IIUM Engineering Journal 2022-01-04T09:59:31+08:00 Prof. Dr. AHM Zahirul Alam Open Journal Systems <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal, published biannually (<strong>January </strong><em>and </em><strong>July</strong>), is a <em><strong>double-blind peer-reviewed</strong></em> open-access journal of the Kulliyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).</p> <p><strong>January 2022</strong> issue is already in the <strong>Scopus</strong> database. <strong><a title="IIUMEJ Scopus" href=";src=s&amp;st1=IIUM+Engineering+Journal&amp;nlo=&amp;nlr=&amp;nls=&amp;sid=a0be40258badf5dd35fc1e6a466b12cb&amp;sot=b&amp;sdt=cl&amp;cluster=scopubyr%2c%222022%22%2ct&amp;sl=34&amp;s=SRCTITLE%28IIUM+Engineering+Journal%29&amp;origin=resultslist&amp;zone=leftSideBar&amp;editSaveSearch=&amp;txGid=26402634b7147d3471bd39459a80962b" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Click here</a> </strong></p> <div style="border: 2px solid #C0C0C0; padding: 3px;"><span style="color: #ff0000;"><em><strong>The list of accepted articles with paid APC can be viewed in the "FUTURE" menu. </strong></em></span></div> <div style="border: 2px solid #C0C0C0; padding: 3px;"><span style="color: #ff0000;"><em><strong>Recently we have received many emails to verify the acceptance letter. It is the author's responsibility to check the authenticity if the author did not submit any article through this site and email transmits from the domain. </strong></em></span></div> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal publishes original research findings as regular papers, review papers (by invitation). The Journal provides a platform for Engineers, Researchers, Academicians, and Practitioners who are highly motivated in contributing to the Engineering disciplines and Applied Sciences. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the developing world's specific challenges and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.<strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Subject areas suitable for publication are as follows:</strong> </p> <ul> <li class="show">Chemical and Biotechnology Engineering</li> <li class="show">Civil and Environmental Engineering</li> <li class="show">Computer Science and Information Technology</li> <li class="show">Electrical, Computer, and Communications Engineering</li> <li class="show">Engineering Mathematics and Applied Science</li> <li class="show">Materials and Manufacturing Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechatronics and Automation Engineering</li> </ul> <p>Contributions from other areas of Engineering and Applied Science are welcome.</p> <p>A manuscript undergoes a double-blind review process. </p> <p><strong><strong>IIUM Engineering Journal Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statements</strong>:</strong></p> <p>IIUMEJ is committed to meeting and upholding standards of ethical behaviour at all stages of the publication process. A summary of our expectations of editors, peer-reviewers, and authors is stated here [<a title="Editorial Policies" href="">link</a>].</p> </div> OPTIMAL PIEZOELECTRIC SHUNT DAMPER USING ENHANCED SYNTHETIC INDUCTOR: SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION 2022-01-04T08:52:46+08:00 Muhammad Nazri Suhaimi Azni Nabela Wahid Nor Hidayati Diyana Nordin Khairul Affendy Md Nor <p>Piezoelectric material has the ability to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa, making it suitable for use as an actuator and sensor. When used as a controller in sensor mode, the piezoelectric transducer is connected to an external electrical circuit where the converted electrical energy will be dissipated through Joule heat; also known as piezoelectric shunt damper (PSD). In this work, a PSD is used to dampen the first resonance of a cantilever beam by connecting its terminal to an <em>RL</em> shunt circuit configured in series. The optimal resistance and inductance values for maximum energy dissipation are determined by matching the parameters to the first resonant frequency of the cantilever beam, where <em>R</em> = 78.28 k? and <em>L</em> = 2.9 kH are found to be the optimal values. To realize the large inductance value, a synthetic inductor is utilized and here, the design is enhanced by introducing a polarized capacitor to avoid impedance mismatch. The mathematical modelling of a cantilever beam attached with a PSD is derived and simulated where 70% vibration reduction is seen in COMSOL. From experimental study, the vibration reduction obtained when using the piezoelectric shunt circuit with enhanced synthetic inductor is found to be 67.4% at 15.2 Hz. Results from this study can be used to improve PSD design for structural vibration control at targeted resonance with obvious peaks.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Material piezoelektrik mempunyai keupayaan mengubah tenaga mekanikal kepada tenaga elektrik dan sebaliknya, di mana ia sesuai digunakan sebagai penggerak dan pengesan. Apabila digunakan sebagai alat kawalan dalam mod pengesan, piezoelektrik disambung kepada litar elektrik luaran di mana tenaga elektrik yang ditukarkan akan dibebaskan sebagai haba Joule; turut dikenali sebagai peredam alihan piezoelektrik (PSD). Kajian ini menggunakan PSD sebagai peredam resonan pertama pada palang kantilever dengan menyambungkan terminal kepada litar peredam <em>RL</em> bersiri. Rintangan optimal dan nilai aruhan bagi tenaga maksimum yang dibebaskan terhasil dengan membuat padanan parameter pada frekuensi resonan pertama palang kantilever, di mana <em>R</em> = 78.28 k? dan <em>L</em> = 2.9 kH adalah nilai optimum. Bagi merealisasikan nilai aruhan besar, peraruh buatan telah digunakan dan di sini, rekaan ini ditambah baik dengan memperkenalkan peraruh polaris bagi mengelak ketidakpadanan impedans. Model matematik palang kantilever yang bersambung pada PSD telah diterbit dan disimulasi, di mana 70% getaran berkurang pada COMSOL. Hasil dapatan eksperimen ini menunjukkan pengurangan getaran yang terhasil menggunakan litar peredam piezoelektrik bersama peraruh buatan menghasilkan 67.4% pada 15.2 Hz. Hasil dapatan kajian ini dapat digunakan bagi membaiki rekaan PSD berstruktur kawalan getaran iaitu pada resonan tumpuan di puncak ketara.