IIUM Engineering Journal https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal, published biannually (<strong>January</strong> <em>&nbsp;and </em><strong>July</strong>) (<em><strong>2020 ealier</strong></em> <em>June and December&nbsp; issues</em>), is a <em><strong>double blind peer-reviewed</strong></em> open-access journal of the Kulliyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).</p> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal publishes original research findings as regular papers, review papers (by invitation). The Journal provides a platform for Engineers, Researchers, Academicians, and Practitioners who are highly motivated in contributing to the Engineering disciplines, and Applied Sciences. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the specific challenges of the developing world, and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Subject areas suitable for publication are as follows:</strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <ul> <li class="show">Chemical and Biotechnology Engineering</li> <li class="show">Civil and Environmental Engineering</li> <li class="show">Computer Science and Information Technology</li> <li class="show">Electrical, Computer, and Communications Engineering</li> <li class="show">Engineering Mathematics and Applied Science</li> <li class="show">Materials and Manufacturing Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechatronics and Automation Engineering</li> </ul> <p>Contributions from other areas of Engineering and Applied Science are welcome.</p> <p>A manuscript undergoes a double-blind review process.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Currently Indexed by:</strong></p> <p><a title="thomson_reuters_logo" href="http://apps.webofknowledge.com/Search.do?product=UA&amp;SID=U1yWZttU3hFUyp1wzif&amp;search_mode=GeneralSearch&amp;prID=11a92d27-6b66-4ebb-b2ba-b981a72237e1" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 75px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/thomson-reuters.jpg" alt=""></a> <a title="scopus_logo" href="https://www.scopus.com/results/results.uri?numberOfFields=0&amp;src=s&amp;clickedLink=&amp;edit=&amp;editSaveSearch=&amp;origin=searchbasic&amp;authorTab=&amp;affiliationTab=&amp;advancedTab=&amp;scint=1&amp;menu=search&amp;tablin=&amp;searchterm1=1511-788X&amp;field1=ISSN&amp;dateType=Publication_Date_Type&amp;yearFrom=Before+1960&amp;yearTo=Present&amp;loadDate=7&amp;documenttype=All&amp;resetFormLink=&amp;st1=1511-788X&amp;st2=&amp;sot=b&amp;sdt=b&amp;sl=15&amp;s=ISSN%281511-788X%29&amp;sid=b639176a02479137aba58a447f25ef93&amp;searchId=b639176a02479137aba58a447f25ef93&amp;txGid=25b0f8de3d2daf6267c597a70a34f87c&amp;sort=plf-f&amp;originationType=b&amp;rr=" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 60px; hight: 60px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/scopus_logo.gif" alt=""></a><br><br></p> <p><a title="Google_Scholar_img" href="http://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;view_op=search_venues&amp;vq=IIUM+Engineering+Journal" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 60px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/scholar_logo.gif" alt=""></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="MyCite_img" href="http://www.myjurnal.my/public/browse-journal-view.php?id=237" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 80px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/mcclogo.jpg" alt=""></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="DOAJ_img" href="https://doaj.org/toc/2289-7860" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 120px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/doaj_logo.jpg" alt=""></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="ISC_img" href="http://mjl.isc.gov.ir/Default.aspx?lan=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 40px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/isc_logo.jpg" alt=""></a></p> <div> <div> <div><strong><span style="color: red;">&nbsp;</span></strong></div> </div> <div><br><br></div> </div> <p><strong><strong>IIUM Engineering Journal Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statements</strong>:</strong></p> <p>IIUM EJ is committed to meet and uphold standards of ethical behaviour at all stages of the publication process.&nbsp; A summary of our expectation of editors, peer-reviewers, and authors is stated here [<a title="Editorial Policies" href="/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/about/editorialPolicies#focusAndScope" target="_self">link</a>].</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> en-US <p>The IIUM Engineering journal follows the open access policy.</p> zahirulalam@iium.edu.my (Prof. Dr. AHM Zahirul Alam) alam_z@ieee.org (AHM Zahirul alam) Mon, 20 Jan 2020 05:59:37 +0800 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 NUMERICAL STUDY OF ARGON EFFECT ON NITROGEN SEPARATION FROM AIR BY PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1182 <p>A mathematical model was used to design four modes of two-bed pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process to investigate argon presence in the feed mixture. The effect of operating parameters such as cycle time, pressure equalization, adsorption pressure, and purging flow rate was investigated. The model was validated with experimental data of nitrogen separation from the air by a single bed adsorber on carbon molecular sieve (CMS). A good agreement with experimental data is obtained. In the PSA process, higher purity of nitrogen (99.7%) was detected by mode 4 when the feed mixture was free of argon (O<sub>2</sub>: 21%, N<sub>2</sub>:79%). While the nitrogen purity was only 98.0% in the state of argon presence in the feed mixture (O<sub>2</sub>: 21%, N<sub>2</sub>: 78%, Ar: 1%). The results showed that the cycle time had insignificant effect whereas the pressure equalization and purging at low vacuum pressure had a significant effect on the process performance.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Model matematik digunakan bagi membina empat mod terdiri daripada tekanan dua-turus proses penyerapan buai (PSA) bagi menyiasat kehadiran argon dalam campuran pakan. Kesan parameter beroperasi seperti masa kitaran, penyamaan tekanan, tekanan penyerapan, dan kadar aliran penyingkiran disiasat. Model matematik tersebut disiasat melalui data eksperimen pemisahan nitrogen dari udara melalui penyerapan turus tunggal pada penapis molekular karbon (CMS). Data eksperimen yang bagus diperoleh. Dalam proses PSA, mod keempat menghasilkan ketulenan nitrogen (99.7%) lebih tinggi apabila campuran pakan bebas argon (O<sub>2</sub>: 21%, N<sub>2</sub>:79%). Sementara itu, ketulenan nitrogen hanya 98.0% apabila terdapat kehadiran argon dalam campuran pakan (O<sub>2</sub>: 21%, N<sub>2</sub>: 78%, Ar: 1%). Kajian menunjukkan masa kitaran memberi kesan tidak signifikan sementara penyamaan tekanan&nbsp; dan penyingkiran pada tekanan vakum rendah mempunyai kesan signifikan terhadap prestasi proses.