IIUM Engineering Journal https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal, published biannually (<strong>January </strong><em>and </em><strong>July</strong>), is a <em><strong>double-blind peer-reviewed</strong></em> open-access journal of the Kulliyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).</p> <div style="border: 2px solid #C0C0C0; padding: 3px;"><span style="color: #ff0000;"><em><strong>The next issue will be published in January 2022. </strong></em></span><span style="color: #0000ff;">.</span></div> <div style="border: 2px solid #C0C0C0; padding: 3px;"><span style="color: #ff0000;"><em><strong>Recently we have received many emails to verify the acceptance letter. It is the author's responsibility to check the authenticity if the author did not submit any article through this site and email transmits from the iium.edu.my domain. </strong></em></span></div> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal publishes original research findings as regular papers, review papers (by invitation). The Journal provides a platform for Engineers, Researchers, Academicians, and Practitioners who are highly motivated in contributing to the Engineering disciplines and Applied Sciences. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the developing world's specific challenges and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.<strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Subject areas suitable for publication are as follows:</strong> </p> <ul> <li class="show">Chemical and Biotechnology Engineering</li> <li class="show">Civil and Environmental Engineering</li> <li class="show">Computer Science and Information Technology</li> <li class="show">Electrical, Computer, and Communications Engineering</li> <li class="show">Engineering Mathematics and Applied Science</li> <li class="show">Materials and Manufacturing Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechatronics and Automation Engineering</li> </ul> <p>Contributions from other areas of Engineering and Applied Science are welcome.</p> <p>A manuscript undergoes a double-blind review process. </p> <p><strong><strong>IIUM Engineering Journal Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statements</strong>:</strong></p> <p>IIUM EJ is committed to meet and uphold standards of ethical behaviour at all stages of the publication process. A summary of our expectation of editors, peer-reviewers, and authors is stated here [<a title="Editorial Policies" href="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/ethics">link</a>].</p> </div> en-US zahirulalam@iium.edu.my (Prof. Dr. AHM Zahirul Alam) alam_z@ieee.org (AHM Zahirul alam) Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:21:16 +0800 OJS 3.3.0.7 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 WSN-BASED MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR THE SOLAR POWER STATIONS OF THE TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1464 <p>Renewable energy sources are an increasingly popular way to generate electrical energy for telecommunications systems. The use and effectiveness of remote monitoring systems in such systems has led to growing interests relatively to it. As with any new technological systems, new problems have arisen in the use of renewable energy sources in telecommunications systems and the use of IoT-based remote monitoring systems in them. In particular, one of these problems is the decentralization of remote monitoring systems for renewable power plants of telecommunication systems. The paper details the stages of development and modelling of open-source centralized monitoring systems for solar power station of telecommunication systems. In this paper, a real-time remote monitoring system of solar power sources was modelled and investigated by wireless sensor networks of telecommunications devices. Proteus software environment was obtained for modelling. Before modelling the system, a system structure and a block diagram were developed, each of the elements that are part of the system is described. Software for the system was created. The developed structure and software were tested by modelling. The results of the modelling were presented in a virtual terminal, an oscillography, and a local web browser.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Sumber tenaga boleh baharu semakin meningkat popular dalam menghasilkan tenaga elektrik bagi sistem telekomunikasi. Penggunaan dan keberkesanan sistem pemonitoran jarak jauh dalam jaringan ini telah membawa kepada peningkatan minat kepada tenaga boleh baharu. Walau bagaimanapun, melalui sistem teknologi baru ini, masalah baru timbul dalam penggunaan punca tenaga boleh baharu dalam sistem telekomunikasi dan penggunaan bersama sistem pemonitoran berdasarkan IoT. Khususnya dalam desentralisasi sistem pemonitoran jarak jauh bagi loji kuasa sistem telekomunikasi. Kajian ini merincikan peringkat pembinaan dan model sumber terbuka berpusat sistem pemonitoran bagi sistem janakuasa solar sistem telekomunikasi. Kajian ini turut memodelkan sistem pemonitoran jarak jauh secara langsung bagi sumber kuasa solar dan dikaji dengan rangkaian sensor tanpa jaringan bagi alatan telekomunikasi. Perisian Proteus telah dihasilkan bagi model ini. Sebelum model sistem dibina, struktur sistem dan gambar rajah blok dibina. Setiap unsur dalam sistem ini diperihalkan. Perisian bagi sistem ini turut dibina. Struktur yang dibina dan perisian ini diuji melalui model. Hasil dapatan model dibentangkan dalam pangkalan maya, oscilograf dan pelayar web tempatan.</p> Doston Khasanov, Khalimjon Khujamatov, Bayram Fayzullaev, Ernazar Reypnazarov Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1464 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 DEVELOPING A PARALLEL CLASSIFIER FOR MINING IN BIG DATA SETS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1541 <p>Data mining is the extraction of information and its roles from a vast amount of data. This topic is one of the most important topics these days. Nowadays, massive amounts of data are generated and stored each day. This data has useful information in different fields that attract programmers’ and engineers’ attention. One of the primary data mining classifying algorithms is the decision tree. Decision tree techniques have several advantages but also present drawbacks. One of its main drawbacks is its need to reside its data in the main memory. SPRINT is one of the decision tree builder classifiers that has proposed a fix for this problem. In this paper, our research developed a new parallel decision tree classifier by working on SPRINT results. Our experimental results show considerable improvements in terms of the runtime and memory requirements compared to the SPRINT classifier. Our proposed classifier algorithm could be implemented in serial and parallel environments and can deal with big data.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Perlombongan data adalah pengekstrakan maklumat dan peranannya dari sejumlah besar data. Topik ini adalah salah satu topik yang paling penting pada masa ini. Pada masa ini, data yang banyak dihasilkan dan disimpan setiap hari. Data ini mempunyai maklumat berguna dalam pelbagai bidang yang menarik perhatian pengaturcara dan jurutera. Salah satu algoritma pengkelasan perlombongan data utama adalah pokok keputusan. Teknik pokok keputusan mempunyai beberapa kelebihan tetapi kekurangan. Salah satu kelemahan utamanya adalah keperluan menyimpan datanya dalam memori utama. SPRINT adalah salah satu pengelasan pembangun pokok keputusan yang telah mengemukakan untuk masalah ini. Dalam makalah ini, penyelidikan kami sedang mengembangkan pengkelasan pokok keputusan selari baru dengan mengusahakan hasil SPRINT. Hasil percubaan kami menunjukkan peningkatan yang besar dari segi jangka masa dan keperluan memori berbanding dengan pengelasan SPRINT. Algoritma pengklasifikasi yang dicadangkan kami dapat dilaksanakan dalam persekitaran bersiri dan selari dan dapat menangani data besar.</p> Ahad Shamseen, Morteza Mohammadi Zanjireh , Mahdi Bahaghighat, Qin Xin Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1541 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 INFLUENCE OF LIGHT ABSORPTION PROFILE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1559 <p>We investigate how an enhanced light absorption at a specific position inside the active layer affects the performance of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), namely the short-circuit current density ( ), the open-circuit voltage ( ), the fill factor (FF), and the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The performance is calculated using an updated version of a previously published analytical current-voltage model for OPVs, where the updated model allows the light absorption profile to be described by any functions provided that analytical solutions can be produced. We find that the light absorption profile affects the performance through the drift current. When the mobility imbalance is not very high (when the ratio of the mobility of the faster carrier type to the mobility of the slower carrier type is less than about ), the PCE is maximized when the light absorption is concentrated at the center of the active layer. When the mobility imbalance is very high (when the ratio of the mobility of the faster carrier type to the mobility of the slower carrier type is more than approximately ), the PCE is maximized when the light absorption is concentrated near the electrode collecting the slower carrier type. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the light absorption profile is properly tuned so that the performance of OPVs is maximized. Moreover, any efforts that we make to improve the performance should not lead to a light absorption profile that would actually impair the overall performance.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini menilai bagaimana penyerapan cahaya yang tinggi pada bahagian tertentu lapisan aktif mempengaruhi prestasi sel fotovoltaik organik (OPV), iaitu ketumpatan arus litar pintas (Jsc), voltan litar terbuka (Voc), faktor pengisian (FF), dan kecekapan penukaran kuasa (PCE). Prestasi dikira mengguna pakai model terkini yang diperbaharui dari model asal analitikal OPV voltan-arus, di mana model ini membenarkan mana-mana profil penyerapan cahaya digunakan asalkan penyelesaian analitikal terhasil. Dapatan kajian mendapati profil penyerapan cahaya mempengaruhi prestasi berdasarkan arus hanyut. Apabila ketidakseimbangan pergerakan caj tidak begitu tinggi (di mana nisbah pergerakan pembawa caj laju kepada perlahan adalah kurang daripada 103), PCE menjadi maksimum jika penyerapan cahaya bertumpu pada tengah lapisan aktif. Apabila ketidakseimbangan pergerakan caj sangat tinggi (di mana nisbah pergerakan pembawa caj laju kepada perlahan adalah lebih daripada 104), PCE menjadi maksimum jika penyerapan cahaya bertumpu pada elektrod yang mengutip pembawa caj perlahan. Oleh itu, kedudukan talaan profil penyerapan cahaya yang tepat adalah sangat penting bagi menentukan prestasi OPV dimaksimumkan. Tambahan, apa sahaja usaha penambahbaikan prestasi seharusnya tidak menyebabkan pengurangan keseluruhan prestasi profil penyerapan cahaya.</p> Abdul Halim Ikram Mohamed, Mohd Lukman Inche Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1559 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 STUDY OF EFFECTIVE OMNI-DIRECTIONAL VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE FOR LOW SPEED REGIONS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1565 <p>This article presents theoretical and experimental studies of an improved vertical axis wind power device that generates electricity in areas with an average wind speed of 3.5-4.5 m/s. An algorithm has been developed for determining the geometrically optimal dimensions of the outer guiding surfaces to improve the efficiency of the device at low wind speeds. The device uses an AFPMG generator with opposite rotation of the stator and rotor. Matlab/Simulink and Solidworks were used to develop a mathematical and physical model of the wind power device. According to the results of the study, it was found that the developed wind power device can reach a rated power of 700 W at a wind speed of 8 m/s. The use of the device in areas with low wind speed is based on the possibility of increasing the efficiency of work by 5-10% at an average wind speed lower than that of other types of wind power devices.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Artikel ini memaparkan kajian teori dan eksperimen berkenaan alat kuasa angin paksi menegak yang diperbaharui dan menghasilkan tenaga elektrik di kawasan kelajuan angin berpurata 3.5-4.5 m/s. Algoritma telah dibangunkan bagi menentukan dimensi optimum geometri permukaan berpandu luar dalam meningkatkan kecekapan peranti pada kelajuan angin yang kurang. Peranti ini menggunakan penjana AFPMG dengan putaran stator dan rotor yang berlawanan. Matlab/Simulink dan Solidworks digunakan bagi menghasilkan model matematik dan fizikal peranti tenaga angin. Berdasarkan dapatan kajian, didapati bahawa alat tenaga angin yang dibangunkan ini dapat mencapai daya kuasa sebanyak 700 W pada kecepatan angin 8 m/s. Penggunaan alat ini di kawasan kurang kelajuan angin berkemungkinan meningkatkan efisiensi purata kerja sebanyak 5-10% pada kelajuan angin rendah, iaitu lebih rendah daripada segala jenis peranti tenaga angin lain.