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press MAXIMIZING OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF A PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTER VIA BEAM DEFLECTION METHOD FOR LOW-FREQUENCY INPUTS 2022-01-04T08:49:24+08:00 Mohamad Safiddin Mohd Tahir Noor Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif Azni Nabela Wahid <p><strong> </strong>In micro-scale energy harvesting, piezoelectric (PZT) energy harvesters can adequately convert kinetic energy from ambient vibration to electrical energy. However, due to the random motion and frequency of human motion, the piezoelectric beam cannot efficiently harvest energy from ambient sources. This research highlights the ability of piezoelectric energy harvester constructed using a PZT-5H cantilever beam to generate voltage at any input frequency from human motion. An eccentric mass is used to convert the linear motion of human movement to angular motion. Then, using a magnetic plucking technique, the piezoelectric beam is deflected to its maximum possible deflection each time the eccentric mass oscillates past the beam, ensuring the highest stress is induced and hence the highest current is generated. For testing works, the frequency of oscillation of the eccentric mass is controlled using an Arduino Uno microcontroller. In this work, it is found that when given any input frequencies, the energy harvester produced a consistent AC voltage peak around 5.8 Vac. On the other hand, the DC voltage produced varies with respect to the input frequency due to the number of times the peak AC signal is generated. The highest DC voltage produced in this work is 3.7 Vdc, at 5 Hz, which is within the frequency range of human motion. This research demonstrated that energy can still be effectively harvested at any given low-frequency input, in the condition that the piezoelectric beam is being deflected at its maximum.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Piezoelektrik dapat mengubah tenaga kinetik daripada getaran persekitaran kepada tenaga elektrik melalui penjanaan tenaga berskala mikro. Namun, PZT tidak dapat menjana tenaga dengan berkesan dari sumber persekitaran kerana pergerakan dan kekerapan pergerakan manusia adalah rawak. Kajian ini adalah mengenai keupayaan penuai tenaga piezoelektrik menggunakan bilah kantilever PZT-5H bagi menjana voltan pada sebarang frekuensi menerusi gerakan manusia. Jisim eksentrik digunakan bagi menukar gerakan linear manusia kepada gerakan putaran. Kemudian, teknik penjanaan piezoelektrik secara magnetik digunakan bagi memesongkan bilah piezoelektrik ke tahap maksimum. Bagi memastikan tenaga tertinggi dihasilkan, jisim eksentrik perlu berayun melepasi bilah PZT. Ayunan frekuensi jisim eksentrik ini dikawal melalui kawalan mikro Arduino Uno. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bagi setiap frekuensi input, PZT ini dapat menghasilkan voltan AC yang konsisten, iaitu sekitar 5.8 Vac. Namun, voltan DC maksimum yang terhasil adalah berbeza-beza bagi setiap frekuensi input, iaitu berdasarkan bilangan kekerapan maksimum isyarat AC yang terhasil. Voltan DC tertinggi ialah 3.7 Vdc, pada 5 Hz, iaitu pada kadar frekuensi gerakan manusia. Ini menunjukkan bahawa tenaga masih dapat dihasilkan secara berkesan pada frekuensi rendah, dengan syarat bilah piezoelektrik terpesong pada tahap maksimum.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS ON DYNAMIC WIRELESS CHARGING FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE USING FERRITE CORE 2022-01-04T08:54:44+08:00 Siti Hajar Yusoff Amira Aziera Abdullah Nadia Nazieha Nanda Ahmed Samir Abed Badawi <p>The technology of dynamic Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has been accepted in the Electric Vehicle (EV) industry. Recently, for a stationary EV charging system, the existence of a ferrite core improves power efficiency. However, for dynamic wireless charging, the output power fluctuates when the EV moves. Two main obstacles that must be dealt with is air-gaps and misalignment between the coils. This paper investigates clear design guidelines for fabrication of an efficient Resonant Inductive Power Transfer (RIPT) system for the EV battery charging application using a ferrite core. Two different geometry shapes of ferrite core, U and I cores, will be investigated and tested using simulation and experimental work. The proposed design was simulated in JMAG 14.0, and the prototype was tested in the laboratory. The expected output analysis from these two techniques was that the power efficiency of the ferrite pair should first be calculated. From the analysis and experimental results, it is seen that the pair of ferrite cores that used a U shape at the primary and secondary side provides the most efficient coupling in larger air-gap RIPT application with 94.69% on simulation JMAG 14.0 and 89.7% from conducting an experiment.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Teknologi Alih Kuasa Wayarles (WPT) dinamik telah diterima pakai dalam Kenderaan Elektrik (EV). Baru-baru ini, kewujudan teras ferit dalam sistem pengecasan pegun EV dapat meningkatkan kecekapan kuasa. Namun, kuasa pengecasan ini akan berubah apabila EV bergerak bagi sistem pengecasan wayarles secara dinamik. Dua halangan utama yang harus ditangani adalah ketidakjajaran dan jarak antara dua gegelung. Kajian ini merupakan garis panduan yang jelas mengenai rekaan fabrikasi dan kecekapan sistem Alih Kuasa Induktif Resonan (RIPT) bagi aplikasi pengecasan bateri EV menggunakan teras ferit. Dua bentuk geometri teras ferit, iaitu teras U dan I telah dikaji dan diuji menggunakan simulasi dan eksperimen. Rekaan ini telah disimulasi menggunakan JMAG 14.0 dan prototaip diuji di dalam makmal. Kedua-dua teknik ini diharapkan dapat menghasilkan kecekapan kuasa yang sama. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan kedua-dua teras ferit pada sisi primer dan sekunder berbentuk U mempunyai gandingan paling efisien bagi jarak paling besar antara 2 gegelung menggunakan aplikasi RIPT dengan 94.69% simulasi JMAG 14.0 dan 89.7% secara eksperimen.