</p> Abdulbasit Hassan Mahdi, Suhaib Salih, Heba Sa’ady Ayuob, Tushar Ghosh Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1182 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 RAINWATER HARVESTING QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: IIUM CASE STUDY https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1139 <p>This study focuses on rainwater harvesting quality at the Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). As development is progressing over the years in Malaysia, there is also an increasing number of environmental issues and those issues are getting worse day by day. At present, Malaysia is blessed with plentiful annual rainfall that represents approximately 314 mm of monthly rainfall but there is no evidence that this rainwater is redirected for daily usage. To pursue a more sustainable development, rainwater harvesting has been recognized as one innovative solution. The IIUM Gombak campus is located in a hillside area that is a suitable study area to perform rainwater harvesting, which can be used as an alternative water supply in the future and reduce utility bills for water used on the campus. Firstly, a suitable study area for rain water harvesting around KOE, IIUM was determined before collection of data to determine the storage capacity needed. This study includes the estimation of rainwater quantity that can be harvested in one year. The quality of rainwater in terms of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, and microbial count were studied. Data analysis showed that the values of BOD, COD, pH, TSS, turbidity, and microbial count were in the range of 2 - 3.2 mg/l, 22.5 – 42.5 mg/l, 5.9 - 6.5, 20 mg/l, 9 -11 NTU, and between 200 -260 cfu/ml, respectively. This indicates that the harvested rainwater is acceptably clean but not suitable to be used as drinking water.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Fokus kajian ini adalah pada kualiti air hujan yang ditadah di Fakulti Kejuruteraan, Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIAM). Sejajar dengan pembangunan pesat di Malaysia, isu alam sekitar juga semakin bertambah dan menjadi semakin teruk hari ke hari. Pada masa sama, ketika ini Malaysia dirahmati dengan hujan yang mencurah setiap tahun, dengan kuantiti bulanan sebanyak 314 mm air hujan dan tidak ada bukti penggunaan air hujan ini bagi kegunaan harian dsb. Bagi memenuhi keperluan kelangsungan pembangunan, penadahan air hujan dikenal pasti sebagai satu penyelesaian inovatif. Kampus UIAM Gombak terletak di kawasan pinggiran bukit yang sesuai bagi menjalankan kajian tadahan air hujan. Ianya boleh digunakan sebagai bekalan air alternatif pada masa depan dan mengurangkan bil utiliti bekalan air dalam kampus. Terlebih dahulu, kawasan kajian yang sesuai dikenal pasti berdekatan Fakulti Kejuruteraan, UIAM bagi mengumpul air hujan sebelum data dikumpulkan bagi mengenal pasti kapasiti pengumpulan yang diperlukan. Kajian ini juga menganggar kuantiti air hujan yang boleh ditadah dalam satu tahun. Kualiti air hujan dikaji dari segi keperluan oksigen biokimia (BOD), keperluan oksigen kimia (COD), pH, jumlah pepejal terampai (TSS), kekeruhan dan bilangan mikrob. Analisis data mendapati nilai BOD, COD, pH, TSS, kekeruhan dan bilangan mikrob berada dalam julat 2 - 3.2 mg/l, 22.5 – 42.5 mg/l, 5.9 - 6.5, 20 mg/l, 9 -11 NTU dan antara 200 -260 cfu/ml, masing-masing. Ini menunjukkan air hujan yang ditadah adalah boleh diterima sebagai bersih tetapi tidak sesuai dijadikan sebagai air minuman</p> Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabashi Abuelfutouh, Mohamed Jamie, Abdurahman Nour, Noor Illi Fuad Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1139 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 INVESTIGATION OF MAGNETIC PROPERTIES FOR DIFFERENT COIL SIZES OF DYNAMIC WIRELESS CHARGING PADS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES (EV) https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1108 <p><span lang="DE" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 12pt;">Electric Vehicle (EV) has been introduced in the recent years due to public awareness of effect of gas emission from traditional car and the extinction of petroleum natural resources. For the charging of EV, dynamic wireless charging is considered in this paper. This is because it is more convenient and saves the charging time since it charges the electric vehicle while moving. The main challenge of this process is to maintain high amount of power transfer from primary to secondary coil. One of the factors to have a good power transfer is the size of the coil. There are various designs of coil for wireless charging of electrical vehicle (EV). Among the most common design are circular pad (CP), rectangular pad (RP), double-D pad (DDP) and double-D quadrature pad (DDQP). In this paper, circular pad (CP) is chosen to be used due to its simplicity in design and it has a good electrical and magnetic properties. Three different coil pair sizes are tested to find the most suitable coil pair for primary and secondary pad which has the maximum power transfer and least sensitive to misalignment. The magnetic properties have been investigated to obtain the highest value of magnetic flux. The geometry design of the pads and simulation was done using COMSOL Multiphysics software. From the simulation, it was found that the unsymmetrical coil pair gives high magnetic strength when the outer diameter for primary and secondary coil has the same value. </span></p> Syasya Azra Zaini, Siti Hajar Yusoff, Amira Aziera Abdullah, Sheroz Khan, Faridah Abd Rahman, Nadia Nazieha Nanda Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1108 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 STEMMING IMPACT ANALYSIS ON INDONESIAN QURAN TRANSLATION AND THEIR TAFSIR CLASSIFICATION FOR ONTOLOGY INSTANCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1170 <p>The current gap which appears in the Quran ontology population domain is stemming impact analysis on Indonesian Quran translation and their Tafsir to develop ontology instances. The existing studies of stemming effect analysis performed in various languages, dataset, stemming method, cases, and classifier. However, there is a lack