants demographics, irrespective of age. The resultant challenges impede individuals from independently executing routine activities, such as bathing and mobility. Consequently, there is an escalating demand for nursing care to assist participants, while concurrently, meeting these needs becomes progressively challenging. This study aims to explore the needs of orthopaedic Muslim participants during their period of immobilisation.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Methods</strong>: This qualitative investigation adopted a semi-structured interview approach to engage participants, specifically Muslim orthopaedic participants at the Orthopaedic Ward of Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Medical Centre @IIUM (SASMEC@IIUM). The study encompassed interviews with 10 participants, each experiencing immobilisation due to varying reasons and for differing durations. The interviews aimed to discern the participants' needs, Islamic practices observed during immobilisation, and their satisfaction levels regarding received nursing care.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Results</strong>: The study's findings elucidated multifaceted needs encompassing physical, psychological, psychosocial, financial aspects, pain management during immobilisation, Islamic practices, and nursing care satisfaction. Immobilisation profoundly affects participants across physical, psychological, psychosocial, and religious dimensions, necessitating support from individuals, aid from specialized equipment, communal assistance, the application of <em>Rukhsah</em> (Islamic dispensation), and tailored nursing care.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> High-quality care from both nurses and family members is imperative to adequately address the myriad needs of immobilized participants. Enhanced support and attentive care significantly mitigate the risk of complications in participants recovery.</p> Nik Noor Kaussar Nik Mohd Hatta Nur Hulwani Zulkifli Mohd Khairul Zul Hasymi Firdaus Muhammad Kamil Che Hasan Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 28 45 10.31436/ijcs.v7i1.341 Learning Ethics as Viewed by Bruneian Midwifery Students: A Thematic Analysis https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/329 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background</strong>: There are several considerations that midwives must consider when providing care for their patients, partners, and newborns. This may give rise to nuanced ethical concerns, which entail midwives' readiness and capacity to recognise moral principles to recognise such concerns. The views of midwifery students regarding ethics education were examined in this study. Moreover, they reflected on their experiences with ethical concerns within clinical settings.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Methods</strong>: The study adopted a qualitative descriptive research design. Six final-year midwifery students who had completed clinical placements were emailed open-ended interview questions. The study was approved by the University Research Ethics Committee. Participants provided digital informed consent.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Results</strong>: Two broad themes were identified: (1) Adequacy in knowledge and (2) Between expectation and reality.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The midwifery students highlight that it is critical to recognise and be cognisant of ethical issues in the clinical setting, as they are common but not always easy to identify in a complex clinical environment. Subsequently, students must acquire knowledge of ethical concerns before their clinical rotations through practical examples and scenarios that demonstrate how to identify and confront such issues.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"> </p> Nur'ezzah Ezzaty Tuming Yusrita Zolkefli Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 45 53 10.31436/ijcs.v7i1.329 When Student Midwives Make Clinical Mistakes: A Qualitative Study in Brunei Darussalam https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/349 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background: </strong>This study aimed to understand how student midwives perceive clinical mistakes and describe how they are supported by healthcare professionals when mistakes are made.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Methods: </strong>The study adopted an exploratory qualitative research design with a sample of 9 undergraduate midwifery students from a higher institution in Brunei Darussalam. Data was collected through semi-structured online interviews with five open-ended questions.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Results: </strong>Three broad themes were identified, namely: (1) Clinical mistakes as lessons, (2) Toxic work environment, and (3) Value of appropriate guidance.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings indicate the student midwives’ perceptions regarding mistakes encountered in the clinical setting. The student's capacity and motivation to learn were impeded by the unsupportive environment and unwelcoming attitudes demonstrated by certain midwives, including the mentors. However, they viewed clinical mistakes as opportunities to grow and learn. Furthermore, the students emphasised the significance of guidance and mentorship from clinical educators in developing proficient midwives. Thus, by recognising mistakes as learning opportunities and receiving the appropriate support from mentors, students may be better prepared to provide high-quality care for mothers and infants.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"> </p> Fatin Najihah Halimi Yusrita Zolkefli Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 54 63 10.31436/ijcs.v7i1.349 A Review of Communication and Patient Safety https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/344 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background:</strong> Addressing and improving communication skills among healthcare professionals is crucial not only for enhancing patient satisfaction but also for promoting positive health outcomes and overall healthcare quality. Therefore, this review aims to understand the communication skills among nursing and healthcare personnel.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Methods:</strong> The PICO format is employed to articulate the components of a well-structured clinical question, guiding the exploration of pertinent evidence for the literature review.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Results:</strong> A collective of 25 literature subjects relevant to the research topic were identified. The review yielded four main themes: (1) Establishing the definition of poor communication, (2) Underscoring the significance of communication skills, (3) Examining the impact of poor communication on patient safety, and (4) Identifying factors associated with inadequate communication. </p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In summary, this review highlights the crucial need to understands the communication level of the nursing and healthcare personnel in ensuring patient safety.</p> Siti Nur Dini Abdullah Rusila Ruslan Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 64 71 10.31436/ijcs.v7i1.344 Advancements in the Examination of the Preparedness of Parents of Children Undergoing Liver Transplantation https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/351 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Liver transplantation is a very efficient remedy for liver ailments in children, and with advancements in technology, the anticipated survival rate after the surgery has also increased. Nevertheless, as a result of insufficient medical resources and the implementation of the quick rehabilitation approach, children are often released from the hospital prior to achieving complete recovery, leaving parents to assume the role of primary carers. Release preparedness, including the patient's physical state, mental well-being, and community assistance, is a significant indicator of a patient's adjustment to life after release. An efficient evaluation of discharge readiness may promote a seamless transition to home, minimize problems, and limit the need for further treatment and readmission. The objective of this research was to offer a comprehensive overview of the present condition regarding the preparedness of parents of children who have had liver transplantation to establish a foundation for evaluating and implementing appropriate interventions.