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA AT 7.5 GHz FOR X-BAND VSAT APPLICATION 2022-01-04T08:54:36+08:00 Sarah Yasmin Mohamad Noralya Fatin Muzamil Norun Farihah Abdul Malek S.M.A Motakabber Rafidah Abd Malik Nurain Izzati Shuhaimi <p>In this paper, a microstrip patch antenna is designed to be used for X-band VSAT application at 7.5 GHz. The antenna is proposed to replace the massive and commonly used parabolic reflector antennas (46.0 inch × 29.3 inch × 13.5 inch (116.84 cm × 74.42 cm × 34.29 cm) with weight of 66.2 kg) in terms of portability due to its compact and lightweight features, with overall dimensions of 19.00 mm × 30.55 mm. The 7.5 GHz frequency is chosen based on the X-band frequency used in Malaysia, as reported by STRIDE. The microstrip patch antenna is first designed and simulated using CST Microwave Studio (CST MWS) and exhibits a good return loss (<em>S</em><sub>11</sub>) of -42.09 dB, a bandwidth of 399 MHz, directivity of 7.63 dB and gain of 7.18 dB. The antenna is then fabricated using RT/duroid ® High Frequency 5880 substrate with a dielectric constant of <em>?<sub>r</sub></em> = 2.2, loss tangent of <em>?</em> = 0.0009 and thickness of <em>t</em> = 1.574 mm. Next, the return loss and radiation pattern measurements are carried out to confirm the simulated results. The measurement of the antenna prototype provides a return loss <em>S</em><sub>11</sub> of -30.53 dB, bandwidth of 455 MHz, directivity of 5.51 dB and gain of 3.88 dB.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Di dalam kajian ini, antena jalurmikro dicadangkan untuk tujuan aplikasi jalur-X VSAT pada 7.5 GHz. Antena jalurmikro ini dicadangkan untuk menggantikan antena reflektor parabola yang besar dan biasa digunakan (46.0 inci × 29.3 inci × 13.5 inci (116.84cm × 74.42cm × 34.29cm) dengan berat 66.2kg), kerana cirinya yang mudah alih dengan fizikalnya yang kecil dan ringan, dan dimensi keseluruhan 19.00 mm × 30.55 mm. Frekuensi 7.5 GHz dipilih berdasarkan frekuensi jalur-X yang digunakan di Malaysia, seperti yang dilaporkan oleh STRIDE. Antena jalurmikro ini direka dan disimulasi menggunakan perisian CST Studio Gelombang Mikro (CST MWS) dan menghasilkan kehilangan pulangan yang baik <em>S</em><sub>11</sub> -42.09 dB, lebar jalur 399 MHz, keterarahan 7.63 dB dan gandaan 7.18 dB. Antena jalurmikro ini kemudiannya direalisasikan dengan menggunakan substrat RT / duroid ® Frekuensi Tinggi 5880 dengan pemalar dielektrik <em>?<sub>r</sub></em> = 2.2, tangen kehilangan <em>?</em> = 0.0009 dan ketebalan <em>t</em> = 1.574 mm. Seterusnya, pengukuran kehilangan pulangan dan corak radiasi dilakukan untuk mengesahkan keputusan simulasi. Pengukuran prototaip antena jalurmikro menunjukkan kehilangan pulangan <em>S</em><sub>11</sub> -30.53 dB, lebar jalur 455 MHz, keterarahan 5.51 dB dan gandaan 3.88 dB.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press WAVELET DETAIL COEFFICIENT AS A NOVEL WAVELET-MFCC FEATURES IN TEXT-DEPENDENT SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEM 2022-01-04T08:54:33+08:00 Syahroni Hidayat Muhammad Tajuddin Siti Agrippina Alodia Yusuf Jihadil Qudsi Nenet Natasudian Jaya <p>Speaker recognition is the process of recognizing a speaker from his speech. This can be used in many aspects of life, such as taking access remotely to a personal device, securing access to voice control, and doing a forensic investigation. In speaker recognition, extracting features from the speech is the most critical process. The features are used to represent the speech as unique features to distinguish speech samples from one another. In this research, we proposed the use of a combination of Wavelet and Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC), Wavelet-MFCC, as feature extraction methods, and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) as classification. The speech signal is first extracted using Wavelet into one level of decomposition, then only the sub-band detail coefficient is used as the feature for further extraction using MFCC. The modeled system was applied in 300 speech datasets of 30 speakers uttering “HADIR” in the Indonesian language. K-fold cross-validation is implemented with five folds. As much as 80% of the data were trained for each fold, while the rest was used as testing data. Based on the testing, the system's accuracy using the combination of Wavelet-MFCC obtained is 96.67%.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Pengecaman penutur adalah proses mengenali penutur dari ucapannya yang dapat digunakan dalam banyak aspek kehidupan, seperti mengambil akses dari jauh ke peranti peribadi, mendapat kawalan ke atas akses suara, dan melakukan penyelidikan forensik. Ciri-ciri khas dari ucapan merupakan proses paling kritikal dalam pengecaman penutur. Ciri-ciri ini digunakan bagi mengenali ciri unik yang terdapat pada sesebuah ucapan dalam membezakan satu sama lain. Penyelidikan ini mencadangkan penggunaan kombinasi Wavelet dan Mel Frekuensi Pekali Cepstral (MFCC), Wavelet-MFCC, sebagai kaedah ekstrak ciri-ciri penutur, dan Model Markov Tersembunyi (HMM) sebagai pengelasan. Isyarat penuturan pada awalnya diekstrak menggunakan Wavelet menjadi satu tahap penguraian, kemudian hanya pekali perincian sub-jalur digunakan bagi pengekstrakan ciri-ciri berikutnya menggunakan MFCC. Model ini diterapkan kepada 300 kumpulan data ucapan daripada 30 penutur yang mengucapkan kata "HADIR" dalam bahasa Indonesia. Pengesahan silang K-lipat dilaksanakan dengan 5 lipatan. Sebanyak 80% data telah dilatih bagi setiap lipatan, sementara selebihnya digunakan sebagai data ujian. Berdasarkan ujian ini, ketepatan sistem yang menggunakan kombinasi Wavelet-MFCC memperolehi 96.67%.