of literature that studies about stemming influence on instances classification for Quran ontology with different dataset, classifier, Quran translation, and their Tafsir on Indonesian. Based on this problem, our study aims to investigate and analyze the stemming impact on instances classification results using Indonesian Quran translation and their Tafsir as datasets with multiple supervised classifiers. Our classification framework consists of text pre-processing, feature extraction, and text classification stage. Sastrawi stemmer was used to perform stemming operation in text pre-processing stage. Based on our experiment results, it was found that Support Vector Machine (SVM) with Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) and stemming operation owns the best classification performance, i.e., 70.75% for accuracy and 71.55% for precision in Indonesian Quran translation dataset on 20% test data size. While in 30% test data size, SVM and TF-IDF with stemming process own the best classification performance, i.e., 67.30% for accuracy and 68.10% for precision in Ministry of Religious Affairs Indonesia dataset. Furthermore, in this study, it was also discovered that the Backpropagation Neural Network has the most precision and accuracy reduction due to the negative impact of stemming operations.</p> Fandy Setyo Utomo, Nanna Suryana, Mohd Sanusi Azmi Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1170 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 AN ENHANCED PACKET SCHEDULING ALGORITHM FOR THE DOWNLINK COGNITIVE LONG TERM EVOLUTION-ADVANCED https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1178 <p>A packet scheduling algorithm known as Enhanced Maximum-Largest Weighted Delay First (EM-LWDF) is proposed in this paper. It aims to maximize the number of Real Time (RT) and Non Real Time (NRT) users that meet their desired Quality of Service (QoS) in the cognitive Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A). This cognitive LTE-A allows its Component Carriers (CCs) to be combined with licensed CCs from another system. This enables the LTE-A to further expand the available bandwidth for packet transmission. The EM-LWDF algorithm decides the priority of each user on the basis of the desired QoS of each packet, the urgency of each packet, channel quality and the average throughput. The potential of this algorithm is validated via computer simulation where it is able to simultaneously maximize more users that meet their desired QoS in realistic RT and NRT multimedia of the downlink cognitive LTE-A.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Algoritma penjadualan paket yang dikenali sebagai Enhanced Maximum-Largest Weighted Delay First (EM-LWDF) dicadangkan dalam kertas ini. Ia bertujuan untuk memaksimumkan bilangan pengguna Real Time (RT) dan Non Real Time (NRT) yang memenuhi Kualiti Perkhidmatan yang dikehendaki (QoS) dalam system kognitif Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A). Kognitif LTE-A ini membolehkan Carrier Component (CC) untuk digabungkan dengan CC berlesen dari sistem lain. Ini membolehkan LTE-A untuk memperluaskan jalur lebar yang tersedia bagi penghantaran paket. Algoritma EM-LWDF menentukan keutamaan setiap pengguna berdasarkan QoS yang dikehendaki dari setiap paket, kecemasan setiap paket, kualiti saluran dan purata penghantaran. Potensi algoritma ini disahkan melalui simulasi komputer di mana ia dapat memaksimumkan lebih banyak pengguna yang memenuhi QoS yang dikehendaki mereka dalam realistik RT dan NRT multimedia dari downlink sistem kognitif LTE-A.</p> Huda Adibah Mohd Ramli, Mohamad 'Ismat Hafizi Mansor Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1178 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 STUDY OF MICROSTRIP PATCH ARRAY ANTENNA FOR SIDE LOBE SUPPRESSION IN THE X-BAND REGION USING UNIFORM, BINOMIAL AND TSCHEBYSCHEFF EXCITATION METHODS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1221 <p>In this paper, a microstrip patch array antenna is designed and simulated to operate in the X-band frequency region at 9.5 GHz. For X-band communication transmission, it is necessary to suppress the side lobe radiation pattern of the antenna as much as possible to avoid the transmission being intercepted and/or received by undesirable neighbouring satellites. The geometrical design of the microstrip patch array antenna is simulated and executed using CST Microwave Studio (CST MWS) in order to study the effects of various antenna parameters such as <em>S</em><sub>11</sub>, gain, directivity, side lobe level, and angular width. It is shown that the proposed antenna exhibits a low side lobe level of -14.2 dB with an acceptable high gain and directivity of 16.5 dB and 17.7 dB, respectively. The antenna configuration also has a size of only 285 mm × 59.275 mm which is much more compact and lightweight compared to the standard reflector antennas that are used for most X-band communication transmission.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong>&nbsp; Kajian ini berkaitan antena cantuman barisan jalurmikro yang direka dan disimulasi beroperasi pada 9.5 GHz frekunsi daerah jalur-X. Pada transmisi komunikasi jalur-X, corak radiasi sisi-lobus antena perlu ditahan sebanyak mungkin bagi mengelak transmisi dipintas dan/atau diterima oleh satelit tetangga yang tidak di ingini. Rekaan geometri antena cantuman barisan jalurmikro disimulasi dan diuji menggunakan perisian CST Studio Gelombang Mikro (CST MWS) bagi mengkaji pelbagai kesan parameter antenna seperti <em>S</em><sub>11</sub>, gandaan, keterarahan, tahap sisi-lobus dan lebar sudut. Didapati bahawa antena yang dicadangkan mempunyai tahap sisi-lobus -14.2 dB yang rendah dengan gandaan tinggi yang boleh diterima dan keterarahan sebanyak 16.5 dB dan 17.7 dB, masing-masing. Tatabentuk antena mempunyai saiz 285 mm × 59.275 mm yang kompak dan ringan berbanding antena pemantul piawai, di mana telah digunakan pada kebanyakan jalur-X transmisi komunikasi.