</p> Alisher Safarov, Rasul Mamedov Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1565 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 DOUBLE THRESHOLD SPECTRUM SENSING WITH OPTIMIZATION OF SAMPLES IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1597 <p>In cognitive radio networks spectrum sensing plays a vital role to identify the presence or absence of the primary user. In conventional spectrum sensing one secondary user will make a final decision regarding the availability of licensed spectrum. But Secondary user fail to make a correct detection about the presence of the primary user if he is in fading environment and it causes interference to the licensed users. Therefore to avoid interference to the licensed users and to make correct detection, number of samples is increased, Which increases the probability of detection. In this paper the optimization of samples is proposed to reduce the system overhead and also to increase the propagation time. Simulation results show the optimized value of samples for a given probability of false alarm and also the variation of probability of detection with optimized samples and false alarm is shown in the results.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Dalam rangkaian radio kognitif, penginderaan spektrum memainkan peranan penting untuk mengenal pasti kehadiran atau ketiadaan pengguna utama. Dalam penginderaan spektrum konvensional, seorang pengguna sekunder akan membuat keputusan akhir mengenai ketersediaan spektrum berlesen. Tetapi pengguna Sekunder gagal membuat pengesanan yang betul mengenai kehadiran pengguna utama jika dia berada dalam persekitaran yang pudar dan menyebabkan gangguan kepada pengguna yang berlesen. Oleh itu untuk mengelakkan gangguan kepada pengguna berlesen dan membuat pengesanan yang betul, jumlah sampel meningkat, yang meningkatkan kemungkinan pengesanan. Dalam makalah ini pengoptimuman sampel dicadangkan untuk mengurangi overhead sistem dan juga untuk meningkatkan waktu penyebaran. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan nilai sampel yang dioptimumkan untuk kebarangkalian penggera palsu dan juga variasi kebarangkalian pengesanan dengan sampel yang dioptimumkan dan penggera palsu ditunjukkan dalam hasil.</p> Chilakala Sudhamani Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1597 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 AN AN INVESTIGATION OF THE SENSITIVITY OF POLYMER-COATED SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE-BASED GAS SENSORS IN THE DETECTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1612 <p>Surface acoustic wave sensors (SAWs) are excellent at detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) since a sensing layer can be created by spreading a thin film of material across the delay line. This critically enhances performance as it is sensitive to the physical phenomena of interest. This study aims to provide a thorough investigation of the sensitivity of polymer-coated SAW-based gas sensors to VOCs using simulations via the finite element method (FEM). As such, quartz was chosen as the piezoelectric substrate while polymeric materials were chosen as the sensing layers due to their high sensitivity, low energy consumption, short response time, performance at room temperature, and reversibility after exposure to an analyte. The polymeric materials chosen were: (1) polyisobutylene (PIB), (2) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), (3) polyisoprene (PIP), (4) polyimide (PI), and (5) phenylmethyldiphenylsilicone (OV25). The VOCs chosen for investigation were: (1) dichloromethane (DCM), (2) trichloroethylene (TCE), (3) 1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), and (4) carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>). The performance of each polymer-coated SAW sensor was evaluated in terms of frequency shift and sensitivity to each VOC in FEM simulations. Our study found that the PIB-coated sensor had the highest sensitivity (4.0571 kHz/ppm) to DCM vapor and good sensitivity (45.257 kHz/ppm) to TCE vapor. However, the performance of each polymer-coated sensor varied depending on the type of VOC being tested. As an example, while the OV25-coated sensor was more sensitive (52.57 kHz/ppm) than the PIB-coated sensor (53.54 kHz/ppm) to TCE vapor regardless of the concentration, the PIB-coated sensor was more sensitive to DCM vapor at both low (4.06 kHz/ppm) and high (3.54 kHz/ppm) concentrations than the OV25-coated sensor. Therefore, the results of our FEM simulations indicate that polymer-coated SAW-based gas sensors are highly capable of self-powered VOC detection.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Sensor gelombang akustik permukaan (SAW) adalah sangat baik dalam mengesan sebatian organik meruap yang tidak stabil (VOCs), kerana lapisan pengesan dapat dihasilkan dengan melapis nipis bahan pada lapisan garis tunda. Cara ini dapat menambah baik prestasi kerana ianya sensitif kepada fenomena fizikal yang dituju. Kajian ini bertujuan bagi menyediakan kajian menyeluruh terhadap kesensitifan sensor gas berasaskan SAW bersalut polimer pada VOC menggunakan simulasi melalui kaedah unsur terhingga (FEM). Oleh itu, kuarza dipilih sebagai substrat piezoelektrik manakala bahan polimer dipilih sebagai lapisan penginderaan berdasarkan kepekaan tinggi, penggunaan tenaga rendah, respon masa singkat, prestasi suhu bilik, dan faktor keboleh-balikan setelah terdedah kepada analit. Bahan polimer yang dipilih adalah: (1) polisobutilena (PIB), (2) polidimethilsiloxana (PDMS), (3) polisoprena (PIP), (4) polimida (PI), dan (5) phenilmethildiphenilsilikon (OV25). VOC terpilih bagi kajian adalah: (1) diklorometana (DCM), (2) trikloretilena (TCE), (3) 1,2-dikloroetilena (DCE), dan (4) karbon tetraklorida (CCl<sub>4</sub>). Prestasi setiap sensor SAW bersalut polimer dinilai berdasarkan peralihan frekuensi dan kesensitifan pada setiap VOC simulasi FEM. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan sensor bersalut-PIB mempunyai kesensitifan paling tinggi (4.0571 kHz/ppm) terhadap wap DCM dan kepekaan yang baik (45.257 kHz / ppm) terhadap wap TCE. Walau bagaimanapun, prestasi setiap sensor bersalut polimer adalah berbeza bergantung kepada jenis VOC yang sedang diuji. Sebagai contoh, sensor bersalut OV25 adalah lebih sensitif (52,57 kHz/ppm) daripada sensor bersalut PIB (53,54 kHz/ppm) pada wap TCE tanpa mengira kepekatan. Manakala sensor bersalut PIB lebih sensitif terhadap wap DCM pada kedua-dua kepekatan rendah (4.06 kHz/ppm) dan tinggi (3.54 kHz/ppm) daripada sensor bersalut-OV25. Oleh itu, hasil simulasi FEM menunjukkan bahawa sensor gas berasaskan SAW bersalut polimer adalah sangat berpotensi sebagai pengesan VOC berkuasa sendiri.</p> Aliza Aini Md Ralib, Amirah Syahirah Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1612 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 A REVIEW OF FLOW CONFLICTS AND SOLUTIONS IN SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKS (SDN) https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1613 <p><strong> </strong>Software Defined Networks (SDN) are a modern networking technology introduced to simplify network management via the separation of the data and control planes. Characteristically, flow entries are propagated between the control plane layer and application or data plane layers respectively while following flow table instructions through open flow protocol. More often than not, conflicts in flows occur as a result of traffic load and priority of instructions in the data plane. Several research works have been conducted on flow conflicts in SDN to reduce the effect of conflict. The flow conflict solutions in SDN have three main limitations. First, the OpenFlow table may still cause a defect in the security module according to the priority and action matching in the open flow in the control plane. Second, flow conflict detection requires more time for flow tracking and incremental update, whereas in such a case, delay affects the efficiency of SDN. Besides, the SDN algorithm and mechanism have substantially high memory requirement for instruction and proper functioning. Third, most of the available algorithms and detection methods used to avoid flow conflicts have not fully covered the security model policy. This study reviews these limitations and suggest solutions as future open research directions.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Rangkaian Perisian Tertentu (SDN) adalah teknologi rangkaian moden yang diperkenalkan bagi memudahkan pengurusan rangkaian melalui pecahan data dan kawalan permukaan. Seperti biasa, aliran kemasukan disebar luas antara lapisan permukaan kawalan dan aplikasi atau lapisan permukaan data masing-masing, sambil mengikuti arahan meja melebar melalui protokol aliran terbuka. Kebiasaannya konflik dalam aliran berlaku disebabkan oleh beban trafik dan keutamaan arahan pada permukaan data. Beberapa kajian dibuat terhadap konflik aliran SDN bagi mengurangkan kesan konflik. Solusi konflik aliran dalam SDN mempunyai tiga kekurangan besar. Pertama, jadual Aliran Terbuka mungkin masih menyebabkan kekurangan dalam modul keselamatan berdasarkan keutamaan dan tindakan persamaan dalam aliran terbuka permukaan kawalan. Kedua, pengesanan aliran konflik memerlukan lebih masa bagi pengesanan aliran dan peningkatan kemaskini, kerana setiap penangguhan memberi kesan terhadap kecekapan SDN. Selain itu, algoritma SDN dan mekanisme memerlukan memori yang agak besar bagi memproses arahan dan berfungsi dengan baik. Ketiga, kebanyakan algoritma dan kaedah pengesanan yang digunakan bagi mengelak konflik pengaliran tidak sepenuhnya dilindungi polisi model keselamatan. Oleh itu, kajian ini meneliti kekurangan dan memberi cadangan penambahbaikan bagi arah tuju kajian masa depan yang terbuka.</p> Mutaz Hamed Hussien Khairi, Sharifah Hafizah Syed Ariffin, Nurul Muazzah Abdul Latiff , Kamaludin Mohamad Yusof , Mohamed Khalalfalla Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1613 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THREE MODE CONTROLLER FOR HOME APPLIANCE USING WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1618 <p>An attempt is made to enhance the automation and sophistication of a home appliance. In this work, electric lamp is considered as a home appliance and it is controlled through three different modes. Technology is a never-ending process, the home automation is a well-known field of recent research, which makes the customer to reach the next level of sophistication. One such next level is presented in this article. The proposed paper is about design, experimentation and testing of three-way control for a lamp, using low cost microcontroller, Bluetooth module and android mobile application. The three modes of control are manual switch mode, Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) mode and Bluetooth based Wireless communication mode. The work is initially simulated using Proteus 8 Professional Application and then implemented as a real time working model. Also, the working performances were tested using the Simulation and developed working model. The control in Bluetooth mode is based on an Android Application. A dedicated Android Application is developed for testing the developed working model, using MIT App Inventor.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Percubaan dibuat untuk meningkatkan automasi dan kecanggihan perkakas rumah. Dalam karya ini, lampu elektrik dianggap sebagai perkakas rumah dan ia dikendalikan melalui tiga mod yang berbeza. Teknologi adalah proses yang tidak pernah berakhir, automasi rumah adalah bidang penyelidikan baru-baru ini, yang menjadikan pelanggan mencapai tahap kecanggihan yang seterusnya. Satu tahap seterusnya ditunjukkan dalam artikel ini. Makalah yang dicadangkan adalah mengenai reka bentuk, eksperimen dan pengujian kawalan tiga arah untuk lampu, menggunakan mikrokontroler kos rendah, modul Bluetooth dan aplikasi mudah alih android. Tiga mod kawalan tersebut ialah mod suis manual, mod Perintang Bergantung Cahaya (LDR) dan mod komunikasi Tanpa Wayar berasaskan Bluetooth. Karya ini pada mulanya disimulasikan menggunakan Proteus 8 Professional Application dan kemudian dilaksanakan sebagai model kerja masa nyata. Juga, prestasi kerja diuji menggunakan Simulasi dan model kerja yang dikembangkan. Kontrol dalam mod Bluetooth didasarkan pada Aplikasi Android. Aplikasi Android khusus dikembangkan untuk menguji model kerja yang dikembangkan, menggunakan MIT App Inventor.