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press IN-IDRIS: MODIFICATION OF IDRIS STEMMING ALGORITHM FOR INDONESIAN TEXT 2022-01-04T08:54:22+08:00 Febiarty Wulan Suci Nur Hayatin Yuda Munarko <p>Stemming has an important role in text processing. Stemming of each language is different and strongly affected by the type of text language. Besides that, each language has different rules in the use of words with an <em>affix</em>. A large number of the words used in the Indonesian language are formed by combining root words with <em>affixes</em> and other combining forms. One of the problems in Indonesian stemming is having different types of <em>affixes</em>, and also having some <em>prefixes</em> that changes according to the first letters of the root words. Implementing Idris stemmer for Indonesian text is of interest because Indonesia and Malaysia have the same language root. However, the results do not always produce the actual word, because the Idris algorithm first removes the prefix according to Rule 2. This elimination directly affected the Idris stemmer result when implemented to Indonesian text. In this study, we focus on a modified Idris stemmer (from Malay) to IN-Indris with Indonesia context. In order to test the proposed modification to the original algorithm, Indonesian online novels excerpts are used to measure the performance of IN-Idris.test was conducted to compare the proposed algorithm with other <em>stemmers</em>. From the experiment result, IN-Idris had an accuracy of approximately 82.81%. There was an increased accuracy up to 5.25% when compared to Idris accuracy. Moreover, the proposed stemmer is also running faster than Idris with a gap of speed of around 0.25 seconds.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Stemming mempunyai peranan penting dalam pemprosesan teks. Stem setiap bahasa adalah berbeza dan sangat dipengaruhi oleh jenis bahasa teks. Selain itu, setiap bahasa mempunyai peraturan yang berbeza dalam penggunaan kata dengan awalan. Sebilangan besar kata-kata yang digunakan dalam bahasa Indonesia dibentuk dengan menggabungkan kata akar dengan afiks dan bentuk gabungan lain. Salah satu masalah dalam bahasa Indonesia adalah mempunyai pelbagai jenis awalan, dan juga mempunyai beberapa awalan yang berubah sesuai dengan huruf pertama kata dasar. Menerapkan stemder Idris untuk teks Indonesia adalah minat kerana Indonesia dan Malaysia mempunyai akar bahasa yang sama. Namun, hasilnya tidak selalu menghasilkan kata yang sebenarnya, kerana algoritma Idris pertama kali menghapus awalan menurut Peraturan 2. Penghapusan ini secara langsung mempengaruhi hasil batang Idris ketika diterapkan ke teks Indonesia. Dalam kajian ini, kami memfokuskan pada stemmer Idris yang diubahsuai (dari bahasa Melayu) ke IN-Indris dengan konteks Indonesia. Untuk menguji cadangan pengubahsuaian pada algoritma asli, petikan novel dalam talian Indonesia digunakan untuk mengukur prestasi IN-Idris. Ujian dilakukan untuk membandingkan algoritma yang dicadangkan dengan stemmer lain. Dari hasil eksperimen, IN-Idris mempunyai ketepatan sekitar 82,81%, ada peningkatan ketepatan hingga 5,25% dibandingkan dengan ketepatan Idris. Selain itu, stemmer yang dicadangkan juga berjalan lebih cepat daripada Idris dengan jurang kelajuan sekitar 0.25 saat.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press BOTNET DETECTION USING INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS 2022-01-04T08:53:38+08:00 Wan Nurhidayah Ibrahim Mohd Syahid Anuar Ali Selamat Ondrej Krejcar <p>Botnet is a significant cyber threat that continues to evolve. Botmasters continue to improve the security framework strategy for botnets to go undetected. Newer botnet source code runs attack detection every second, and each attack demonstrates the difficulty and robustness of monitoring the botnet. In the conventional network botnet detection model that uses signature-analysis, the patterns of a botnet concealment strategy such as encryption &amp; polymorphic and the shift in structure from centralized to decentralized peer-to-peer structure, generate challenges. Behavior analysis seems to be a promising approach for solving these problems because it does not rely on analyzing the network traffic payload. Other than that, to predict novel types of botnet, a detection model should be developed. This study focuses on using flow-based behavior analysis to detect novel botnets, necessary due to the difficulties of detecting existing patterns in a botnet that continues to modify the signature in concealment strategy. This study also recommends introducing Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and data pre-processing standardization to increase data quality before classification. With and without ICA implementation, we compared the percentage of significant features. Through the experiment, we found that the results produced from ICA show significant improvements. The highest F-score was 83% for Neris bot. The average F-score for a novel botnet sample was 74%. Through the feature importance test, the feature importance increased from 22% to 27%, and the training model false positive rate also decreased from 1.8% to 1.7%.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Botnet merupakan ancaman siber yang sentiasa berevolusi. Pemilik bot sentiasa memperbaharui strategi keselamatan bagi botnet agar tidak dapat dikesan. Setiap saat, kod-kod sumber baru botnet telah dikesan dan setiap serangan dilihat menunjukkan tahap kesukaran dan ketahanan dalam mengesan bot. Model pengesanan rangkaian botnet konvensional telah menggunakan analisis berdasarkan tanda pengenalan bagi mengatasi halangan besar dalam mengesan corak botnet tersembunyi seperti teknik penyulitan dan teknik polimorfik. Masalah ini lebih bertumpu pada perubahan struktur berpusat kepada struktur bukan berpusat seperti rangkaian rakan ke rakan (P2P). Analisis tingkah laku ini seperti sesuai bagi menyelesaikan masalah-masalah tersebut kerana ianya tidak bergantung kepada analisis rangkaian beban muatan trafik. Selain itu, bagi menjangka botnet baru, model pengesanan harus dibangunkan. Kajian ini bertumpu kepada penggunaan analisa tingkah-laku berdasarkan aliran bagi mengesan botnet baru yang sukar dikesan pada corak pengenalan botnet sedia-ada yang sentiasa berubah dan menggunakan strategi tersembunyi. Kajian ini juga mencadangkan penggunakan Analisis Komponen Bebas (ICA) dan pra-pemprosesan data yang standard bagi meningkatkan kualiti data sebelum pengelasan. Peratusan ciri-ciri penting telah dibandingkan dengan dan tanpa menggunakan ICA. Dapatan kajian melalui eksperimen menunjukkan dengan penggunaan ICA, keputusan adalah jauh lebih baik. Skor F tertinggi ialah 83% bagi bot Neris. Purata skor F bagi sampel botnet baru adalah 74%. Melalui ujian kepentingan ciri, kepentingan ciri meningkat dari 22% kepada 27%, dan kadar positif model latihan palsu juga berkurangan dari 1.8% kepada 1.7%.