</p> Sarah Yasmin Mohamad, Ahmad Alhadi Ruslan, Khairayu Badron, Ahmad Fadzil Ismail, Norun Farihah Abdul Malek, Farah Nadia Mohd Isa Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1221 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 PAVEMENT CONDITION ANALYSIS VIA VEHICLE MOUNTED ACCELEROMETER DATA https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1223 <p>Road anomalies and irregularities such as potholes and uneven surfaces are a common hazard in South East Asia and developing countries. Such hazards pose a threat to the safety and well-being of both civilians going about their daily routine and tourists who are exploring the city. Since bicycles and rickshaws are still a common mode of transport used by both civilians and tourists in many South East Asian countries, it is essential to improve the overall quality and smoothness of pavements which are traversed by these vehicles. Management of international sporting and recreational events also require satisfactory road and pavement conditions. Before pavement conditions can be improved, it is an essential prerequisite to obtain comprehensive information about road irregularities such as the location and also severity of the road irregularity (depth of the potholes and height of bumps). In this paper, we propose a method for obtaining mathematical models that represent the overall condition of the pavements that are part of a commonly traversed cycling route. Such mathematical models and coefficients can be stored in the cloud of an Internet of Things (IOT) data analytics systems subsequently leading to identification of regions with severe road irregularities.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:&nbsp; </em></strong>Kerosakan pada permukaan jalan raya merupakan salah satu faktor risiko kemalangan yang berlaku secara meluas di negara Asia Tenggara dan negara membangun yang lain. Memandangkan kenderaan seperti beca dan basikal masih diguna pakai secara meluas di negara membangun, adalah mustahak untuk membaik pulih kerosakan jalan raya. Pengurusan sukan antarabangsa dan rekreasi juga memerlukan keadaan jalan dan laluan pejalan kaki yang baik. Sebelum kerja membaik pulih dapat dilakukan, maklumat lengkap mengenai tahap kerosakan jalan raya dan lokasi kerosakan diperlukan. Dalam kajian ini satu kaedah telah diperkenalkan untuk mendapatkan persamaan matematik yang menggambarkan keadaan sebenar permukaan jalan raya, di mana sebahagiannya merupakan laluan berbasikal yang selalu digunakan. Model matematik dan pekali ini boleh di simpan dalam sistem analisis data awan Internet Benda (IOT) kemudiannya dapat mengenal pasti kawasan jalan yang rosak dan tidak rata.</p> Ahmad Jazlan Haja Mohideen, Muhammad Fahim Rosli, Noor Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif, Hasan Firdaus Mohd Zaki, Muhammad Afif Husman, Asan Gani Abdul Muthalif, Deepak Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1223 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF 5G PATH LOSS MODELS FOR RURAL MACROCELL ENVIRONMENT https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1247 <p>5G networks are expected to use the Millimeter Wave (mmWave) frequency band and this frequency provides wider bandwidth allowing a better quality of service to be offered to the users. However, the mmWave frequencies may lead to a higher path loss due to several factors including blockages,rain and atmosphere. Therefore, to allow optimal positioning of the 5G base stations, the study of path loss model in this 5G mmWave frequencies is crucial. This paper investigates the 5G path loss models as well as their parameters that are most suitable for cross-polarized antennas under rural macrocell environment in Malaysia. Path loss models namely Close In Free Space Reference Distance Path Loss Model (CI) model, and Alpha Beta Gamma (ABG) or Floating Intercept (FI) Model along with their parameters achieved from the previous studies were evaluated by comparing the parameters and models that are closest to the sampled path loss when using antennas that have different patterns and polarizations in an open-source simulator. Results obtained indicate that FI model can be adapted to the majority of the environment where this model showed the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The study of path loss models by using advanced simulator or field measurement, and studies on other rural areas from other states in Malaysia will be considered in future works.</p> Muhammad Akramuddin Mohd Nordin, Huda Adibah Mohd Ramli Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1247 Thu, 20 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0800 USING MODIFICATION OF PRIM’S ALGORITHM AND GNU OCTAVE AND TO SOLVE THE MULTIPERIODS INSTALLATION PROBLEM https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1088 <p>The Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) is one of the famous problems that is used mostly as the backbone in many network design problems. Given a graph G(V,E), where V is the set of vertices and E is the set of edges connecting vertices in V, and for every edge e<sub>ij</sub> there is an associated weight c<sub>ij </sub>≥0. The Multi Period Degree Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree (MPDCMST) is a problem of finding an MST while also considering the degree constrained on every vertex, and satisfying vertices installation requirement on every period. Two algorithms (WWM1 and WWM2) are proposed for solving this problem. GNU OCTAVE is used for coding and visualization. GNU is a recursive acronym for "<strong>G</strong>NU's <strong>N</strong>ot <strong>U</strong>nix!", and that name is chosen because it is like Unix but differs from Unix because it is free and contains no Unix code. Those algorithms were implemented using 300 randomly generated problems. Moreover, we compare WWM1 and WWM2 algorithms using existing data from the literature and the results show that WWM2 is the best.</p> <p><strong>ABSTRAK</strong>: Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) merupakan salah satu masalah mahsyur yang banyak digunakan sebagai tulang belakang kepada masalah banyak rekaan jaringan. Menerusi graf G(V,E), di mana V adalah himpunan titik dan E adalah himpunan garis yang menghubungkan titik-titik dalam V, dan bagi setiap garis eij terdapat berat berhubung cij ≥0, Multi-period Degree Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree (MPDCMST) merupakan masalah dalam menentukan MST, pada masa sama turut menimbangkan kekangan pada setiap titik vertek, dan memenuhi syarat keperluan pemasangan pada setiap detik. Dua algoritma (WWM1 dan WWM2) dicadangkan bagi menyelesaikan masalah ini. GNU OCTAVE digunakan bagi pengaturcaraan dan visualisasi.&nbsp; GNU merupakan suatu singkatan kepada “GNU's Not Unix”, dan nama tersebut dipilih karena ianya seperti Unix, tetapi berbeza dari Unix kerana ia percuma dan tidak mempunyai kod Unix. Algoritma tersebut dilaksana dengan menggunakan 300 masalah terhasil secara rawak. Tambahan, algoritma WWM1 dan WWM2 dibandingkan dengan kajian terdahulu dan hasil kajian menunjukkan WWM2 adalah terbaik.