Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Municipal Wastewater Sludge by Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda

  • Jalal K.C.A Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200, Kuantan Pahang, Malaysia
  • Md Zahangir Alam
  • Matin W. A.
  • Kamaruzzaman B. Y.
  • Akbar J.
  • and Tofazzel Hossain

Abstract

Nitrate and phosphorus in wastewater contribute to health and environmental threats as they are linked to illnesses as well as ecosystem disruption via algal blooms in contaminated water bodies. Based on above perspectives a comparative study was conducted on three local freshwater microalgae:Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda to evaluate their effects on nitrate and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater sludge (MWS). Algae performance in removing nitrate and phosphorus was evaluated by measuring nitrate and phosphorus content of MWS incubated with the strains for 7 days. Instantaneous readings were taken every 48 hours to determine periodic levels of the nutrients phosphate and nitrate. BOD5 was also evaluated to identify the strain with the most robust growth that would demand for oxygen the most in the dark. Spirulina platensis was shown as the most efficient microalgae to reduce nitrate in MWS and the best-growing among the three strains, while Chlorella vulgaris removed phosphorus the most effectively. Thus Spirulina and Chlorella could be potential candidates by showing their intrinsic merit for the reduction of phosphate and nitrate in wastewater treatment.

ABSTRAK: Nitrat dan fosforus dalam air sisa menggugat kesihatan dan mengancam alam sekitar memandangkan ia berkait dengan penyakit-penyakit serta gangguan terhadap ekosistem melalui pembiakan alga dalam air yang tercemar. Berdasarkan perspektif di atas, satu kajian perbandingan telah dijalankan terhadap tiga mikro alga air tawar tempatan : Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis dan Scenedesmus quadricauda untuk dinilai kesannya terhadap penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dari enap cemar air sisa bandaran (municipal wastewater sludge (MWS)). Kebolehan alga dalam penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dikaji dengan menyukat kandungan nitrat dan fosforus dalam MWS yang dieramkan dengan strain ini selama 7 hari. Bacaan serta-merta diambil setiap 48 jam untuk menentukan tahap berkala nutrien fosfat dan nitrat. BOD5 juga dinilai untuk mengenal pasti strain yang membesar dengan cepat yang memerlukan bekalan oksigen paling banyak dalam gelap. Spirulina platensis dikenal pasti sebagai mikro alga yang paling cekap dalam pengurangan nitrat dalam MWS dan paling cepat tumbesarannya, manakala Chlorella vulgaris menyingkir fosforus dengan paling berkesan. Maka Spirulina and Chlorella berpotensi dalam mengurangkan fosfat dan nitrat dalam rawatan air sisa.


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How to Cite
K.C.A, J., Alam, M. Z., W. A., M., B. Y., K., J., A., & Hossain, and T. (1). Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Municipal Wastewater Sludge by Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda. IIUM Engineering Journal, 12(4). https://doi.org/10.31436/iiumej.v12i4.214