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press COLOR IMAGE RETRIEVAL BASED ON FUZZY NEURAL NETWORK AND SWARM INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES 2022-01-04T08:53:31+08:00 Baydaa Khaleel <p>Image retrieval is an important system for retrieving similar images by searching and browsing in a large database. The image retrieval system can be a reliable tool for people to optimize the use of image accumulation, and finding efficient methods to retrieve images is very important. Recent decades have marked increased research interest in field image retrieval. To retrieve the images, an important set of features is used. In this work, a combination of methods was used to examine all the images and detect images in a database according to a query image. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was used for feature extraction of the images into the dataset. The images in the database were processed by extracting their important and robust features and storing them in the feature store. Likewise, the strong features were extracted for specific query images. By using some Meta Heuristic algorithms such as Cuckoo Search (CS), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and using an artificial neural network such as single-layer Perceptron Neural Network (PNN), similarity was evaluated. It also proposed a new two method by hybridized PNN and CS with fuzzy logic to produce a new method called Fuzzy Single Layer Perceptron Neural Network (FPNN), and Fuzzy Cuckoo Search to examine the similarity between features for query images and features for images in the database. The efficiency of the system methods was evaluated by calculating the precision recall value of the results. The proposed method of FCS outperformed other methods such as (PNN), (ACO), (CS), and (FPNN) in terms of precision and image recall. <br /><em><strong>ABSTRAK:</strong></em> Imej dapatan semula adalah sistem penting bagi mendapatkan imej serupa melalui carian imej dan melayari pangkalan besar data. Sistem dapatan semula imej ini boleh dijadikan alat boleh percaya untuk orang mengoptimum penggunaan pengumpulan imej, dan kaedah pencarian yang berkesan bagi mendapatkan imej adalah sangat penting. Beberapa dekad yang lalu telah menunjukan banyak penyelidikan dalam bidang imej dapatan semula. Bagi mendapatkan imej-imej ini, ciri-ciri set penting telah digunakan. Kajian ini menggunakan beberapa kaedah bagi memeriksa semua imej dan mengesan imej dalam pangkalan data berdasarkan imej carian. Kami menggunakan Analisis Diskriminan Linear (LDA) bagi mengekstrak ciri imej ke dalam set data. Imej-imej dalam pangkalan data diproses dengan mengekstrak ciri-ciri penting dan berkesan daripadanya dan menyimpannya dalam simpanan ciri. Begitu juga, ciri-ciri penting ini diekstrak bagi imej carian tertentu. Persamaan dinilai melalui beberapa algoritma Meta Heuristik seperti Carian Cuckoo (CS), Pengoptimuman Koloni Semut (ACO), dan menggunakan lapisan tunggal rangkaian neural buatan seperti Rangkaian Neural Perseptron (PNN). Dua cadangan baru dengan kombinasi hibrid PNN dan CS bersama logik kabur bagi menghasilkan kaedah baru yang disebut Lapisan Tunggal Kabur Rangkaian Neural Perceptron (FPNN), dan Carian Cuckoo Kabur bagi mengkaji persamaan antara ciri carian imej dan imej pangkalan data. Nilai kecekapan kaedah sistem dinilai dengan mengira ketepatan mengingat pada dapatan hasil. Kaedah FCS yang dicadangkan ini mengatasi kaedah lain seperti (PNN), (ACO), (CS) dan (FPNN) dari segi ketepatan dan ingatan imej.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press ENHANCEMENT OF STABILITY ON AUTONOMOUS WAYPOINT MISSION OF QUADROTOR USING LQR INTEGRATOR CONTROL 2022-01-04T08:53:27+08:00 Oktaf Agni Dhewa Tri Kuntoro Priyambodo Aris Nasuha Yasir Mohd Mustofa <p>The ability of the quadrotor in the waypoint trajectory tracking becomes an essential requirement in the completion of various missions nowadays. However, the magnitude of steady-state errors and multiple overshoots due to environmental disturbances leads to motion instability. These conditions make the quadrotor experience a shift and even change direction from the reference path. As a result, to minimize steady-state error and multiple overshoots, this study employs a Linear Quadratic Regulator control method with the addition of an Integrator. Comparisons between LQR without Integrator and LQR with Integrator were performed. They were implemented on a quadrotor controller to track square and zig-zag waypoint patterns. From experimental results, LQR without Integrator produce of 2 meters steady-state error and -1.04 meters undershoot average with an accuracy of 64.84 % for square pattern, along 3.19 meters steady-state error, and -1.12 meters undershoot average with an accuracy of 46.73 % for a zig-zag way. The LQR method with integrator produce of 1.06 meters steady-state error with accuracy 94.96 % without multiple-overshoot for square pattern, the 1.06 meters steady-state error, and -0.18 meters undershoot average with an accuracy of 86.49 % for the zig-zag way. The results show that the LQR control method with Integrator can minimize and improve steady-state error and multiple overshoots in quadrotor flight. The condition makes the quadrotor able to flying path waypoints with the correct system specification.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kemampuan quadrotor dalam pengesanan lintasan waypoint menjadi syarat penting dalam menyelesaikan pelbagai misi pada masa kini. Walau bagaimanapun, besarnya ralat keadaan mantap dan banyak kelebihan kerana gangguan persekitaran menyebabkan ketidakstabilan pergerakan. Keadaan ini menjadikan quadrotor mengalami pergeseran dan bahkan mengubah arah dari jalur rujukan. Oleh itu, kajian ini menggunakan kaedah kawalan Linear Quadratic Regulator dengan penambahan integrator dalam meminimumkan ralat keadaan mantap dan banyak kelebihan. Perbandingan antara LQR tanpa Integrator dan LQR dengan Integrator dilakukan. Mereka dilaksanakan pada pengawal quadrotor untuk mengesan corak titik jalan persegi dan zig-zag. Dari hasil eksperimen, LQR tanpa Integrator menghasilkan ralat keadaan mantap 2 meter dan -1.04 meter rata-rata undur tembak dengan ketepatan 64.84% untuk corak persegi, sepanjang ralat keadaan tetap 3.19 meter, dan -1.12 meter rata-rata undur bawah dengan ketepatan 46.73 % untuk cara zig-zag. Kaedah LQR dengan integrator menghasilkan ralat keadaan mantap 1.06 meter dengan ketepatan 94.96% tanpa tembakan berlebihan untuk corak segi empat sama, ralat keadaan mantap 1.06 meter, dan rata-rata undur tembak -0.18 meter dengan ketepatan 86.49% untuk zig-zag cara. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahawa kaedah kawalan LQR dengan Integrator dapat meminimumkan dan memperbaiki ralat keadaan mantap dan banyak overhoot dalam penerbangan quadrotor. Keadaan tersebut menjadikan quadrotor dapat terbang ke titik jalan dengan spesifikasi sistem yang betul.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press MAINTAIN AGENT CONSISTENCY IN SURAKARTA CHESS USING DUELING DEEP NETWORK WITH INCREASING BATCH 2022-01-04T08:53:13+08:00 Rian Adam Rajagede <p>Deep reinforcement learning usage in creating intelligent agents for various tasks has shown outstanding performance, particularly the Q-Learning algorithm. Deep Q-Network (DQN) is a reinforcement learning algorithm that combines the Q-Learning algorithm and deep neural networks as an approximator function. In the single-agent environment, the DQN model successfully surpasses human ability several times over. Still, when there are other agents in the environment, DQN may experience decreased performance. This research evaluated a DQN agent to play in the two-player traditional board game of Surakarta Chess. One of the drawbacks that we found when using DQN in two-player games is its consistency. The agent will experience performance degradation when facing different opponents. This research shows Dueling Deep Q-Network usage with increasing batch size can improve the agent's performance consistency. Our agent trained against a rule-based agent that acts based on the Surakarta Chess positional properties and was then evaluated using different rule-based agents. The best agent used Dueling DQN architecture with increasing batch size that produced a 57% average win rate against ten different agents after training for a short period.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Pembelajaran Peneguhan Mendalam adalah terbaik apabila digunakan bagi mewujudkan ejen pintar dalam menyelesaikan pelbagai tugasan, terutama jika ia melibatkan algoritma Pembelajaran-Q. Algoritma Rangkaian-Q Mendalam (DQN) adalah Pembelajaran Peneguhan berasaskan gabungan algoritma Pembelajaran-Q dan rangkaian neural sebagai fungsi penghampiran. Melalui persekitaran ejen tunggal, model DQN telah beberapa kali berjaya mengatasi kemampuan manusia. Namun, ketika ejen lain berada dalam persekitaran ini, DQN mungkin kurang berjaya. Kajian ini melibatkan ejen DQN bermain papan tradisional iaitu Catur Surakarta dengan dua pemain. Salah satu kekurangan yang dijumpai adalah konsistensi. Ejen ini akan kurang bagus ketika berhadapan lawan berbeza. Kajian menunjukkan dengan penggunaan Rangkaian-Q Dwipertarungan Mendalam bersama peningkatan saiz kumpulan dapat meningkatkan konsistensi prestasi ejen. Ejen ini telah dilatih untuk melawan ejen lain berasaskan peraturan dan sifat kedudukan Catur Surakarta. Kemudian, ejen ini diuji berpandukan peraturan berbeza. Ejen terbaik adalah yang menggunakan rekaan DQN Dwipertarungan bersama peningkatan saiz kumpulan. Ianya berhasil memenangi permainan dengan purata 57% berbanding sepuluh agen lain melalui latihan jangka masa pendek.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press DEVELOPMENT OF RAINFALL FORECASTING MODEL USING MACHINE LEARNING WITH SINGULAR SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 2022-01-04T08:53:02+08:00 Pundru Chandra Shaker Reddy Sucharitha Yadala Surya Narayana Goddumarri <p>Agriculture is the key point for survival for developing nations like India. For farming, rainfall is generally significant. Rainfall updates are help for evaluate water assets, farming, ecosystems and hydrology. Nowadays rainfall anticipation has become a foremost issue. Forecast of rainfall offers attention to individuals and knows in advance about rainfall to avoid potential risk to shield their crop yields from severe rainfall. This study intends to investigate the dependability of integrating a data pre-processing technique called singular-spectrum-analysis (SSA) with supervised learning models called least-squares support vector regression (LS-SVR), and Random-Forest (RF), for rainfall prediction. Integrating SSA with LS-SVR and RF, the combined framework is designed and contrasted with the customary approaches (LS-SVR and RF). The presented frameworks were trained and tested utilizing a monthly climate dataset which is separated into 80:20 ratios for training and testing respectively. Performance of the model was assessed using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and the proposed model produces the values as 71.6 %, 90.2 % respectively. Experimental outcomes illustrate that the proposed model can productively predict the rainfall.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong>Pertanian adalah titik utama kelangsungan hidup negara-negara membangun seperti India. Untuk pertanian, curah hujan pada amnya ketara. Kemas kini hujan adalah bantuan untuk menilai aset air, pertanian, ekosistem dan hidrologi. Kini, jangkaan hujan telah menjadi isu utama. Ramalan hujan memberikan perhatian kepada individu dan mengetahui terlebih dahulu mengenai hujan untuk menghindari potensi risiko untuk melindungi hasil tanaman mereka dari hujan lebat. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki kebolehpercayaan mengintegrasikan teknik pra-pemprosesan data yang disebut analisis-spektrum tunggal (SSA) dengan model pembelajaran yang diawasi yang disebut regresi vektor sokongan paling rendah (LS-SVR), dan Random-Forest (RF), ramalan hujan. Menggabungkan SSA dengan LS-SVR dan RF, kerangka gabungan dirancang dan dibeza-bezakan dengan pendekatan biasa (LS-SVR dan RF). Kerangka kerja yang disajikan dilatih dan diuji dengan menggunakan set data iklim bulanan yang masing-masing dipisahkan menjadi nisbah 80:20 untuk latihan dan ujian. Prestasi model dinilai menggunakan Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) dan Nash – Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) dan model yang dicadangkan menghasilkan nilai masing-masing sebanyak 71.6%, 90.2%. Hasil eksperimen menggambarkan bahawa model yang dicadangkan dapat meramalkan hujan secara produktif.