</p> Maswoodhur Rahman Abdul Wahidh, Muruganandam Masilamani Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1618 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 SERIES-SERIES AND SERIES-PARALLEL COMPENSATION TOPOLOGIES FOR DYNAMIC WIRELESS CHARGING https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1660 <p>Electric vehicles (EV) have gained worldwide attention since the implementation of a wireless power transfer (WPT) to charge their batteries. With WPT, it can be very convenient for EV to be charged dynamically. Nevertheless, there are some issues in dynamic WPT, such as maintaining the power transfer efficiency. Several factors that lead to these problems include disruption of the alignment and the optimum distance between the transmitter and receiver coils. It is thus contributing to the loss of power efficiency when charging the EV. Not to mention, manufacturers build different specifications of EV charging station for different types of EV models in order to meet customer demands. An incompatible charging device will not utilize EV wireless charging to its maximum potential. Hence, to improve the power output capability as well as stabilizing the maximum power transfer during the charging process, a compensation circuit is added to the system. This article focuses on comparing two available compensation circuits (series-series (SS) topology and series-parallel (SP) topology) under the application of dynamic wireless charging. The simulations are conducted using NI Multisim based on the relationship of power transfer efficiency with resonance frequency, coefficient of coupling, and the load resistance. The WPT efficiency for SP-topology shows that it is sensitive to the change of resonance frequency and coupling coefficient, whereas SS-topology maintains good efficiency during the WPT process. Nonetheless, SS-topology performance suffers efficiency loss when paired with a higher load, while SP-topology acts differently. This article will observe the best conditions on the selected compensation designs for better application in EV charging systems in a moving state.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kenderaan elektrik (EV) telah menarik perhatian dunia sejak pelaksanaan alih kuasa wayarles (WPT) bagi mengecas bateri. Melalui WPT, EV lebih mudah kerana ia boleh dicas secara dinamik. Namun, pengecasan dinamik WPT turut mengalami masalah, seperti mengimbang kecekapan pemindahan kuasa. Beberapa faktor yang membawa kepada masalah ini adalah kerana terdapat gangguan penjajaran dan jarak optimum antara gegelung pemancar dan penerima. Kerana ini, ia menyumbang kepada kehilangan kecekapan kuasa semasa mengecas EV. Pengeluar juga membina spesifikasi stesen pengisian EV berlainan mengikut jenis model EV demi memenuhi permintaan pelanggan. Namun, platform pengecas EV yang berbeza, tidak dapat mengecas EV secara wayarles dengan maksimum. Oleh itu, bagi membaiki keupayaan jana kuasa serta menstabilkan pengeluaran kuasa maksimum semasa proses pengecasan, litar gantian ditambah ke dalam sistem. Artikel ini memberi keutamaan pada dua litar gantian berbeza (topologi bersiri (SS) dan siri-selari (SP)) di bawah aplikasi pengecasan wayarles dinamik. Simulasi dibuat menggunakan NI Multisim mengikut kecekapan pemindahan kuasa dengan frekuensi resonan, pekali gandingan dan rintangan beban. Kecekapan WPT bagi topologi-SP menunjukkan ianya sensitif pada perubahan frekuensi resonan dan pekali gandingan. Manakala topologi-SS kekal cekap semasa proses WPT. Walau bagaimanapun, prestasi topologi-SS berkurangan ketika diganding dengan beban besar, begitu juga berbeza bagi topologi-SP. Artikel ini akan mengkaji keadaan terbaik pada reka bentuk gantian terpilih bagi aplikasi EV dalam sistem pengecasan bergerak.</p> Muhammad Amirul Asyraf Roslan, Nadia Nazieha Nanda, Siti Hajar Yusoff Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1660 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 ONLINE NEWS CLASSIFICATION USING MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1662 <p>A massive rise in web-based online content today pushes businesses to implement new approaches and resources that might support better navigation, processing, and handling of high-dimensional data. Over the Internet, 90% of the data is unstructured, and there are several approaches through which this data can translate into useful, structured data—classification is one such approach. Classification of knowledge into a good collection of groups is significant and necessary. As the number of machine-readable documents proliferates, automatic text classification is badly needed to classify these documents. Unlabeled documents are categorized into predefined classes of labeled documents using text labeling, a supervised learning technique. This paper reviewed some existing approaches for classifying online news articles and discusses a framework for the automatic classification of online news articles. For achieving high accuracy, different classifiers were tried. Our experimental method achieved 93% accuracy using a Bayesian classifier and present in terms of confusion metrics.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Peningkatan tinggi pada masa kini pada maklumat dalam talian berasaskan web menyebabkan kaedah baru dalam bisnes telah diguna pakai dan sumber sokongan seperti navigasi, proses, dan pengurusan data berdimensi-tinggi adalah perlu. 90% data di internet adalah data tidak berstruktur, dan terdapat pelbagai kaedah data ini dapat diterjemahkan kepada data berguna, lebih berstruktur — iaitu melalui kaedah klasifikasi. Klasifikasi ilmu kepada koleksi kumpulan baik adalah penting dan perlu. Seperti mana mesin-boleh baca dokumen berkembang pesat, teks klasifikasi automatik juga sangat diperlukan bagi mengklasifikasi dokumen-dokumen ini. Dokumen yang tidak dilabel dikategori sebagai pengelasan pratakrif dokumen berlabel melalui teks label, iaitu teknik pembelajaran berpenyelia. Kajian ini mengkaji semula pendekatan sedia ada bagi artikel berita dalam talian dan membincangkan rangka kerja bagi pengelasan automatik artikel berita dalam talian. Bagi menghasilkan ketepatan yang tinggi, kami menggunakan pelbagai alat klasifikasi. Kaedah eksperimen ini mempunyai ketepatan 93% menggunakan pengelas Bayesian dan data dibentangkan berdasarkan matriks kekeliruan.</p> Jeelani Ahmed, Muqeem Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1662 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 MACHINE-LEARNING-BASED EVALUATION OF CORROSION UNDER INSULATION IN FERROMAGNETIC STRUCTURES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1692 <p>Corrosion under insulation CUI is one of the challenging problems in pipelines used in the gas and oil industry as it is hidden and difficult to detect but can cause catastrophic accidents. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) techniques have been identified to be an effective non-destructive testing (NDT) method for both detecting and quantifying CUI. The PEC signal’s decay properties are generally used in the detection and quantification of CUI. Unfortunately, the well-known inhomogeneity of the pipe material’s properties and the presence of both cladding and insulation lead to signal variation that reduces the effectiveness of the measurement. Current PEC techniques typically use signal averaging in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), with the drawback of significantly-increasing inspection time. In this study, the use of Gaussian process regression (GPR) for predicting the thickness of mild carbon steel plates has been proposed and investigated with no signal averaging used. With mean absolute errors (MAE) of 0.21 mm, results show that the use of GPR provides more accurate predictions compared to the use of the decay coefficient, whose averaged MAE is 0.36 mm. This result suggests that the GPR-based method can potentially be used in PEC NDT applications that require fast scanning.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Hakisan di bawah penebat CUI adalah salah satu masalah yang mencabar dalam saluran paip yang digunakan dalam industri gas dan minyak kerana tersembunyi dan sukar dikesan tetapi boleh menyebabkan bencana. Teknik Pulsed eddy current (PEC) telah dikenal pasti sebagai kaedah ujian bukan pemusnah yang berkesan (NDT) untuk mengesan dan mengukur CUI. Sifat kerosakan isyarat PEC umumnya digunakan dalam pengesanan dan pengukuran CUI. Malangnya, sifat tidak tepat yang terkenal dari sifat bahan paip dan kehadiran pelapisan dan penebat menyebabkan variasi isyarat yang mengurangkan keberkesanan pengukuran. Teknik PEC semasa biasanya menggunakan rata-rata isyarat untuk meningkatkan nisbah isyarat-ke-kebisingan (SNR), dengan kelemahan peningkatan masa pemeriksaan dengan ketara. Dalam kajian ini, penggunaan regresi proses Gauss (GPR) untuk meramalkan ketebalan plat keluli karbon ringan telah diusulkan dan diselidiki dan tidak ada rata-rata isyarat yang digunakan. Dengan ralat mutlak (MAE) 0,21 mm, hasil menunjukkan bahawa penggunaan GPR memberikan ramalan yang lebih tepat dibandingkan dengan penggunaan pekali peluruhan, yang rata-rata MAE adalah 0,36 mm. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahawa kaedah berasaskan GPR berpotensi digunakan dalam aplikasi PEC NDT yang memerlukan pengimbasan pantas.</p> Ali Sophian, Faris Nafiah, Teddy Surya Gunawan, Nur Amalina Mohd Yusof , Ali Al-Kelabi Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1692 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 CLASSIFICATION OF CHEST RADIOGRAPHS USING NOVEL ANOMALOUS SALIENCY MAP AND DEEP CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1752 <p>The rapid advancement in pattern recognition via the deep learning method has made it possible to develop an autonomous medical image classification system. This system has proven robust and accurate in classifying most pathological features found in a medical image, such as airspace opacity, mass, and broken bone. Conventionally, this system takes routine medical images with minimum pre-processing as the model's input; in this research, we investigate if saliency maps can be an alternative model input. Recent research has shown that saliency maps' application increases deep learning model performance in image classification, object localization, and segmentation. However, conventional bottom-up saliency map algorithms regularly failed to localize salient or pathological anomalies in medical images. This failure is because most medical images are homogenous, lacking color, and contrast variant. Therefore, we also introduce the Xenafas algorithm in this paper. The algorithm creates a new kind of anomalous saliency map called the Intensity Probability Mapping and Weighted Intensity Probability Mapping. We tested the proposed saliency maps on five deep learning models based on common convolutional neural network architecture. The result of this experiment showed that using the proposed saliency map over regular radiograph chest images increases the sensitivity of most models in identifying images with air space opacities. Using the Grad-CAM algorithm, we showed how the proposed saliency map shifted the model attention to the relevant region in chest radiograph images. While in the qualitative study, it was found that the proposed saliency map regularly highlights anomalous features, including foreign objects and cardiomegaly. However, it is inconsistent in highlighting masses and nodules.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Perkembangan pesat sistem pengecaman corak menggunakan kaedah pembelajaran mendalam membolehkan penghasilan sistem klasifikasi gambar perubatan secara automatik. Sistem ini berupaya menilai secara tepat jika terdapat tanda-tanda patologi di dalam gambar perubatan seperti kelegapan ruang udara, jisim dan tulang patah. Kebiasaannya, sistem ini akan mengambil gambar perubatan dengan pra-pemprosesan minimum sebagai input. Kajian ini adalah tentang potensi peta salien dapat dijadikan sebagai model input alternatif. Ini kerana kajian terkini telah menunjukkan penggunaan peta salien dapat meningkatkan prestasi model pembelajaran mendalam dalam pengklasifikasian gambar, pengesanan objek, dan segmentasi gambar. Walau bagaimanapun, sistem konvensional algoritma peta salien jenis bawah-ke-atas kebiasaannya gagal mengesan salien atau anomali patologi dalam gambar-gambar perubatan. Kegagalan ini disebabkan oleh sifat gambar perubatan yang homogen, kurang variasi warna dan kontras. Oleh itu, kajian ini memperkenalkan algoritma Xenafas yang menghasilkan dua jenis pemetaan saliensi anomali iaitu Pemetaan Kebarangkalian Keamatan dan Pemetaan Kebarangkalian Keamatan Pemberat. Kajian dibuat pada peta salien yang dicadangkan iaitu pada lima model pembelajaran mendalam berdasarkan seni bina rangkaian neural konvolusi yang sama. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan dengan menggunakan peta salien atas gambar-gambar radiografi dada tetap membantu kesensitifan kebanyakan model dalam mengidentifikasi gambar-gambar dengan kelegapan ruang udara. Dengan menggunakan algoritma Grad-CAM, peta salien yang dicadangkan ini mampu mengalih fokus model kepada kawasan yang relevan kepada gambar radiografi dada. Sementara itu, kajian kualitatif ini juga menunjukkan algoritma yang dicadangkan mampu memberi ciri anomali, termasuk objek asing dan kardiomegali. Walau bagaimanapun, ianya tidak konsisten dalam menjelaskan berat dan nodul.