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Wamiliana Wamiliana, M. Usman, Warsito Warsito, Warsono Warsono, Jamal I. Daoud Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1088 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 OPTIMIZATION OF THE REGULARIZATION OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PLATE HEAT TRANSFER PROBLEMS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1143 <p>Optimization of the regularization of the Fourier series in the case of a steady state heat transfer plate and heat transfer insulated plate problems are investigated and the regularization of the series solutions at a fixed point on the plates are studied at initial time and critical index.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Pengoptimuman aturan siri Fourier telah dikaji pada keadaan tetap masalah plat pindah haba dan plat penebat pindah haba. Penyelesaian bersiri secara aturan pada titik tetap plat telah dikaji pada masa mula dan indeks penting.</p> Farjana Farjana Akter, Abdumalik Rakhimov, Ahsan Ali Khan, Torla bin Hj Hasan Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1143 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 PARALLEL PROCESS DISCOVERY USING A NEW TIME-BASED ALPHA++ MINER https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1173 <p>A lot of services in business processes lead information systems to build huge amounts of event logs that are difficult to observe. The event log will be analysed using a process discovery technique to mine the process model by implementing some well-known algorithms such as deterministic algorithms and heuristic algorithms. All of the algorithms have their own benefits and limitations in analysing and discovering the event log into process models. This research proposed a new Time-based Alpha++ Miner with an improvement of the Alpha++ Miner and Modified Time-based Alpha Miner algorithm. The proposed miner is able to consider noise traces, loop, and non-free choice when modelling a process model where both of original algorithms cannot override those issues. A new Time-based Alpha++ Miner utilizing Time Interval Pattern can mine the process model using new rules defined by the time interval pattern using a double-time stamp event log and define sequence and parallel (AND, OR, and XOR) relation. The original miners are only able to discover sequence and parallel (AND and XOR) relation. To know the differences between the original Alpha++ Miner and the new one including the process model and its relations, the evaluation using fitness and precision was done in this research. The results presented that the process model obtained by a new Time-based Alpha++ Miner was better than that of the original Alpha++ Miner algorithm in terms of parallel OR, handling noise, fitness value, and precision value.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Banyak sistem perniagaan perkhidmatan menghasilkan sejumlah besar log data maklumat yang payah dipantau. Log data ini akan dianalisis menggunakan teknik proses penemuan bagi memperoleh model proses dengan menerapkan beberapa algoritma terkenal, seperti algoritma deterministik dan algoritma heuristik. Semua algoritma ini memiliki kehebatan dan kekurangannya dalam menganalisis dan mencari log data ke dalam model proses. Kajian ini mencadangkan <em>Time-based Alpha++ Miner</em> baru yang merupakan pembaharuan dari algoritma <em>Alpha++ Miner</em> dan <em>Modified Time-based Alpha Miner</em>. Algoritma baru ini dapat mempertimbangkan kesan bunyi, pusingan, dan pilihan tidak bebas ketika memodelkan model proses di mana kedua algoritma asal tidak dapat menggantikan isu tersebut. <em>Time-based Alpha++ Miner</em> baru mengguna pakai Pola Interval Waktu berjaya memperoleh model proses menggunakan peraturan baru berdasarkan Pola Interval Waktu menggunakan log peristiwa waktu-ganda dan menentukan jujukan dan hubungan selari (AND, OR, dan XOR). Dibandingkan algoritma asal, ia hanya dapat menemukan jujukan dan hubungan selari (AND dan XOR). Bagi membezakan Alpha++ Miner asal dan yang baru termasuk model proses dan kaitannya, penilaian menggunakan nilai padanan dan penelitian telah dijalankan dalam kajian ini. Hasil kajian model proses yang diperoleh oleh <em>Time-based Alpha++ Miner</em> baru, adalah lebih baik keputusannya berbanding menggunakan algoritma Alpha++ Miner asal, berdasarkan hubungan selari OR, bunyi kawalan, nilai padanan, dan nilai penelitian.</p> Yutika Amelia Effendi, Riyanarto Sarno Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1173 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 SOFTWARE, ALGORITHMS AND METHODS OF DATA ENCRYPTION BASED ON NATIONAL STANDARDS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1179 <p>The article provides a brief description of the cryptography service provider software developed by the authors of this article, which is designed to create encryption keys, create private and public keys of electronic digital signature, create and confirm authenticity of digital signatures, hashing, encrypting, and simulating data using the algorithms described in the State Standards of Uzbekistan. It can be used in telecommunications networks, public information systems, and government corporate information systems by embedding into applications that store, process, and transmit information that does not contain information related to state secrets, as well as in the exchange of information, and ensuring the legal significance of electronic documents. The cryptography service provider includes the following functional components: a dynamically loadable library that implements a biophysical random number sensor; a dynamic library that implements cryptographic algorithms in accordance with the State Standards of Uzbekistan; a module supporting work with external devices; an installation module that provides the installation of a cryptography service provider in the appropriate environment of operation (environment).</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Artikel ini memberikan penerangan ringkas tentang perisian penyedia perkhidmatan kriptografi yang dibangunkan oleh pengarang artikel ini, yang direka untuk membuat kunci penyulitan, kunci persendirian dan awam tandatangan digital elektronik, membuat dan mengesahkan kesahihan tandatangan digital, hashing, penyulitan dan simulasi data menggunakan algoritma yang dinyatakan dalam Standard Negeri Uzbekistan. Ia boleh digunakan dalam rangkaian telekomunikasi, sistem maklumat awam, sistem maklumat korporat kerajaan dengan memasukkan aplikasi aplikasi yang menyimpan, memproses dan menghantar maklumat yang tidak mengandungi maklumat yang berkaitan dengan rahsia negara, serta pertukaran maklumat dan memastikan undang-undang kepentingan dokumen elektronik.