Activated Carbon, Baobab Fruit shells, Methylene Blue Adsorption, Adsorption isotherms, Adsorption kinetics.


This article provides results of the usability of baobab fruit shell to produce activated carbons by chemical activation using ZnCl2, H3PO4, and KOH. This study indicated that activated carbon produced from baobab fruit shell fruit can be used as a promising adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. Significant changes on the material surface following the activation process were observed through SEM and FTIR analyses. Scanning electron micrographs of BFS-ACs showed that porous structures were formed during activation, while the FTIR results indicated that the carbons have abundant functional groups on the surface. KOH activation led an activated carbon with a high methylene blue adsorption of 95.54% and maximum adsorption capacity of 113.63 mg/g, which is directly related to the specific surface area of activated carbons. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The Langmuir isotherm model showed better fit to the equilibrium data than the Freundlich model. The adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics. The BFS-ACs is an effective and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MB from an aqueous solution.

ABSTRAK: Kajian ini memberi input tentang kebolehgunaan kulit buah baobab bagi menghasilkan karbon teraktifan melalui aktiviti kimia menggunakan ZnCl2, H3PO4, dan KOH. Karbon aktif daripada kulit buah Baobab ini berpotensi sebagai penyerap bagi menyingkir larutan akueus metilin biru. Perubahan ketara pada permukaan bahan diikuti dengan proses pengaktifan dipantau melalui analisis SEM dan FTIR. Imbasan elektron mikrograf BFS-AC menunjukkan struktur porus terhasil semasa proses pengaktifan. Sementara dapatan FTIR menunjukkan karbon mempunyai banyak kumpulan berfungsi pada permukaan. Pengaktifan KOH menghasilkan karbon aktif menggunakan larutan biru metilin yang tinggi sebanyak 95.54% dan kapasiti maksimum penyerapan 113.63 mg/g, iaitu berkadar langsung dengan tumpuan kawasan permukaan karbon aktif berkaitan. Data isoterma penyerapan dibina pada model penyerapan Langmuir dan Freundlich. Model isoterma Langmuir lebih padan pada data keseimbangan berbanding model Freundlich. Proses penyerapan menunjukkan lebih kinetik order-kedua-pseudo. BFS-AC sangat efektif dan penyerap murah bagi membuang MB daripada larutan akues.


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Author Biographies

Radhia Nedjai, International Islamic University Malaysia

Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

Ma’an Fahmi Rashid Alkhatib, International Islamic University Malaysia

Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

Md Zahangir Alam, International Islamic University Malaysia

Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi, International Islamic University Malaysia

Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering


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Chemical and Biotechnology Engineering