</p> Mohd Adli Md Ali, Mohd Radhwan Abidin, Nik Arsyad Nik Muhamad Affendi, Hafidzul Abdullah, Daaniyal R. Rosman, Nu'man Barud'din, Faiz Kemi, Farid Hayati Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1752 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 Editorial https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2108 <h2 style="margin: 18.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">CHIEF EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ahmad Faris Ismail, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">TECHNICAL EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Sany Izan Ihsan, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">EXECUTIVE EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">AHM Zahirul Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">ASSOCIATE EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Nor Farahidah Za’bah, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin-left: 0cm; line-height: normal;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">LANGUAGE EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .1pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Lynn Mason, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 6.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">COPY EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 6.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">MALAY TRANSLATOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Nurul Arfah Che Mustapha, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"> </p> <h2 style="line-height: 10.75pt; margin: 12.0pt 0cm 6.0pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><a name="OLE_LINK2"></a><span lang="EN-US">Abdullah Al-Mamun, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Abdumalik Rakhimov, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ali Sophian, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Erwin Sulaeman, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hazleen Anuar, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Konstantin Khanin, University of Toronto, Canada</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ma'an Al-Khatib, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Md Zahangir Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Meftah Hrairi, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mohamed B. Trabia, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mohammad S. Alam, Texas A&amp;M University-Kingsville, United States </span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mustafizur Rahman, National University Singapore, Singapore</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ossama Abdulkhalik, Michigan Technological University, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Othman O Khalifa, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Razi Nalim, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Rosminazuin AB. Rahim, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Sharifah Imihezri Syed Shaharuddin, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Waqar Asrar, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 171.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <h1><strong>INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE</strong></h1> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Anwar, United States</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Abdul Latif Bin Ahmad, Malaysia</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Farzad Ismail, USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Hany Ammar, United States</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Idris Mohammed Bugaje, Nigeria</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">K.B. Ramachandran, India</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Kunzu Abdella, Canada</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Luis Le Moyne, ISAT, University of Burgundy, France</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">M Mujtaba, United Kingdom</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Mohamed AI-Rubei, Ireland</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Mohamed B Trabia, United States</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Syed Kamrul Islam, United States</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Tibor Czigany, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Yiu-Wing Mai, The University of Sydney, Australia.</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;"> </p> <h2 style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIMS &amp; SCOPE OF IIUM ENGINEERING JOURNAL</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: 5.6pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US">The <strong>IIUM Engineering Journal</strong>, published biannually (January and July), is a carefully refereed international publication of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). Contributions of high technical merit within the <span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">span </span>of engineering disciplines; covering the main <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">areas </span>of engineering: Electrical and <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">Computer </span>Engineering; Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Automation <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and</span> Mechatronics Engineering; Material and Chemical Engineering; Environmental <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and</span> Civil Engineering; Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Engineering Mathematics and Physics; and Computer Science and Information Technology are considered for publication in this journal. Contributions from <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">other areas </span>of Engineering <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and </span>Applied Science are also welcomed. The <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">IIUM </span>Engineering Journal publishes contributions under <em>Regular papers and Invited review papers</em>. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the specific challenges of the developing world, and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: 5.6pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.55pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">REFEREES’ NETWORK</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: 5.9pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: -.05pt; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US">All papers submitted to IIUM Engineering Journal will be subjected to a rigorous reviewing process through a worldwide network of specialized and competent referees. Each accepted paper should have at least two positive referees’ assessments.</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">SUBMISSION OF A MANUSCRIPT</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.7pt;"><span lang="EN-US">A manuscript should be submitted online to the IIUM-Engineering Journal website at </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-right: 6.05pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height: 98%;"><a href="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal"> <span style="font-size: small;">http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal</span></a><span style="font-size: small;">. Further correspondence on the status of the paper could be done through the journal website.</span></span></p> <div class="WordSection2"> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 113%; margin: 0cm 5.85pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Whilst every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisement herein are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher and the editorial committee accept no liability whatsoever for the consequence of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement.</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 113%; margin: 0cm 5.85pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;" align="center"><img src="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/../pub/ejournal/public/site/images/zahirul/image001.jpg" alt="" width="231" height="135" /></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; margin-bottom: 0;" align="center"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 13.0pt;">IIUM Engineering Journal</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; margin-bottom: 0;" align="center"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 9.0pt;">ISSN: 1511-788X E-ISSN: 2289-7860</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;" align="center"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> </div> <p><strong>Published by:</strong> <br /><strong>IIUM Press</strong>, <br />International Islamic University Malaysia <br />Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia <br />Phone (+603) 6421-5014, Fax: (+603) 6421-6298</p> AHM Zahirul Alam Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2108 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT PERCENTAGE BOILER ASH-BASED GEOPOLYMER IN LATERITE SOIL https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1589 <p>The waste generation of palm oil boiler ash has been one of its big problems as it is less used and deposited in landfills as a by-product. Geopolymer is a new green technology that has been intensively studied in concrete applications. However, few studies on geopolymers have been conducted in soil applications. Thus, this study investigated the influence of palm oil boiler ash-based geopolymer in laterite soil strength. Different percentages, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of geopolymer mixtures, were added to laterite soil. The process of producing a geopolymer binder was performed by sieving boiler ash (150 µm), then mixing with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na<sub>2</sub>SiO<sub>3</sub>) as an alkaline activator at a ratio of 1:2. This material effectiveness was tested through compaction test using a standard proctor, unconfined compressive strength, and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). 15% of geopolymer in laterite soil indicated the best-mixed design with a maximum dry density of 2.23 Mg/m<sup>3</sup> with a moisture content of 13.58%. The unconfined compressive strength test at curing times of zero, seven, and twenty-eight days on the LS-15.0 GPOBA sample, show a slightly increased strength of 47, 58, and 76 kPa, respectively. The SEM images proved that the geopolymer gel's development stabilized the soil structure from a loose structure to a denser soil structure. This study aims to investigate the influence of geopolymer in laterite soil. Boiler ash as an alternative material in geotechnical applications was studied to understand and develop new green alternative materials to sustain the environment from industrial waste and to enhance laterite soil properties.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Abu kelapa sawit adalah salah satu sisa utama yang terhasil dari industri kelapa sawit tetapi penggunaannya kurang dimanfaatkan dan dibuang ke tempat pembuangan sampah. Teknologi hijau baru yang dikenali sebagai geopolimer telah dikaji secara intensif dengan kekuatan konkrit tetapi hanya sedikit kajian telah dibuat dalam penggunaan tanah. Tujuan kajian ini adalah bagi mengesan geopolimer berasaskan abu kelapa sawit terhadap kekuatan tanah laterit. Peratusan campuran geopolimer yang berbeza (0, 5, 10, 15 dan 20%) dicampur pada tanah laterit. Bagi menghasilkan geopolimer, saiz 150 ?m abu kelapa sawit disintesis dengan kombinasi bahan kimia natrium hidroksida (NaOH) dan natrium silikat (Na<sub>2</sub>SiO<sub>3</sub>) pada nisbah 1:2 bagi semua campuran sebagai pengaktif alkali. Ujian terhadap keberkesanan bahan adalah melalui proses ujian pemampatan menggunakan proktor standard, kekuatan pemampatan tidak terbatas, dan Pengimbas Mikroskop Elektron (SEM). Berdasarkan dapatan ujian pemadatan, 15% geopolimer di tanah laterit menunjukkan campuran terbaik dengan memberikan kepadatan pengeringan maksimum 2.23 Mg/m<sup>3</sup> pada kelembapan 13.58%. Ujian kekuatan mampatan tidak terbatas pada masa pempolimeran sebanyak 0, 7 dan 28 hari diuji pada sampel LS-15.0GPOBA bagi menguji kekuatan campuran. Dapatan menunjukkan kekuatan geopolimer sedikit meningkat pada 47, 58 dan 76, masing-masing. Imej SEM membuktikan pengembangan gel geopolimer menstabilkan struktur tanah daripada struktur lopong kepada struktur tanah padat. Oleh itu, abu kelapa sawit berasaskan geopolimer dan tanah laterit berpotensi sebagai alternatif bagi merawat tanah dalam aplikasi geoteknik dan berpotensi mengurangkan kadar kebolehtelapan.