</p> <p>Penyedia perkhidmatan kriptografi termasuk komponen berfungsi sebagai berikut: perpustakaan dinamik yang boleh dimuatkan yang melaksanakan sensor nombor rawak biofisika; perpustakaan dinamik yang melaksanakan algoritma kriptografi mengikut Standard Negeri Uzbekistan; modul menyokong kerja dengan peranti luaran; modul pemasangan yang menyediakan pemasangan penyedia perkhidmatan kriptografi dalam persekitaran operasi yang sesuai (persekitaran).</p> Mirkhon Nurullaev, RAKHMATILLO DJURAEVICH ALOEV Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1179 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 NUMERICAL ALGORITHM FOR FINDING OPTIMAL INITIAL CONCENTRATIONS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1180 <p>This article is devoted to the problem of developing methods for mathematical modelling in the sphere of optimal planning in a chemical experiment. In the article, the problem of finding the optimal ratio for initial concentrations of substances is formulated in general terms and an algorithm for solving this problem is constructed basing on the method of artificial immune systems. The developed algorithm for finding the optimal initial concentrations of substances allows solving the problem of experiment planning in chemistry at the computational experiment stage. In this case, the solution of the optimization problem found with its help does not depend on the choice of the initial approximation. The algorithm was tested for the industrially meaningful process of benzilidenebenzilamine&nbsp; synthesis for which the optimum values of the initial concentrations were calculated in order to obtain maximum yield of the reaction product.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Artikel ini ditujukan untuk masalah mengembangkan kaedah pemodelan matematik dalam bidang perancangan optimum dalam percubaan kimia. Dalam artikel itu, masalah mencari nisbah optimum untuk konsentrasi awal bahan digubal secara umum dan algoritma untuk menyelesaikan masalah ini dibina berdasarkan kaedah sistem imun buatan. Algoritma yang dibangunkan untuk mencari kandungan konsentrasi awal yang optimum membolehkan menyelesaikan masalah perancangan percubaan dalam kimia pada peringkat percubaan pengkomputeran. Dalam kes ini, penyelesaian masalah pengoptimuman yang didapati dengan bantuannya tidak bergantung pada pilihan permulaan awal. Algoritma ini telah diuji untuk proses sintesis benzilidenebenzilamin yang bermakna industri yang mana nilai-nilai optimum kepekatan awal dikira untuk mendapatkan hasil maksimum produk reaksin.</p> Svetlana Mustafina, Andrey Antipin Andrey, Evgenia Antipina, Sofia Mustafina Mustafina, Elena Odinokova, Larisa Tuchkina, Konstantin Kolyazov Kolyazov Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1180 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 DIABETES DIAGNOSIS BASED ON KNN https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1206 <p>Diabetes is a life-threatening syndrome occurring around the world; it can have huge complications and is documented by large amounts of medical data. Therefore, attempts at early detection of this disease took a large area of research and many methods were used to deal with diabetes. In this paper, different types of KNN algorithm have been used to classify diabetes disease using Matlab. The dataset was generated by the criteria of the American diabetes association. For the training stage, 4900 samples have been used by the classifier learner tool to observe the results. Then, 100 of the data samples were used for the test. The results show that the KNN types (Fine, Weighted, Medium and Cubic) give high accuracy over the Coarse and the Cosine methods. Fine KNN is considered the most suitable according to its accuracy of classified samples.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penyakit kencing manis adalah sindrom penyakit ancaman nyawa yang berlaku di seluruh dunia dan ia mempunyai data perubatan yang besar serta komplikasi tinggi. Oleh itu, cubaan dalam mengesan awal penyakit ini mempunyai potensi luas dalam kajian dan banyak kaedah telah digunakan bagi mengkaji penyakit kencing manis. Dalam kajian ini, pelbagai jenis algoritma KNN telah digunakan bagi mengelas penyakit kencing manis menggunakan Matlab. Setdata dihasilkan berdasarkan kriteria Kesatuan Kencing Manis Amerika. Pada peringkat latihan, sebanyak 4900 sampel telah digunakan oleh pelatih alat pengelasan bagi memantau dapatan kajian. Kemudian, 100 daripada sampel data telah digunakan bagi ujian. Keputusan menunjukkan jenis KNN (Halus, Berat, Sederhana dan Kubik) lebih tepat berbanding kaedah Kasar dan Kosinus. KNN Halus di dapati lebih sesuai berdasarkan ketepatan sampel pengelasan.</p> Ameer Ali, Mohammed A. T. Alrubei, Laith Falah Mohammed Hassan, Mohannad A. M. Al-Ja'afari, Saif H. Abdulwahed Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1206 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 ADAPTIVE SYSTEM OF FUZZY-LOGICAL REGULATION BY THE TEMPERATURE MODE OF THE DRUM BOILER https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1220 <p>&nbsp;The article discusses the creation of an adaptive system for managing dynamic objects based on neuro-fuzzy technology. This technology is used to actively identify and create temperature control algorithms for the superheated steam of a drum boiler in the presence of disturbances associated with a change in load. To solve this problem, the use of a fuzzy-logical controller is proposed. The rule base of this regulator is defined. A technique is proposed for determining the optimal number of neurons and the number of hidden layers. The neuro-fuzzy model of the controller is presented in the form of a multilayer neural network without feedback, which is characterized by a simple implementation in practice. The use of a fuzzy-logical controller gives the automatic control system the ability to maintain technological parameters at a given level in the presence of external disturbing influences, and also makes it possible to efficiently control the process.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Artikel ini membincangkan rekaan sistem penyesuaian bagi mengurus objek dinamik berdasarkan teknologi neura-kabur. Teknologi ini digunakan bagi mengenal pasti secara aktif dan mencipta algoritma kawalan suhu bagi stim melampau panas dalam drum dandang dengan kehadiran gangguan berkaitan perubahan beban. Bagi menyelesaikan masalah ini, penggunaan pengawal logik-kabur telah dicadangkan. Asas peraturan bagi pengaturan ini ditentukan. Satu teknik dicadangkan bagi mendapat bilangan optima neuron dan bilangan lapisan tersembunyi. Model neura-kabur pengawal ini dikemukakan dalam bentuk rangkaian neural berlapis tanpa suap balik, bercirikan praktik pelaksanaan mudah. Penggunaan pengawal logik-kabur memberi sistem kawalan automatik kebolehan mengekalkan parameter teknologi pada tahap tertentu dengan kehadiran pengaruh gangguan luar, dan juga memberi kebolehan proses kawalan yang cekap.