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press CLASSIFICATION MODEL FOR BREAST CANCER MAMMOGRAMS 2022-01-04T08:52:56+08:00 Suzani Mohamad Samuri Try Viananda Nova Bahbibi Rahmatullah Shir Li Wang Z.T Al-Qaysi <p>Machine learning has been the topic of interest in research related to early detection of breast cancer based on mammogram images. In this study, we compare the performance results from three (3) types of machine learning techniques: 1) Naïve Bayes (NB), 2) Neural Network (NN) and 3) Support Vector Machine (SVM) with 2000 digital mammogram images to choose the best technique that could model the relationship between the features extracted and the state of the breast (‘Normal’ or ‘Cancer’). Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) which represents the two dimensions of the level variation gray in the image is used in the feature extraction process. Six (6) attributes consist of contrast, variance, standard deviation, kurtosis, mean and smoothness were computed as feature extracted and used as the inputs for the classification process. The data has been randomized and the experiment has been repeated for ten (10) times to check for the consistencies of the performance of all techniques. 70% of the data were used as the training data and another 30% used as testing data. The result after ten (10) experiments show that, Support Vector Machine (SVM) gives the most consistent results in correctly classifying the state of the breast as ‘Normal’ or ‘Cancer’, with the accuracy of 99.4%, in training and 98.76% in testing. The SVM classification model has outperformed NN and NB model in the study, and it shows that SVM is a good choice for determining the state of the breast at the early stage.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Pembelajaran mesin telah menjadi topik yang diminati dalam penyelidikan yang berkaitan dengan pengesanan awal kanser payudara berdasarkan imej mamogram. Dalam kajian ini, kami membandingkan hasil prestasi dari tiga (3) jenis teknik pembelajaran mesin: 1) Naïve Bayes (NB), 2) Neural Network (NN) dan 3) Support Vector Machine (SVM) dengan 2000 imej digital mammogram hingga teknik terbaik yang dapat memodelkan hubungan antara ciri yang diekstraksi dan keadaan payudara ('Normal' atau 'Cancer') dapat diperoleh. Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) yang mewakili dua dimensi variasi tahap kelabu pada gambar digunakan dalam proses pengekstrakan ciri. Enam (6) atribut terdiri dari kontras, varians, sisihan piawai, kurtosis, min dan kehalusan dihitung sebagai fitur yang diekstrak dan digunakan sebagai input untuk proses klasifikasi. Eksperimen telah diulang selama sepuluh (10) kali untuk memeriksa kesesuaian prestasi semua teknik. 70% data digunakan sebagai data latihan dan 30% lagi digunakan sebagai data ujian. Hasil setelah sepuluh (10) eksperimen menunjukkan bahawa, Support Vector Machine (SVM) memberikan hasil yang paling konsisten dalam mengklasifikasikan keadaan payudara dengan betul sebagai 'Normal' atau 'Kanser', dengan akurasi 99.4%, dalam latihan dan 98.76% dalam ujian. Model klasifikasi SVM telah mengungguli model NN dan NB dalam kajian ini, dan ia menunjukkan bahawa SVM adalah pilihan yang baik untuk menentukan keadaan payudara pada peringkat awal.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press AN IMMERSIVE AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEM TO STUDY THE EFFICIENCY OF DYNAMIC EXIT SIGNAGE 2022-01-04T08:50:00+08:00 Azhar Mohd Ibrahim Muhammad Arif Kamaruddin Azni Nabela Wahid <p>Every year, many disasters occur to buildings causing their destruction and leading to huge casualties. One way of preventing casualties is by evacuation drill activity. Although accurate evacuation drills could enhance the efficiency of the process during the real event, these drills are not fully effective because participants miss the sense of being stressed or under pressure while in action. Several gaming concepts have been introduced to train the participants on how to cope with and evacuate effectively during an emergency. For instance, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) interfaces could provide virtual content to enhance the effectiveness of evacuation drills. However, accurate representation of different evacuation scenarios and its impact analysis during emergency using the above technologies are still debatable, mainly due to immersion quality. Thus, this study proposes an Immersive Augmented Reality (IAR) application that is mainly the amalgamation of AR and VR in realizing fast and safe evacuation during on-site building emergencies. A virtual dynamic exit signage system is also developed in the proposed “Smart Evacuation application“. This work evaluated the efficiency of a virtual dynamic exit signage and also a proposed “Smart Evacuation“ system by analysing on-site emergency evacuation processes. By setting up various scenarios imitating real life disasters, this research analysed the time taken and level of stress of the occupants during the evacuation of a chosen site. The proposed “Smart Evacution“ achieved 33.82% better perfomance compared to normal evacuation thus indicating a faster and safer evacuation.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Secara statistik, kebanyakan bencana kemusnahan bangunan yang berlaku setiap tahun telah menyebabkan kerugian besar. Salah satu cara bagi mengelak kejadian ini adalah melalui aktiviti latih tubi evakuasi. Walaupun latih tubi evakuasi ini dapat menambah proses kecekapan semasa kejadian sebenar, latih tubi ini tidak benar-benar berkesan kerana peserta kurang mendalami perasaan tertekan atau di bawah tekanan semasa kejadian. Pelbagai konsep permainan telah diperkenalkan bagi melatih peserta bagaimana perlu bertindak dan evakuasi secara efektif semasa kecemasan. Sebagai contoh, antarmuka Realiti Terimbuh (AR) dan Realiti Maya (VR) mungkin dapat menghasilkan simulasi secara maya bagi menambah keberkesanan latih tubi evakuasi. Walau bagaimanapun, ketepatan representasi pelbagai senario evakuasi dan analisis tekanan semasa kecemasan menggunakan teknik-teknik di atas adalah masih boleh dipertikaikan terutama kerana kualiti kedalamannya. Oleh itu, kajian ini mencadangkan aplikasi Realiti Terimbuh Mendalam (IAR) di mana tumpuan adalah pada kombinasi AR dan VR dibuat dengan secara evakuasi pantas dan selamat semasa kecemasan pada bangunan kejadian. Sistem maya penunjuk arah keluar dinamik turut dicipta dalam “Aplikasi Evakuasi Pintar” yang dicadangkan ini. Kajian ini menilai keberkesanan sistem maya penunjuk arah keluar secara dinamik dan juga sistem “Evakuasi Pintar” dengan menganalisa proses evakuasi kecemasan pada tempat kejadian. Dengan mengadakan pelbagai jenis senario dan meniru bencana sebenar, kajian ini menganalisa masa yang diambil dan tahap tekanan penghuni bangunan semasa proses evakuasi berlaku pada tapak pilihan. “Evakuasi Pintar” ini mencapai 33.82% keberkesanan pada prestasi berbanding evakuasi biasa. Ia membuktikan proses evakuasi ini lebih pantas dan selamat.