</p> Atiqah Najwa Zainuddin, Mazidah Mukri, Diana Che Lat, Roslizayati Rosli, Noor Hidayu Abdul Rani Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1589 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 CHARACTERIZATION OF MORTAR WITH PENNISETUM PURPUREUM ASHES AS CEMENT REPLACEMENT MATERIAL https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1599 <p>In this study, the properties of mortar such as standard consistency, setting time, compressive strength, and water absorption rate were investigated. The cement was replaced with <em>Pennisetum purpureum</em> ashes (PPA) in different particle sizes and dosages. PPA was produced in greyish-white ash with total reactive oxides ranging from 37% to 41.1%. <em>Pennisetum purpureum</em> grass (PPG) was burned with a controlled process at 350 °C for the first 3 hours and 600 °C for another 3 hours at a heating rate of 10 °C/min. Then, PPG was ground in three different grinding durations (1, 3, and 6 hours) producing ashes with particle sizes of 10.58 µm, 10.25 µm, and 9.30 µm, respectively. The physical, chemical, and microstructural properties of PPA were evaluated through several tests; particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, loss on ignition, and chemical composition. Results indicated that PPA is more suitable for use as filling material as a substitute for cement than pozzolanic material as its reactive oxides are less than 50%. The 15% 6H-PPA at 28 days was found to be the optimum PPA replacement dosage and grinding time with cement as it achieved the highest strength and lower water absorption rate among all samples at 7 and 28 days.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini berkenaan sifat mortar seperti konsistensi standard, masa penyediaan, kekuatan menyeluruh, dan kadar penyerapan air. Simen ditukar dengan abu <em>Pennisetum purpureum</em> (PPA) dalam saiz partikel dan sukatan berbeza. PPA pula dihasilkan melalui habuk putih-kekelabuan dengan total reaktif oksida dengan julat purata 37% ke 41.1%. Rumput <em>Pennisetum purpureum</em> (PPG) dibakar dengan proses kawalan pada 350 °C selama 3 jam pertama dan 600 °C pada 3 jam berikutnya pada kadar pemanasan 10 °C/min. Kemudian, PPG dikisar dalam tiga tempoh kisaran berbeza (1, 3, dan 6 jam) menghasilkan abu dengan saiz partikel 10.58 µm, 10.25 µm, dan 9.30 µm, masing-masing. Fizikal, larutan kimia dan sifat struktur mikro PPA telah dikaji melalui pelbagai ujian; analisis saiz partikel, analisis pembelauan X-ray, kehilangan semasa penyalaan dan kandungan kimia. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan PPA adalah lebih sesuai digunakan sebagai material pengisian ganti kepada simen berbanding material pozzolanik kerana reaktif oksida adalah kurang daripada 50%. PPA adalah maksimum pada 15% 6H-PPA selama 28 hari, didapati lebih sesuai sebagai dos pengganti dan masa kisaran bersama simen, kerana kekuatan menyeluruh adalah paling tinggi dan kadar penyerapan air paling kurang antara semua sampel pada 7 dan 28 hari.</p> Mohd Haziman Wan Ibrahim , Mohammed Yahya Al-Fasih, Nik Nadia Amira Nik Pa, Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya, Muhammad Ikhsan Setiawan Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1599 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION OF SNAKE ROBOT IN SERPENTINE LOCOMOTION https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1691 <p>This paper presents multi-objective optimization for a snake robot with serpentine locomotion. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to achieve two objectives: minimizing the total <em>travelling time</em> and minimizing the total <em>energy consumption</em>. The effect of initial values of <em>winding angle</em> and <em>acceleration</em> on <em>energy consumption</em> and <em>average speed</em> is depicted. The simulation results show a periodic pattern of the joint torques when the robot maintains a serpenoid curve during travel. Moreover, a Pareto-optimal front was generated for optimal solutions of both of the objectives, while the weighted sum method was used for selecting the best solution. Finally, the simulation results were verified experimentally on an eight-link snake robot considering the limitations of the servomotors used in the experiment. The experimental results with the <em>winding angle of</em> 30° was found as the optimum <em>winding angle</em> that can achieve both objectives of minimizing the <em>energy consumption</em> and the <em>travelling time</em>.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini berkenaan pelbagai-objektif optimum bagi robot ular dengan gerakan serpentin. Algoritma genetik (GA) diguna bagi mencapai dua objektif ini iaitu mengurangkan jumlah masa gerakan dan guna tenaga. Gambaran kesan awal nilai sudut belitan dan pecutan pada guna tenaga dan purata kelajuan dihasilkan. Dapatan simulasi menunjukkan corak berkala tork sendi yang tetap terhasil semasa robot ini berkeadaan lengkung serpenoid ketika bergerak. Tambahan, Pareto-optimal berdepan terhasil bagi solusi optimum pada kedua-dua objektif, sementara kaedah berat campuran digunakan bagi menentukan solusi terbaik. Akhirnya, dapatan simulasi disahkan secara eksperimen pada robot ular lapan-bahagian dengan menimbangkan kekurangan servomotor yang digunakan dalam eksperimen. Dapatan eksperimen menunjukkan sudut belitan 30° adalah sudut belitan optimum bagi kedua-dua objektif iaitu mengurangkan tenaga dan masa gerakan.</p> Md Raisuddin Khan, Marwan Badran, Siti Fauziah , Zulkifly Bin Zainal Abidin Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1691 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 MODELLING A 1-DOF FINGER EXTENSOR MACHINE FOR HAND REHABILITATION https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1706 <p>It is essential to have an accurate representation of a robotic rehabilitation device in the form of a system model in order to design a robust controller for it. This paper presents mathematical modelling and validation through simulation and experimentation of the 1-DOF Finger Extensor rehabilitation machine. The machine’s design is based on an iris mechanism, built specifically for training open and close movements of the hand. The goal of this research is to provide an accurate model for the Finger Extensor by taking into consideration various factors affecting its dynamics and to present an experimental validation of the devised model. Dynamic system modelling of the machine is performed using Lagrangian formulation and the involved physical parameters are obtained experimentally. To validate the developed model and demonstrate its effectiveness, hardware-in-the-loop experiments are conducted in the Simulink-MATLAB environment. Mean absolute error between the simulated and experimental response is 1.38° and the relative error is 1.13%. The results obtained are found to be within the human motion resolution limits of 5 mm or 5º and exhibit suitability of the model for application in robotic rehabilitation systems. The model accurately replicates the actual behavior of the machine and is suitable for use in controller design.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Gambaran tepat mengenai model sistem peranti rehabilitasi robotik adalah sangat penting bagi pembangunan sesebuah reka bentuk alat kawalan tahan lasak. Kajian mengenai model matematik dan pengesahan melalui simulasi dan eksperimentasi mesin pemulihan 1-DOF ‘Finger Extensor’. Mesin ini direka bentuk berdasarkan mekanisme iris, dibangunkan khusus bagi melatih gerakan buka dan tutup tangan. Tujuan kajian ini adalah bagi menyediakan model Finger Extensor yang tepat dengan mengambil kira faktor mempengaruhi dinamik dan pengesahan model eksperimen yang dirancang. Model sistem dinamik mesin ini diuji menggunakan formula Lagrangian dan parameter fizikal yang terlibat diperoleh melalui eksperimen. Model ini disahkan dan diuji keberkesanannya menggunakan eksperimen Perkakasan-dalam-gelung melalui MATLAB-Simulink. Purata ralat mutlak antara dapatan simulasi dan respon eksperimen adalah 1.38° dan ralat relatif 1.13%. Dapatan kajian adalah dalam had resolusi gerakan tangan manusia iaitu 5 mm atau 5º dan didapati model ini sesuai bagi aplikasi sistem rehabilitasi robotik. Model ini tepat dalam mereplikasi kelakuan sebenar mesin dan sesuai digunakan bagi reka bentuk kawalan.</p> Ifrah Shahdad, Norsinnira Zainul Azlan, Ahmad Jazlan Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1706 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 SURFACE ROUGHNESS PREDICTION IN TURNING PROCESS BY APPLYING COMPUTER VISION METHOD https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1507 <p>This paper reports the utilization of computer vision and backlight techniques to determine the surface roughness of a workpiece under a variety of process parameters. A CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) camera was used to capture the image of the edge of the workpiece of the turned components using backlight technology to provide an edge roughness profile. The image was processed using SRVISION software developed in MATLAB to extract the profile of the workpiece and calculated the arithmetic average value of roughness (Ra) and root mean square roughness (Rq). The experiments are carried out with AISI 1045 (medium carbon steel), using various feed rates and cutting speeds, comparison is then made of the surface roughness values achieved through the conventional stylus probe method and the image processing technique. The comparison indicates that the vision method provides precise and consistent results with a correlation up to 0.99 with the traditional stylus method. The mean variations in Ra and Rq between the two methods were just 1.65 and 1.433 percent, respectively. As the vision method is a non-contact procedure, it can be significant potential for application without damaging the machined surfaces in the in-process inspection of the components as well as aids monitoring of the components in a shorter period.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini menggunakan visual komputer dan teknik cahaya belakang bagi memperoleh kekasaran permukaan sesuatu bahan pada pelbagai proses parameter. Kamera jenis CCD (Peranti Terganding-Cas) telah digunakan bagi memperoleh imej tepi bagi komponen yang dipusing menggunakan teknologi cahaya belakang bagi menghasilkan profil imej tepi yang jelas. Imej ini diproses menggunakan perisian SRVISION MATLAB bagi menghasilkan profil bahan dan purata kiraan kekasaran permukaan (Ra) dan punca purata kuasa dua kekasaran permukaan (Rq). Eksperimen dijalankan menggunakan AISI 1045 (besi karbon pertengahan), menggunakan pelbagai kadar suapan dan kelajuan potongan. Perbandingan kemudian dibuat pada nilai kekasaran permukaan yang diperoleh melalui kaedah prob jarum stilus konvensional dan melalui teknik pemprosesan imej. Perbandingan menunjukkan kaedah visual memberikan ketepatan dan dapatan konsisten yang munasabah dengan korelasi sehingga 0.99 dengan kaedah prob jarum stilus tradisi. Purata variasi pada nilai Ra dan Rq antara dua kaedah adalah sebanyak 1.65 dan 1.433 peratus, masing-masing. Adapun kaedah visual adalah prosedur tanpa-sentuh, ianya sesuai dijalankan tanpa merosakkan permukaan mesin dalam proses penilaian komponen, juga membantu mengawasi komponen dalam waktu singkat.</p> Osamah Fadhil Abdulateef, Omer Wathiq Taha Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1507 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 THE EFFECT OF LATERAL LIFTING TASKS ON HAND GRIP AND PINCH STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1547 <p>In lateral material handling tasks, which is very common in industries, warehouse systems, and other sectors, the workers can lead to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) because of the task and work designs, especially in upper extremities. WMSDs in hand, wrist, and fingers cause workers to have health problems, in pain and uncomfortable, hence decrease their working productivity and efficiency. The workstations distances are one of the factors that might affect workers when they perform manual material handling laterally, which can lead to WMSDs in hands. Hence, there is a need to study the relationship between transfer distances with the hand grip and pinch strengths. An experiment was carried out with 30 male participants to identify the relationship of lateral transfer distances with the hand grip and pinch strengths. The results obtained from the experiment were further investigated and analysed by using repeated measure one-way MANOVA and graphs. The results had proved that in the distances of 1.0 m, 1.25 m and 1.5 m did not affect one’s hand grip and pinch strengths. But, the postures and movements were varied based on distances.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Pengangkutan barang atau bahan secara lateral amat biasa dalam industri, gudang dan sektor-sektor lain, dan kerja ini akan menyebabkan pekerja menghadapi penyakit gangguan muskuloskeletal berkaitan kerja (WMSDs) terutamanya di bahagian tangan. WMSDs yang melibatkan tangan dan jari menyebabkan pekerja mempunyai masalah kesihatan secara kekal dan mengalami kesakitan serta tidak-keselesaan. Secara tidak langsung, masalah ini telah mengurangkan prestasi mereka ketika bekerja. Syarikat terpaksa memberi bayaran yang tinggi kepada pekerja untuk kos perubatan and mengalami kerugian besar kerana pekerja yang tidak datang bekerja disebabkan penyakit tersebut. Jarak antara dua stesen kerja adalah faktor yang menyebabkan penyakit ini dihadapi oleh pekerja. Oleh itu, kajian diperlukan untuk mengkaji hubungan antara jarak dan kekuatan genggaman tangan serta jari. Satu esperimen yang melibatkan 30 orang lelaki responden telah dijalankan untuk mengenal pasti hubungan antara jarak dan ganggaman tangan serta jari. Hasil daripada esperimen telah dikaji dan dianalisiskan dengan menggunakan MANOVA dan grafs. Hasil kajian telah membuktikan bahawa jarak dalam 1.0m, 1.25m dan 1.5m tidak membawa apa-apa kesan terhadap genggaman tangan dan jari. Cara dan pergerakan responden adalah berbeza dan disebabkan oleh jarak, walaubagaimanapun, cara dan pergerakan responden tidak membawa sebarang kesan terhadap kekuatan genggaman tangan dan jari mereka.