</p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Dilnoza Umurzakova, Isamiddin Siddikov, Isamiddin Siddikov, Hurshida Bakhrieva Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1220 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, MORPHOLOGY, AND HYDROLYTIC DEGRADATION BEHAVIOR OF POLYLACTIC ACID / THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANE BLENDS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1051 <p>Polylactic acid (PLA) has attracted tremendous interest to be utilized as the replacement for petroleum-based polymers as it possesses good biodegradability, can be derived from renewable sources, and shows high mechanical strength. However, its inherent brittleness and low toughness has limited its usage in broader applications. In this work, PLA was melt blended with tough thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) in order to produce eco-friendly polymeric materials with balanced mechanical properties. Moreover, the miscibility and the hydrolytic degradation behaviour of PLA/TPU blends were also investigated as it is important to control material degradation behaviour in some applications. Five compositions of specimens, i.e. neat PLA, PLA/TPU 75/25 vol%, PLA/TPU 50/50 vol%, PLA/TPU 25/75 vol%, and neat TPU, were prepared by melt blending PLA with TPU using an internal mixer, followed by compression moulding. Tensile and impact tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties. From the tests, it was apparent that the elongation-at-break and impact strength of the blends increased as the TPU content increased. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observation were conducted to evaluate the miscibility of PLA/TPU blends. DMA results of the blends revealed two tangent delta peaks, indicating that the blends were immiscible, and the SEM micrographs supported this trend. Finally, hydrolytic degradation behaviour of PLA, TPU and PLA/TPU blends was investigated by measuring the weight loss after immersion of the specimens in alkaline solution at a predetermined time, i.e. every 24 hours for up to 8 days. It was found that the degradation behaviour is affected by blend composition, where PLA/TPU 50/50 vol% showed the fastest degradation rate. This result might be ascribed to the co-continuous morphology shown in the PLA/TPU blend 50/50 vol%.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Polilaktik asid (PLA) telah menarik banyak minat untuk digunakan sebagai pengganti polimer berasaskan petroleum, kerana ia mempunyai biodegradabiliti yang baik, boleh diperolehi daripada sumber yang boleh diperbaharui, dan mempunyai kekuatan mekanikal yang tinggi. Walau bagaimanapun, kerapuhan dan keliatannya yang rendah telah menghadkan penggunaannya dalam aplikasi yang lebih luas. Dalam kajian ini, leburan PLA dicampurkan dengan poliuretan thermoplastik (TPU) bagi menghasilkan bahan polimer yang mesra alam beserta dengan sifat-sifat mekanikal yang seimbang. Selain itu, daya kebolehcampuran dan degradasi hidrolitik daripada campuran PLA/ TPU juga telah dikaji kerana bagi sesetengah aplikasi, faktor degradasi adalah sangat penting. Bagi menghasilkan lima komposisi sampel, iaitu PLA tulen, PLA/TPU 75/25 vol%, PLA/TPU 50/50 vol%, PLA/TPU 25/75 vol%, dan TPU tulen, PLA dan TPU telah dicairkan dan diadun menggunakan mesin pencampur internal, diikuti dengan kaedah pengacuan kompresi. Untuk mengkaji sifat-sifat mekanikal, ujian regangan dan impak telah dijalankan. Hasil ujian tersebut menunjukkan peningkatan nilai pemanjangan pada titik putus dan kekuatan impak, seiring dengan peningkatan komposisi TPU. Manakala, penilaian daya kebolehcampuran diantara PLA dan TPU dijalankan menggunakan analisis mekanikal dinamik (DMA) dan mikroskop pengimbas elektron (SEM). Keputusan DMA, hasil daripada campuran tersebut mendedahkan dua puncak tangen delta, menunjukkan bahawa dua campuran tersebut tidak memiliki daya bolehcampur yang baik. Kesimpulan ini disokong pula oleh gambar mikro dari hasil ujian SEM. Akhir sekali, degradasi hidrolitik PLA, TPU dan campuran PLA/TPU dikaji melalui pengukuran berat sampel setelah direndam di dalam larutan alkali pada masa yang ditetapkan, iaitu setiap 24 jam sehingga 8 hari. Hasil daripada ujian tersebut mendapati degradasi hidrolitik dipengaruhi oleh komposisi campuran. Campuran PLA/TPU dengan komposisi 50/50 vol% menunjukkan kadar penurunan berat yang paling cepat. Hasil ujian ini mungkin boleh dikaitkan dengan sifat morfologi co-continuous yang ditunjukkan dalam campuran PLA/TPU 50/50 vol%.</p> Yose Fachmi Buys, Mimi Syakina Ahmad, Hazleen Anuar, Mudrikah Sofia Mahmud, Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1051 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 STUDY ON PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT OF MANUAL OPERATIONS IN SOYA SAUCE FACTORY https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1237 <p>Today with a rapidly changing world and markets, SMEs are facing a critical challenge to remain competitive in the business market. In this paper, a case study of the SMEs food industry is presented. Work study methodology was embedded in the strategy to improve the productivity of the soya sauce enterprise. The sample size required for the study was calculated and random observations were determined through a work sampling technique to achieve a 95% confidence level. The result from this study reveals that work sampling data can be used as a reliable estimation for identification of any potential bottleneck as well as idle time in the factory. The process flowchart at the filling and capping terminal were examined and the travelling distance was optimized to 12.5 feet from original distance of 17 feet. The modified plant layout significantly improves the people flow, production material handling, work safety, space utilization, and better working conditions. The survival of SMEs is critical as this sector contributes 38.3% to Malaysian‘s gross domestic productivity (GDP). Thus, these findings demonstrated that enhancing the productivity of SME food industries is effective through a work study. However, the successful adoption of this approach is mostly because of top administrative involvement and the participation of all staff members.