</p> Ting He Li Hua Tang Siti Fatimah Sa’at Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 72 77 10.31436/ijcs.v7i1.351 Comprehensive Analysis of School-Related Injuries: A Global Perspective https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/345 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background</strong>: Injuries among school children globally pose significant concerns, attributed to a myriad of factors including gender differences, environmental risks, and behavioural patterns. This comparative analysis delves into the prevalence of school-related injuries across nations, highlighting disparities and underscoring the necessity for tailored safety measures. Notably, boys exhibit higher vulnerability due to their propensity for active behaviour and engagement in physical activities, with common injury sites identified as playgrounds and classrooms.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Methods</strong>: The research methodology employed a meticulous approach, selecting pertinent articles from databases such as IIUM, Proquest, Pubmed, ResearchGate, and Science Direct. From an initial pool of 879 articles, 14 were identified through systematic screening, focusing on aspects related to the knowledge, attitude, and practice of first aid. This selection process ensured a targeted exploration of relevant literature, providing insights into injury management strategies within school settings.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Results</strong>: Findings reveal the urgent need for enhanced safety protocols within schools, particularly in regions like Malaysia where injuries rank as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children. The comparative analysis across low- and middle-income countries further elucidates variations in hospital admission rates for addressing unintentional injuries in children, highlighting the importance of context-specific interventions.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In conclusion, safeguarding the well-being of school children necessitates a holistic approach that addresses both individual behavior and environmental factors. Robust safety measures, informed by comprehensive research and tailored to specific contexts, are imperative for creating safer learning environments during the critical developmental years of children. Through proactive initiatives and collaboration between educators, policymakers, and healthcare professionals, the goal of mitigating injury incidence and promoting overall child health and well-being can be achieved.</p> Nur Farahana Che Rani Rusila Ruslan Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 78 84 10.31436/ijcs.v7i1.345 Public Awareness of Triage System in Emergency and Trauma Department: A Literature Review https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/355 <p style="font-weight: 400;">A triage system is being implemented in the Emergency Department (ED) to help categorise the patients according to their acuity. However, there are limited studies discussing patients’ knowledge and understanding of the triage system. This review aimed to identify prior studies that discussed the patients’ knowledge and understanding of the triage system and to discover patients’ expectations of priority when they came to the ED and the reasons for attending the department. The articles were searched through several databases (IIUM Discovery Service, Science Direct, and PubMed) to obtain sources using the Boolean phrase 'AND', filtered down to English full-text articles with open access, and published between 2010 and 2020. A total of 16 studies were included in this review. Among all the studies, only one was conducted in the Southeast Asia region, Singapore. Most of the studies reported findings on reasons for visiting the ED for non-urgent attendance, and four of the studies discussed the patients’ awareness of the triage system. The patients need more information to improve their understanding of the triage system. The literature highlighted that most of the patients expected higher priority when they came to the ED. The main reason for their visit to the ED was because of the convenience offered by the ED in terms of operating hours and the availability of all facilities in one place. More studies about patient’s awareness and knowledge of the triage system need to be conducted to provide a clear insight into what they know about the triage system.</p> Nurul'Ain Ahayalimudin Nur Afiqa Zafira Alais Nurul 'Inayati Abdul Rahman Sofee Mohamed Akhlak Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 85 101 10.31436/ijcs.v7i1.355 Sustainable Education for Refugees Children: A Literature Review https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/358 <p style="font-weight: 400;">This literature review describes the educational needs, challenges, and potential solutions for refugee children, aiming to provide insights into how to improve their access to quality education. Applying the PRISMA flow, a comprehensive search yielded 10 articles published between 2013 and 2023, which were analyzed to identify recurring themes. Three prominent themes emerged from the literature: challenges faced by refugee children and their teachers, access to quality education, and sustainable education initiatives for refugee children. The literature highlights the multifaceted obstacles encountered by refugee children, including displacement, trauma, language barriers, and limited access to educational resources. Moreover, teachers working with refugee children face unique challenges related to accommodating diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, addressing trauma and mental health needs, and navigating complex administrative and policy frameworks. Additionally, access to quality education remains a significant concern, with disparities persisting due to socioeconomic status, geographic location, and systemic inequalities. Sustainable education initiatives play a crucial role in addressing these challenges, emphasizing inclusivity, cultural sensitivity, and community engagement. Key components of sustainable education for refugee children include access to quality schooling, teacher training, psychosocial support, language acquisition, and pathways to higher education or vocational training. Therefore, this literature review underscores the urgent need for comprehensive and targeted interventions to address the educational needs of refugee children. Recommendations include investing in teacher training, fostering partnerships with local communities and organizations, advocating for policy reforms to promote inclusive education, and providing ongoing support for sustainable education initiatives. By addressing these challenges and implementing evidence-based strategies, stakeholders can work towards ensuring that refugee children receive the education they deserve, enabling them to build better futures for themselves and their communities.</p> Thandar Soe@Sumaiyah Jamaludin Mohd. Said Nurumal Kyu Win Kyu Wulan Noviani Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 102 110 10.31436/ijcs.v7i1.358 The Readiness to Facilitate the Learning Needs of Newly Graduated Nurses https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/347 Yusrita Zolkefli Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 111 113 10.31436/ijcs.v7i1.347 Urgent Need: Developing an Islamic Framework for Non-Muslim Patient Care https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/348 Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad Ismail Ahmad Effat Mokhtar Siti Zuhaidah Shahadan Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 114 115 10.31436/ijcs.v7i1.348