</p> Joe Yee Tan, Azrul Azwan Bin Abdul Rahman, Nadiah Binti Ahmad, Arfauz Bin A.Rahman Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1547 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 EFFECT OF MACHINING PARAMETERS ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS, POWER CONSUMPTION, AND MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE OF ALUMINIUM 6065-SI-MWCNT METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE IN TURNING OPERATIONS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1640 <p>Nanocomposites were prepared with Al-6065-Si and multi walled carbon nanotubes of 1 wt.% as reinforcement through the stir-casting method. Fabricated nanocomposites were machined on a lathe machine using a tungsten carbide tool. The study investigated the multi-objective optimization of the turning operation. Cutting velocity, feed, and depth of cut were considered for providing minimum Surface Roughness of the workpiece. Also, the power consumed by the lathe machine with maximum metal removal rate was examined by surface response methodology. The design of experiments was developed based on rotational central composite design. Analysis of variance was executed to investigate the adequacy and the suitable fit of the developed mathematical models. Multiple regression models were used to represent the relationship between the input and the desired output variables. The analysis indicates that the feed is the most influential factor that effects the surface roughness of the workpiece. Cutting speed and the depth of cut are two other important factors that proportionally influence the power consumed by the lathe tool as compared to the feed rate.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Komposit nano disediakan bersama Al-6065-Si dan karbon nanotiub berbilang dinding sebanyak 1 wt.% sebagai bahan penguat melalui kaedah kacauan-tuangan. Komposit nano yang terhasil melalui mesin pelarik ini menggunakan alat tungsten karbida. Kajian ini merupakan pengoptimuman pelbagai objektif operasi pusingan. Kelajuan potongan, suapan dan kedalaman potongan diambil kira sebagai pemberian minimum pada kekasaran permukaan bahan kerja. Tenaga yang digunakan bagi mesin pelarik dengan kadar maksimum penyingkiran logam diteliti melalui kaedah tindak balas permukaan. Rekaan eksperimen yang dibangunkan ini adalah berdasarkan rekaan komposit pusingan tengah. Analisis varian telah dijalankan bagi mengkaji kecukupan dan penyesuaian lengkap bagi model matematik yang dibangunkan. Model regresi berganda digunakan bagi menunjukkan hubungan antara input dan pembolehubah output yang dikehendaki. Analisis menunjukkan pemberian suapan merupakan faktor mempengaruhi keberkesanan kekasaran permukaan bahan kerja. Kelajuan pemotongan dan kedalaman potongan adalah dua faktor penting lain yang mempengaruhi kadar langsung ke atas tenaga yang digunakan oleh mesin pelarik dibandingkan kadar pemberian suapan.</p> Savina Jaddinagadhe Puttaswamy, Raghavendra Bommanahalli Venkatagiriyappa Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1640 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 POTENTIAL OF FABRICATION OF DURIAN SKIN FIBER BIOCOMPOSITES FOR FOOD PACKAGING APPLICATION THROUGH THE ELECTRICITY IMPACT ANALYSIS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1673 <p>As an effort to replace the petroleum-based polymers and reduce waste-related environmental problems, biopolymers are the best candidate due to their renewable, biodegradable and commercially viable. Initiative have been taken by developing durian skin fibre (DSF) reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) biocomposites with the addition of epoxidized palm oil (EPO). PLA/DSF biocomposites were fabricated via extrusion and then injection moulded. The biocomposites were assessed for its life cycle by developing a system boundary related to its fabrication processes using GaBi software. The life cycle assessment (LCA) of PLA/DSF biocomposites show that global warming potential (GWP) and acidification potential (AP) were the major impacts from PLA/DSF biocomposite. For PLA/DSF biocomposite, the results were 199.37 kg CO<sub>2</sub> equiv. GWP and 0.58 kg SO<sub>2</sub> equiv. AP. Meanwhile, for PLA/DSF/EPO biocomposite, the results obtained were 195.89 kg CO<sub>2</sub> equiv. GWP and 0.57 kg SO<sub>2</sub> equiv. AP. The GWP and AP were contributed by the electricity used in the fabrication of biocomposites. These impacts were due to the usage of electricity, which contributed to the emission of CO<sub>2</sub>. However, the PLA/DSF/EPO biocomposite had lower negative impacts because EPO improved the workability and processability of the biocomposite, and hence, reduced the amount of energy required for production. It can be concluded that the plasticized PLA/DSF biocomposite can be a potential biodegradable food packaging material as it has favourable properties and produces no waste.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Biopolimer adalah terbaik dalam usaha mengganti polimer berasaskan-petroleum dalam mengurang masalah pencemaran-sisa. Ini kerana biopolimer boleh diperbaharui, biodegradasi dan sangat maju secara komersial. Inisiatif telah diambil dengan menghasilkan sabut kulit durian (DSF) bersama biokomposit asid polilaktik (PLA) dengan penambahan minyak kelapa sawit terepoksi (EPO). Biokomposit PLA/DSF direka melalui kaedah pemyemperitan dan acuan suntikan. Biokomposit ini dipantau kitar hidupnya dengan membina sistem sempadan berkaitan proses rekaan menggunakan perisian GaBi. Pengawasan kitar hidup (LCA) biokomposit PLA/DSF menunjukkan potensi pemanasan global (GWP) dan potensi pengasidan (AP) menyebabkan impak terbesar komposit PLA/DSF. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan 199.37 kg CO<sub>2</sub> bagi GWP dan 0.58 kg SO<sub>2</sub> bagi AP bagi biokomposit PLA/DSF. Sementara itu, dapatan kajian bagi biokomposit PLA/DSF/EPO adalah 195.89 kg CO<sub>2</sub> bagi GWP dan 0.57 kg SO<sub>2</sub> bagi AP. Kedua-dua GWP dan AP adalah disebabkan oleh penggunaan elektrik dalam proses pembuatan biokomposit. Ini adalah kesan daripada penggunaan elektrik, dan menyumbang kepada pembebasan CO<sub>2</sub>. Walau bagaimanapun, biokomposit PLA/DSF/EPO mempunyai kurang kesan negatif, kerana EPO telah menambah baik kebolehkerjaan dan kebolehprosesan biokomposit, menyebabkan kurang tenaga yang diperlukan dalam proses pembuatan. Kesimpulannya plastik biokomposit PLA/DSF berpotensi sebagai bahan biodegradasi bagi pembungkus makanan kerana ianya mempunyai ciri-ciri yang diperlukan dan tidak menghasilkan sisa buangan.</p> Hazleen Anuar, Siti Munirah Salimah Abd Rashid, Nurfarahin Mohd. Nordin, Fathilah Ali, Yose Fachmi Buys, Sabu Thomas, Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir, Syazeven Effatin Azma Mohd Asri Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1673 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 MODEL ANALYZING FOR REUSING GOLD WIRE CAPILLARY IN THE GOLD WIRE BONDING PROCESS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1715 <p>Manufacturing process improvement is necessary for manufacturers to gain business advantages. Re-using or increasing the useful lives of machine parts is considered to be a process of performance improvement. To re-use parts, the manufacturers must know the effects of the factors related to workpieces' qualities to prevent defects. This research study aims at presenting the results of analysing the effects of the factors and mathematical models for bond shear strength when reusing gold wire bonding capillary in the gold wire bonding process of integrated circuit (IC) products using design experiment. The operation factors in the reference experiment, including bond force, bond time, USG current, EFO current and EFO gap, are investigated. The Fractional Factorial Design was used to determine five factors that affect the bond shear strength. The analysis of the results show that the bond force is a significant factor where increasing bond force factors leads to increasing bond shear strength. In the end, a Regression model of bond shear strength is obtained to show the result between the bond shear strength and effect of factors.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Proses pembaharuan pengilangan adalah penting untuk para pengilang bagi memperoleh keuntungan bisnes. Guna-semula atau menambah jangka hayat pada bahagian-bahagian tertentu pada mesin adalah dianggar sebahagian proses penambahbaikan prestasi mesin. Bagi mengguna semula bahagian-bahagian ini, pengilang mesti mengetahui akibat sesuatu faktor berkaitan kualiti bahan bagi mengelak kecacatan. Kajian ini bertujuan menyampaikan dapatan kajian melalui kesan faktor dan model matematik pada kekuatan ricihan ikatan apabila mengguna semula wayar emas melalui proses kapilari ikatan wayar emas pada produk litar bersepadu melalui rekaan eksperimen. Faktor operasi melalui rujukan eksperimen dari daya ikatan, masa ikatan, arus USG, arus EFO dan jarak EFO dikaji. Rekaan Faktorial Pecahan digunakan bagi mendapatkan lima faktor yang mempengaruhi kekuatan ricihan ikatan. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan daya ikatan merupakan faktor penting di mana, pertambahan faktor daya ikatan menguatkan ricihan ikatan. Akhirnya, model Regression kekuatan ricihan ikatan diperoleh bagi menjelaskan dapatan kajian antara kekuatan ricihan ikatan dan kesan faktor.</p> Chatpon Phimpha, Sombat Sindhuchao Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1715 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, WATER ABSORPTION, AND FAILURE ANALYSES OF KENAF FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY MATRIX COMPOSITES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1747 <p>The potential of natural fibers as one of the candidate materials in the production of fiber-reinforced polymer composites have been widely investigated. In the current study, natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite was fabricated by employing woven kenaf fiber as a reinforcing agent with epoxy resin that acts as a matrix constituent. This composite sample was fabricated using the application of the vacuum infusion method in which the content of kenaf fibers was varied from 30 vol.%, 40 vol.%, and 50 vol.%. The effects of different fiber loadings toward mechanical and physical properties as well as failure properties of kenaf composite were then evaluated. Kenaf composites were subjected to mechanical tests including tensile and flexural tests. The result shows that the highest tensile strength and modulus were attained at 76.67 MPa and 2.31 GPa, respectively with kenaf composite fabricated with 40 vol.% fiber content. Meanwhile, the highest flexural strength and modulus were recorded at 61.24 MPa and 4.20 GPa, also corresponding to kenaf composite that is loaded with 40 vol.% fibers. Fiber pull-out failure was able to be detected in fabricated kenaf composites. Meanwhile, fiber breakage resulting from flexural failure could also be observed in the kenaf composite samples. Apart from that, it was found that as more kenaf fiber was loaded in the composites, the rate of water absorption tended to increase where the highest rate of water absorption was found at 43.33%, displayed by kenaf composite with 50 vol.% of fiber content.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Potensi gentian semula jadi sebagai salah satu bahan dalam penghasilan komposit polimer bertetulang gentian telah banyak dikaji. Dalam kajian terkini, komposit polimer yang diperkuat dengan gentian semula jadi dibuat dengan menggunakan serat kenaf tenunan sebagai agen penguat dan resin epoksi yang bertindak sebagai matriks. Sampel komposit ini dibuat menggunakan kaedah infusi vakum di mana kandungan serat kenaf digunakan adalah 30 vol.%, 40 vol.%, dan 50 vol.%. Kesan kandungan serat yang berbeza terhadap sifat mekanikal dan fizikal serta sifat kegagalan komposit kenaf kemudiannya dinilai. Komposit Kenaf diuji dengan ujian tegangan dan lenturan. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahawa kekuatan tegangan dan modulus tertinggi dicapai pada 76.67 MPa dan 2.31 GPa, milik komposit kenaf yang dibuat dengan kandungan serat 40 vol.%. Sementara itu, kekuatan dan modulus lenturan tertinggi dicatatkan pada 61.24 MPa dan 4.20 GPa juga milik komposit kenaf yang dimuatkan dengan serat 40% vol. Kegagalan serat terkeluar dapat dikesan pada komposit kenaf buatan. Sementara itu, kerosakan serat akibat kegagalan lenturan juga dapat dilihat pada sampel komposit kenaf. Selain itu, didapati bahawa semakin banyak serat kenaf yang dimuatkan dalam komposit, cendurung meningkatkan kadar penyerapan air di mana kadar penyerapan air tertinggi didapati pada 43.33% yang ditunjukkan oleh komposit kenaf dengan kandungan serat 50% vol.