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Pada hari ini, dengan perubahan pesat dunia dan pasaran, SMEs berhadapan cabaran getir bagi terus tetap berdaya saing dalam pasaran perniagaan. Kajian ini membincangkan berkaitan kes kajian SMEs dalam industri makanan. Kaedah kajian kerja telah diguna pakai dalam strategi bagi meningkatkan pengeluaran sos soya. Saiz sampel yang diperlukan bagi kajian ini dikira dan pemerhatian rawak diperoleh melalui teknik persampelan bagi memperolehi 95% tahap yakin diri. Hasil keputusan kajian menunjukkan data persampelan boleh digunakan sebagai anggaran boleh percaya bagi mengklasifikasi kemungkinan kesesakan dan juga masa terbiar dalam kilang. Proses carta alir pada terminal isian dan penutup telah diperiksa dan jarak perjalanan dioptimumkan pada 12.5 kaki dari jarak asal iaitu 17 kaki. Ubah suai susun atur kilang dapat memperbaiki dengan ketara aturan pekerja, pengendalian bahan pengeluaran, keselamatan kerja, pengunaan ruang tempat kerja dan persekitaran tempat kerja yang lebih bagus. Kemandirian SMEs adalah sangat kritikal kerana sektor ini menyumbang 38.3% kepada Keluaran Malaysia Dalam Negara Kasar (KDNK). Oleh itu, hasil kajian menunjukkan&nbsp; peningkatan produktiviti industri makanan SMEs adalah berkesan menerusi kajian ini. Walau bagaimanapun, keberhasilan kaedah ini berpunca daripada keterlibatan pentadbiran dan seluruh anggota pekerja.</p> Zaharah Wahid, Mohd Radzi Che Daud Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1237 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 THE EFFECTS OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE ON THE DEGRADATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF PLA BIOCOMPOSITE https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1140 <p>Biopolymer products that is biodegradable presently attracting an attention from researchers and industry. The biodegradable packaging based on polylactic acid (PLA), durian skin fibre (DSF), epoxidized palm oil (EPO) and incorporated with cinnamon essential oil (CEO) as antimicrobial agent have been developed and showed to be a promising field of research. This paper reported the effects of supercritical carbon dioxide on the degradation and antimicrobial properties of PLA biocomposite films produced via solvent casting. The biocomposites underwent supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO<sub>2</sub>) treatment at two different conditions under 40 °C temperature and at 100 bar and 200 bar pressure. Water absorption test showed that the untreated PLA biocomposite absorbed most water as compared to treated PLA biocomposite with SCCO<sub>2 </sub>at 5.1%. This is due to the hydrophilic nature of the fibre that absorbed water molecules. Soil burial test showed that the treated PLA biocomposite possessed the highest value of weight losses after 80 days with 97.8%. Biocomposite with the presence of CEO demonstrated antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This showed that SCCO<sub>2</sub> significantly improved the properties of PLA biocomposite films. The supercritical fluid treatment of PLA biocomposite could be an alternative for active packaging industries to ensure that the packaging product meets the requirement by consumers as well as being an eco-friendly product.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Produk biopolimer yang biodegradasi pada masa ini menarik perhatian dari penyelidik dan industri. Pembungkusan biodegradasi berasaskan polilaktik asid (PLA), serat kulit durian (DSF), minyak kelapa sawit terepoksi (EPO) dan ditambah dengan minyak pati kayu manis (CEO) sebagai agen antimikrobial telah dibangunkan dan menjadi bidang penyelidikan. Artikel ini melaporkan kesan karbon dioksida superkritikal terhadap sifat-sifat degradasi dan antimikrobik dari filem biokomposit PLA yang dihasilkan melalui pemutus pelarut. Biokomposit telah menjalani rawatan superkritikal karbon dioksida (SCCO<sub>2</sub>) pada dua keadaan yang berbeza di bawah suhu 40 °C pada 100 bar dan 200 tekanan bar. Ujian penyerapan air menunjukkan bahawa biocomposite PLA yang tidak dirawat menyerap kebanyakan air berbanding komposisi lain dengan 5.1%. Ini disebabkan sifat hidrofilik serat yang menyerap molekul air. Ujian penanaman dalam tanah menunjukkan bahawa biocomposite PLA yang dirawat mempunyai nilai kehilangan berat tertinggi setelah 80 hari dengan 97.8%. Biokomposit dengan kehadiran CEO menunjukkan aktiviti antimikrobial terhadap bakteria gram-positif dan gram-negatif. Ini menunjukkan bahawa SCCO<sub>2</sub> meningkatkan sifat-sifat filem biocomposite PLA. Rawatan cecair superkritikal PLA biocomposite boleh menjadi alternatif bagi industri pembungkusan untuk memastikan produk pembungkusan memenuhi keperluan pengguna serta menjadi produk mesra alam.</p> Hazleen Anuar, Siti Nur E’zzati Mohd Apandi, Siti Munirah Salimah Abd Rashid , Fathilah Ali, Yose Fachmi Buys, Mohd Romainor Manshor, Sabu Thomas, Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1140 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800 DYNAMIC MODELING OF A SINGLE-LINK FLEXIBLE MANIPULATOR ROBOT WITH TRANSLATIONAL AND ROTATIONAL MOTIONS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1254 <p>The flexible manipulator is widely used in space robots, robot arm, and manufacturing industries that produce micro-scale products. This study aims to formulate the equation of motion of a flexible single-link manipulator system that moves translationally and rotationally and to develop computational codes with finite element methods in performing dynamic simulation on the vibration of the flexible manipulator system. The system of the single-link flexible manipulator (SLFM) consists of the aluminum beam as a flexible link, clamp part to hold the link, DC motor to rotate drive shaft, a trajectory to transfer link in translational motion, and servo motor to rotate link. Computational codes in time history response (THR) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processing were developed to identify the dynamic behavior of the link. The finite element-method and Newmark-beta are used in simulating the SLFM. Simulation using the finite element method has displayed dynamic behavior through a graph of FFT on free vibration and THR graph on forced vibration by the excitation force due to the translational and rotational motions of the system. In the simulation of free vibration, the natural frequency of the system is 8.3 [Hz].</p> Dermawan Dermawan, Hammada Abbas, Rafiuddin Syam, Zulkifli Djafar, Abdul Kadir Muhammad Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1254 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0800