</p> Ikhwan Yusuff, Norshahida Sarifuddin, Siti Norbahiyah Mohamad Badari, Afifah Mohd Ali Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1747 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FLOWING LUBRICATING COOLING LIQUIDS USED IN THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1768 <p><strong> </strong>In this paper, the effect of magnetic field on lubricating cooling liquids, which are used in the cutting process in manufacturing, was studied. We chose three different lubricating cooling liquids that are commonly used in local manufacturing factories to conduct the experiment. Three main properties of these lubricoolants, boiling point, kinematic viscosity, and density, were analysed after magnetizing them. The magnetization processes were conducted in two conditions of liquids. At the first stage, the authors magnetized the liquids in stationary conditions; at the second stage, they magnetized the flowing liquids and analysed the difference among all the obtained results. This article shows the results of the comparisons and analyses the magnetic field influence on different types of fluids. Moreover, the paper investigates the dependence of magnetic field strength on the influence of magnetic field on liquids. It was found that the examined three parameters of liquids were changed after magnetic field treatment. The finding of this research offered a simple approach to improve the lubricating and cooling process in machining details in manufacturing.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Dalam makalah ini, pengaruh medan magnet pada cecair pendingin pelincir, yang digunakan dalam proses pemotongan dalam pembuatan, telah dikaji. Kami memilih tiga cecair penyejuk pelincir berbeza yang biasa digunakan di kilang pembuatan tempatan untuk menjalankan eksperimen. Tiga sifat utama pelincir ini seperti takat didih, kelikatan kinematik, dan ketumpatan dianalisis setelah memagnetkannya. Proses pembesaran dilakukan dalam dua keadaan cecair. Pada peringkat pertama, kami memagnetkan cecair dalam keadaan pegun dan membandingkan hasilnya; pada peringkat kedua, kami memagnetkan cecair semasa mengalir dan menganalisis perbezaan antara hasil yang diperoleh. Artikel menunjukkan hasil perbandingan ini dan menganalisis pengaruh medan magnet pada pelbagai jenis cecair. Lebih-lebih lagi, makalah ini meneliti pergantungan kekuatan medan magnet terhadap pengaruh medan magnet pada cecair. Didapati bahawa tiga parameter cecair yang diperiksa diubah setelah rawatan medan magnet. Penemuan penyelidikan ini menawarkan pendekatan mudah untuk meningkatkan proses pelinciran dan penyejukan dalam perincian mesin dalam pembuatan.</p> Umarov Erkin, Umidjon Mardonov, Khusniddin Abdirakhmonov, Abdugani Eshkulov, Behzod Rakhmatov Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1768 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 ACOUSTIC WAVE PROPAGATION IN HIGH SCALE IMPEDANCE MISMATCH MEDIUMS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1563 <p>A finite element analysis of acoustic propagation in a multilayered medium is presented in this paper. A circular transmitter (diameter 14 mm, thickness 3 mm) and a rectangular receiver (20×10×0.5 mm<sup>3</sup>) are set to detect the variations in the propagation pattern. A complex medium (70×40×60 mm<sup>3</sup>) composed of skin, fat, muscle, bone and liquid is designed in a simulated environment. A scale of frequencies (10 kHz to 2 MHz) is applied to trace the impact on the propagation pattern as well. It is found from the analysis that fat and liquid layers affect the acoustic propagation the most (-69 dB), which results in a significant drop in the received sound pressure level at the receiving end. Again, other than skin and fat layers, low frequencies (less than 1 MHz) are more beneficial in terms of sound pressure level. However, higher frequencies contribute to lower displacements at the receiving end, which will cause less power potential as well.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Analisis elemen terhingga bagi penyebaran akustik dalam medium berlapis dibentangkan dalam kajian ini. Pemancar bulat (diameter 14 mm, ketebalan 3 mm) dan penerima segi empat tepat (20 × 10 × 0.5 mm<sup>3</sup>) diatur bagi mengesan perubahan pola penyebaran. Medium kompleks (70 × 40 × 60 mm<sup>3</sup>) yang terdiri daripada kulit, lemak, otot, tulang dan cecair direka dalam persekitaran simulasi. Skala frekuensi (10 kHz hingga 2 MHz) digunakan bagi mengesan corak penyebaran. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa lapisan lemak dan cecair mempengaruhi penyebaran akustik (-69 dB), yang mengakibatkan penurunan mendadak tahap penerimaan tekanan bunyi di hujung penerima. Selain lapisan kulit dan lemak, frekuensi rendah (kurang dari 1 MHz) adalah lebih berguna dari segi tahap tekanan suara. Walau bagaimanapun, frekuensi lebih tinggi menyebabkan kurang anjakan di hujung penerima, sekaligus mengurangkan potensi daya tenaga.</p> Md Rabiul Awal, Muzammil Jusoh, Muhammad Syarifuddin Yahya, Salisa Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Nazri Dagang, Nurul Adilah Abdul Latiff, Hidayatul Aini Zakaria, Shakir Saat Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1563 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 ENHANCEMENT OF THE CALORIFIC VALUE OF EM1707PTY FRUIT BUNCH (EFB) BY ADDING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AS SOLID FUEL IN GASIFICATION PROCESS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1566 <p>Empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass-based waste, was deemed a potential replacement for fossil fuel. It is renewable and carbon neutral. The efficient management of this potential energy will help to deal with the problem associated with fossil fuels. However, a key parameter for evaluating the quality of raw material (EFB) as a fuel in energy applications is the calorific value (CV). When this CV is low, then its potential utilization as feedstock will be restricted. To tackle this shortcoming, we propose to add municipal solid waste to enhance energetic value. Thus, two major issues will be solved: managing solid residues and contributing an alternative energy source. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of mixing EFB and municipal solid waste (MSW) to make clean energy that is conscious of the environment (climate change) and sustainable development. The selected MSW, comprising of plastics, textiles, foam, and cardboard, were mixed, with EFB at various ratios. Proximate analysis was used to determine moisture content, ash, volatiles, and fixed carbon, whilst elemental analysis, is used to determine CHNS/O for MSW, EFB and their various mixtures. The CV of each element was also measured. The research revealed a significant increase in the calorific value of EFB by mixing it with MSW according to MSW/EFB ratios: 0.25; 0.42; 0.66; 1.00 and 1.50 the corresponding calorific values in (MJ/kg) were 19.77; 21.22; 22.67; 27.04 and 28.47 respectively. While the calorific value of pure EFB was 16.86 MJ/kg, the mixing of EFB with MSW promoted the increase in the CV of EFB to an average of 23.83MJ/kg. Another potential environmental benefit of applying this likely fuel was the low chlorine (0.21 wt. % to 0.95 wt. %) and sulfur concentrations (0.041 wt. % to 0.078 wt.%). This potential fuel could be used as solid refuse fuel (SRF) or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in a pyrolysis or gasification process with little to no environmental effects.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Tandan buah kosong (EFB), sisa berasaskan biojisim, adalah berpotensi sebagai pengganti bahan bakar fosil. Ia boleh diperbaharui dan karbon neutral. Pengurusan berkesan pada potensi tenaga ini dapat membantu mengatasi masalah melibatkan bahan bakar fosil. Namun, kunci parameter bagi menilai kualiti bahan mentah (EFB) sebagai bahan bakar dalam aplikasi tenaga adalah nilai kalori (CV). Apabila CV rendah, potensi menjadi stok suapan adalah terhad. Sebagai penyelesaian, kajian ini mencadangkan sisa pepejal bandaran ditambah bagi meningkatkan nilai tenaga. Oleh itu, dua isu besar dapat diselesaikan: mengurus sisa pepejal dan menambah sumber tenaga alternatif. Kajian ini bertujuan mengkaji potensi campuran tandan buah kosong (EFB) dan sisa pepejal bandaran (MSW) bagi menghasilkan tenaga bersih dari sudut persekitaran (perubahan iklim) dan pembangunan lestari. Pemilihan MSW, terdiri daripada plastik, tekstil, gabus dan kadbod, dicampurlan dengan pelbagai nisbah EFB. Analisis proksimat telah digunakan bagi mendapatkan kandungan kelembapan, abu, ruapan, dan karbon tetap, manakala analisis asas telah digunakan bagi mendapatkan CHNS/O bersama MSW, EFB dan pelbagai campuran lain. Nilai kalori (CV) setiap elemen turut diukur. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan penambahan ketara dalam nilai kalori EFB dengan campuran bersama MSW berdasarkan nisbah MSW/EFB 0.25; 0.42; 0.66; 1.00 dan 1.50 nilai kalori sepadan (MJ/kg) adalah 19.77; 21.22; 22.67; 27.04 dan 28.47 masing-masing. Manakala nilai kalori EFB tulen adalah 16.86 MJ/kg, campuran EFB dan MSW menunjukkan kenaikan CV dengan EFB pada purata 23.83MJ/kg. Antara potensi semula jadi lain adalah dengan mencampurkan bahan bakar ini dengan kalori rendah (0.21 wt. % kepada 0.95 wt. %) dan kepekatan sulfur (0.041 wt. % kepada 0.078 wt.%). Bahan bakar ini berpotensi sebagai bahan bakar pepejal sampah (SRF) atau bahan bakar yang terhasil dari pepejal sampah (RDF) melalui proses pirolisis atau proses gasifikasi yang sedikit atau tiada kesan langsung terhadap persekitaran.</p> Amadou Dioulde Donghol Diallo, Ma’an Fahmi Rashid Alkhatib, Md Zahangir Alam, Maizirwan Mel Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1566 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 MICROWAVE IRRADIATION OPTIMIZATION FOR EFFICIENT LIGNIN REMOVAL FROM COCOA SHELL WASTE USING ALKALI https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1608 <p>This paper reports a study to determine the optimum conditions of microwave in assisting alkali treatment for removing lignin from cocoa shell waste (CSW). The CSW was mixed with 5% of NaOH solution at the ratio of 1: 10 of weight to volume of the alkaline before being irradiated in a microwave oven. Various microwave powers (200-400 W), temperature settings (60-80 °C) and irradiation times (10-20 min) were tested on 15 samples set by the Box-Behnken design. The lignin removal was analysed using a 72 % sulfuric acid treatment method. A quadratic equation was employed to the response surface and statistical analysis conducted to confirm the adequacy of the model. The plots show that the optimum microwave conditions are 400 W, 76 °C and 19 min, which were capable to remove 86.57% of lignin. Thermogravimetric analysis and micrographs revealed different decomposition temperature of lignin and morphology of extensively-pored surface of treated CSW, respectively.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini adalah berkaitan penentuan keadaan optimal ketuhar gelombang mikro bagi membantu menyingkirkan lignin daripada sisa kulit biji koko (CSW) menggunakan rawatan alkali. CSW dicampurkan dengan larutan NaOH 5 % pada nisbah 1:10 berat kepada isipadu larutan alkali sebelum campuran dipanaskan ke dalam ketuhar gelombang mikro. Pelbagai keadaan ujian dibuat pada ketuhar gelombang mikro seperti tenaga (200-400 W), suhu ketuhar (60-80 °C) dan masa pemanasan (10-20 min) ke atas 15 sampel mengikut reka bentuk statistik Box-Behnken. Kadar penyingkiran lignin ditentukan dengan menggunakan kaedah rawatan larutan asid sulfurik berkepekatan 72 %. Persamaan kuadratik telah digunakan ke atas permukaan respon dan analisis statistik telah dilakukan bagi memastikan kesesuaian model. Plot-plot menunjukkan keadaan optima ketuhar gelombang mikro adalah pada 400 W, 76 °C dan 19 min iaitu berupaya menyingkirkan sebanyak 86.57% lignin. Analisis thermogravimetri dan mikrograf masing-masing menunjukkan perbezaan suhu penguraian lignin dan morfologi permukaan CSW yang dirawat didapati berliang dengan banyaknya.</p> Farah Hafidzah Ahmad, Nurhamizah Ibrahim, Mohd Sabri Mahmud, Waleed Ali Murshed Hasan Alhadadi, Suriyati Salleh, Said Nurdin Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1608 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 ADSORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE ONTO ACTIVATED CARBON DEVELOPED FROM BAOBAB FRUIT SHELL BY CHEMICAL ACTIVATION: KINETIC EQUILIBRIUM STUDIES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1682 <p>This article provides results of the usability of baobab fruit shell to produce activated carbons by chemical activation using ZnCl<sub>2</sub>, H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>, and KOH. This study indicated that activated carbon produced from baobab fruit shell fruit can be used as a promising adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. Significant changes on the material surface following the activation process were observed through SEM and FTIR analyses. Scanning electron micrographs of BFS-ACs showed that porous structures were formed during activation, while the FTIR results indicated that the carbons have abundant functional groups on the surface. KOH activation led an activated carbon with a high methylene blue adsorption of 95.54% and maximum adsorption capacity of 113.63 mg/g, which is directly related to the specific surface area of activated carbons. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The Langmuir isotherm model showed better fit to the equilibrium data than the Freundlich model. The adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics. The BFS-ACs is an effective and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MB from an aqueous solution.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini memberi input tentang kebolehgunaan kulit buah baobab bagi menghasilkan karbon teraktifan melalui aktiviti kimia menggunakan ZnCl<sub>2</sub>, H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>, dan KOH. Karbon aktif daripada kulit buah Baobab ini berpotensi sebagai penyerap bagi menyingkir larutan akueus metilin biru. Perubahan ketara pada permukaan bahan diikuti dengan proses pengaktifan dipantau melalui analisis SEM dan FTIR. Imbasan elektron mikrograf BFS-AC menunjukkan struktur porus terhasil semasa proses pengaktifan. Sementara dapatan FTIR menunjukkan karbon mempunyai banyak kumpulan berfungsi pada permukaan. Pengaktifan KOH menghasilkan karbon aktif menggunakan larutan biru metilin yang tinggi sebanyak 95.54% dan kapasiti maksimum penyerapan 113.63 mg/g, iaitu berkadar langsung dengan tumpuan kawasan permukaan karbon aktif berkaitan. Data isoterma penyerapan dibina pada model penyerapan Langmuir dan Freundlich. Model isoterma Langmuir lebih padan pada data keseimbangan berbanding model Freundlich. Proses penyerapan menunjukkan lebih kinetik order-kedua-pseudo. BFS-AC sangat efektif dan penyerap murah bagi membuang MB daripada larutan akues.</p> Radhia Nedjai, Ma’an Fahmi Rashid Alkhatib, Md Zahangir Alam, Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1682 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 CYTOTOXICITY EFFECT OF IONIC LIQUID-GRAVIOLA FRUIT (ANNONA MURICATA) EXTRACT TO HUMAN COLON CANCER (HT29) CELL LINES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1687 <p>The present study aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative effect of the ionic liquid-Graviola fruit (IL-GFE) extract on colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell lines and their kinetics behaviour to assess the Graviola fruit potential as a therapeutic alternative in cancer treatment. The phytoconstituents content of IL-GFE was identified using GC-TOFMS apparatus and measured its cytotoxicity on HT29 by tetrazolium bromide. Then the cytokinetic behaviour of the treated HT29 cells with IL-GFE was illustrated using the cells' growth curve. Besides, the cell cycle phase perturbation for the treated HT29 was applied using a flow cytometry technique. Qualitative identification of phytoconstituents of IL-GFE showed that Graviola fruit contains acetogenins, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins compounds. IL-GF extract displayed a cytotoxicity effect on HT29 cells with the IC<sub>50</sub> value of 10.56 µg/mL, while Taxol showed an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 1.22 µg/mL. IL-GFE also decreased the cell generation number from 3.93 to 2.96 generations compared to Taxol-treated cells 2.01 generations. The microscope observation of the HT29 cells treated with the crude IL-GFE displayed loss of density and cell detachment. The extract's growth inhibition was related to the cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. IL-GFE inhibited colon adenocarcinoma HT29 cells' proliferation and affected their kinetic behaviour by lowering cell viability, inducing apoptosis, and arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kesan anti-proliferatif ekstrak buah-ion Graviola (IL-GFE) pada garis sel adenokarsinoma kolon (HT29) dan tingkah laku kinetik mereka untuk menilai potensi buah Graviola sebagai alternatif terapi untuk barah rawatan. Kandungan fitokonstituen IL-GFE dikenal pasti menggunakan alat GC-TOFMS dan mengukur sitotoksisitasnya pada HT29 oleh tetrazolium bromida. Kemudian tingkah laku sitokinetik sel HT29 yang dirawat dengan IL-GFE digambarkan menggunakan keluk pertumbuhan sel. Selain itu, gangguan fasa kitaran sel untuk HT29 yang dirawat diaplikasikan menggunakan teknik sitometri aliran. Pengenalpastian kualitatif fitokonstituen IL-GFE menunjukkan bahawa buah Graviola mengandungi asetogenin, alkaloid, flavonoid, tanin dan sebatian saponin. Ekstrak IL-GF memperlihatkan kesan sitotoksisiti pada sel HT29 dengan nilai IC<sub>50</sub> 10.56 µg/mL, sementara Taxol menunjukkan nilai IC<sub>50 </sub>1.22 µg/mL. IL-GFE juga menurunkan jumlah penjanaan sel dari 3.93 hingga 2.96 generasi berbanding sel yang dirawat Taxol 2.01 generasi. Pemerhatian mikroskop sel HT29 yang dirawat dengan IL-GFE kasar menunjukkan kehilangan ketumpatan dan detasmen sel. Perencatan pertumbuhan ekstrak berkaitan dengan penangkapan kitaran sel pada fasa G0/G1. IL-GFE menghalang percambahan sel HT29 adenokarsinoma kolon dan mempengaruhi tingkah laku kinetik mereka dengan menurunkan daya maju sel, mendorong apoptosis, dan menghentikan kitaran sel pada fasa G0/G1.</p> Djabir Daddiouaissa, Azura Amid, Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi, Ahmed Adam Mohammed Elnour, Mohamad Adika Khairy Bin Mohd Shaifudin Epandy Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1687 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 INVESTIGATION OF MULTI-ZONE MODELS FOR SPARK IGNITION ENGINE FUELED WITH ETHANOL https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1550 <p>This research is aimed at investigating the effect of using ethanol (E100) in multi-zone model analysis consisting of multi-combustion chamber zoning cases. The first case considered is a three-zone model that has an unburned zone, burned zone, and transitory zone. The second case model is also three-zone, consisting of an unburned zone and two partitioned burned zones. The burned zone was imagined partitioned into burned zone-1 and burned zone-2 under uneven fuel distribution having different equivalent ratios. The third case is a four-zone model including two regions of burned zone, an unburned zone and a transitory zone, which is unburned burned zone containing a mixture of unburned and burned gases. Arbitrary constants for each of the unburned (CC1) and burned (CC2) Zone leakages in the unburned burned Zone are 0.00025, 0.0005, 0.001, 0.002, 0.005, 0.1 and 0.5. The Mass Fraction Burned (MFB) for zone-1, x1 and burned zone-2, x2 are computed using Partitioned Burnt Zones Ratios (PBZR) of 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4, 7:3 and 8:2. Two equivalent ratios, one for each fuel MFB (?1, ?2), (0.8, 0.6) and (0.6, 0.8) are analyzed using fuel blends of varying percentage. A comparison of values of the three zoning cases is done using peak values from the three-zone models to evaluate the four-zone model. The model was compared with a spark ignition engine (SIE) operating with a premium motor spirit (PMS) serving as baseline. The engine operating conditions were set at an engine speed of 2000 rpm, -35bTDC ignition time, and burn duration at 60 <sup>o</sup>C. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), thermal efficiency (?), cylinder pressure and emission fraction from the developed models and those of two-zone analysis obtained agreed with literature values. The result showed it is undesirable to have a high volume of burned charge as infiltrate. The three-zone segmented model predicted the highest engine thermal efficiency and peak pressure at mass burn ratio of 7:3. A general reduction in N<sub>2</sub> emission was observed for the three-zone transitional and four-zone models.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini menilai kesan etanol (E100) dalam analisis model zon-berbilang yang terdapat pada masalah pengezonan kebuk pembakaran-berbilang. Kes pertama yang diambil kira adalah model tiga-zon yang mempunyai zon tidak terbakar, zon terbakar dan zon peralihan. Model kedua merupakan juga tiga-zon yang terdiri daripada zon tidak-terbakar dan dua zon bahagian yang terbakar. Zon yang terbakar dibahagikan kepada zon-1 terbakar dan zon-2 terbakar di bawah kebakaran tidak sekata yang mempunyai nisbah berlainan. Kes ketiga adalah model zon-keempat termasuk dua kawasan zon terbakar, zon tidak-terbakar dan zon peralihan iaitu zon terbakar tidak-terbakar di mana ia adalah campuran gas terbakar dan tidak-terbakar. Tetapan sebarangan bagi setiap zon kebocoran tidak-terbakar (CC1) dan terbakar (CC2) dalam zon terbakar tidak-terbakar adalah 0.00025, 0.0005, 0.001, 0.002, 0.005, 0.1 dan 0.5. Pecahan Jisim Terbakar (MFB) bagi zon-1, x1 dan zon-2 terbakar, x2 dikira menggunakan Nisbah Zon Bahagian Terbakar (PBZR) sebanyak 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4, 7:3 dan 8:2. Nisbah dua persamaan, setiap satu bahan api MFB adalah (?1, ?2), (0.8, 0.6) dan (0.6, 0.8) dan diuji menggunakan pelbagai peratus bahan api campuran. Nilai perbandingan bagi tiga kes zon dibuat menggunakan nilai puncak dari model tiga-zon bagi menilai model empat-zon. Model ini dibandingkan dengan enjin cucuhan bunga api (SIE) beroperasi dengan motor alkohol premium (PMS) sebagai garis asas. Keadaan operasi enjin adalah dihadkan pada 2000 rpm kelajuan enjin, masa pencucuhan -35bTDC dan tempoh pembakaran pada 60 <sup>o</sup>C. Tekanan berkesan min tertunjuk (IMEP), kecekapan haba tertunjuk (?), tekanan silinder dan pecahan pengeluaran dari model yang dibangunkan dan analisis dua-zon yang terhasil adalah sama dengan nilai literatur. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan cas terbakar pada isipadu yang banyak adalah tidak diingini sebagai penyerap. Model tiga bahagian zon menunjukkan kecekapan haba enjin tertinggi dan tekanan puncak pada jisim bakar dengan nisbah 7:3. Manakala, pengurangan umum telah diperhatikan pada pengeluaran N<sub>2</sub> di peralihan tiga-zon dan model empat zon.</p> Olatunde Bilikis Olanrewaju, Olanrewaju Olatunde, Ismail Olawale Saheed, Shote Adeola Suhud, Alamu Oguntola Jelili, Sulaiman Adedoyin Musediq Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1550 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800 ANALYTICAL AND NUMERICAL THERMAL ANALYSIS ON FRICTION STIR WELDING USING POLYGONAL TOOL PIN https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1707 <p>Frictional heat generation in the tool/matrix interface followed by the stirring of material along the weld line causes plasticized solid state joining in friction stir welding. In this paper, the existing torque based thermo-mechanical model for the tools with cylindrical pins is remodified for the polygonal tool pin profile by introducing novel multiplication factors with respect to the number of sides in the tool pin geometry. The variation in the effective heat supply with respect to the chosen pin geometry was analyzed. A comparative analysis of the proposed analytical model with the existing model was also carried out to understand the accuracy of the proposed model. Furthermore, a transient thermal numerical modelling was carried out in the view of understanding the change in process peak temperature in the stir zone and change in temperature gradient along the heat affected zone with respect to the change in pin geometry for the opted set of process input parameters. An analytically estimated heat-input-based numerical model was adopted in the present study. It was observed that the process peak temperature was directly proportional to the number of sides in the tool pin.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penjanaan haba geseran antara muka pada alat/matrik diikuti dengan pengacauan material sepanjang garis kimpalan menyebabkan keadaan plastik pepejal melekat bersama geseran kimpalan pengacau. Kajian ini berkaitan tork sedia ada berdasarkan model mekanikal-terma bagi alat pin silinder yang terubah suai bagi profil pin alat poligon dengan memperkenalkan faktor gandaan berdasarkan bilangan sisi geometri alat pin. Perubahan pada bekalan haba efektif berdasarkan geometri pin pilihan telah dikaji. Analisis bandingan pada model analitik yang dicadang bersama model sedia ada, telah dilakukan bagi memahami ketepatan model cadangan. Tambahan, model transien numerikal terma telah dibuat bagi memahami proses perubahan suhu puncak ketika zon pengacauan dan perubahan gradien suhu sepanjang zon terkena haba perubahan geometri pin pada set proses parameter input terpilih. Kajian ini mengaplikasi model numerik berdasarkan input anggaran haba secara analitik. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan suhu puncak proses adalah berkadar langsung dengan bilangan sisi pin alat.</p> Stephen Leon Joseph Leon, Alfred Franklin Varghese, Joseph Michel, Gopinath Gunasekaran Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1707 Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800