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press COMPUTATIONLESS PALM-PRINT VERIFICATION USING WAVELET ORIENTED ZERO-CROSSING SIGNATURE 2022-01-04T08:49:56+08:00 Jitendra Chaudhari Hiren Mewada Amit Patel Keyur Mahant Alpesh Vala <p>Palmprints can be characterized by their texture and the patterns of that texture dominate in a vertical direction. Therefore, the energy of the coefficients in the transform domain is more concentrated in the vertical sideband. Using this idea, this paper proposes the characterization of the texture features of the palmprint using zero-crossing signatures based on the dyadic discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to effectively identify an individual. A zero-crossing signature of 4 x 256 was generated from the lower four resolution levels of dyadic DWT in the enrolment process and stored in the database to identify the person in recognition mode. Euclidean distance was determined to find the best fit for query palmprints zero-crossing signature from the dataset. The proposed algorithm was tested on the PolyU dataset containing 6000 multi-spectral images. The proposed algorithm achieved 96.27% accuracy with a lower recognition time of 0.76 seconds.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Pengesan Tapak Tangan boleh dikategorikan berdasarkan ciri-ciri tekstur dan corak pada tekstur yang didominasi pada garis tegak. Oleh itu, pekali tenaga di kawasan transformasi adalah lebih penuh pada jalur-sisi menegak. Berdasarkan idea ini, cadangan kajian ini adalah berdasarkan ciri-ciri tekstur pada tapak tangan dan tanda pengenalan sifar-silang melalui transformasi gelombang kecil diadik yang diskret (DWT) bagi mengecam individu. Pada mod pengecaman, tanda pengenalan sifar-silang 4 x 256 yang terhasil daripada tahap diadik resolusi empat terendah DWT digunakan dalam proses kemasukan dan simpanan di pangkalan data bagi mengenal pasti individu. Jarak Euklidan yang terhasil turut digunakan bagi memperoleh padanan tapak tangan paling sesuai melalui tanda pengenalan sifar-silang dari set data. Algoritma yang dicadangkan ini diuji pada set data PolyU yang mengandungi 6000 imej pelbagai-spektrum. Algoritma yang dicadangkan ini berjaya mencapai ketepatan sebanyak 96.27% dengan durasi pengecaman berkurang sebanyak 0.76 saat.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press A STUDY ON CHANNEL AND DELAY-BASED SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS FOR LIVE VIDEO STREAMING IN THE FIFTH GENERATION LONG TERM EVOLUTION-ADVANCED 2022-01-04T08:49:45+08:00 Liza Abdul Latiff Huda Adibah Mohd Ramli Ani Liza Asnawi Nur Haliza Abdul Wahab <p>This paper investigates the performance of a number of channel and delay-based scheduling algorithms for an efficient QoS (Quality of Service) provision with more live video streaming users over the Fifth Generation Long-Term Evolution-Advanced (5G LTE-A) network. These algorithms were developed for use in legacy wireless networks and minor changes were made to enable these algorithms to perform packet scheduling in the downlink 5G LTE-A. The efficacies of the EXP and M-LWDF algorithms in maximizing the number of live video streaming users at the desired transmission reliability, minimizing the average network delay and maximizing network throughput, are shown via simulations. As the M-LWDF has a simpler mathematical equation as compared to the EXP, it is more favoured for implementation in the complex downlink 5G LTE-A.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kertas ini menyiasat prestasi sebilangan saluran dan algoritma penjadualan berdasarkan kelewatan untuk penyediaan QoS (Kualiti Perkhidmatan) yang cekap dengan banyak pengguna video secara langsung melalui rangkaian Generasi Kelima Long-Term Evolution Advanced (5G LTE-A). Algoritma-algoritma yang disiasat di dalam kertas ini dicadangkan untuk digunakan dalam generasi rangkaian tanpa wayar yang lama dan sedikit perubahan dibuat untuk membolehkan algoritma ini menyokong penjadualan paket dalam downlink 5G LTE-A. Keberkesanan EXP dan M-LWDF algoritma dalam memaksimumkan jumlah pengguna pada kebolehpercayaan transmisi yang diinginkan dari streaming video secara langsung, meminimumkan kelewatan rangkaian, dan memaksimumkan truput rangkaian ditunjukkan melalui simulasi. Namun, dengan M-LWDF mempunyai formula matematik yang mudah dibandingkan dengan EXP, ia lebih sesuai untuk digunakan dalam downlink 5G LTE-A yang lebih kompleks.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press DETECTION OF TRAFFIC DENSITY WITH IMAGE PROCESSING USING PIN HOLE ALGORITHM 2022-01-04T08:49:37+08:00 Mochamad Aditya Irawanto Casi Setianingsih Budhi Irawan <p>The intelligent traffic monitors are devloped and became more interst in recent years. A detection system in the monitoring traffic system is proposed using different algorithms. Pin Hole Algorithm used to detect the car that passes the road (the studied area). A fixed camera mounted at predetermined point used with known height (of the camera), the intensity of the light, and the visibility of the camera. The classification process is important to know the traffic congestion status. The traffic congestion status will be sent to the server address already provided. In the congestion detection test results were obtained with an accuracy value of 85% using the 64x64 grid division and obtaining good detection results for susceptible light intensity values between 5430 and 41379 LUX with an accuracy value of between 60% and 90%.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Sejak beberapa tahun ini, sistem pengawasan trafik pintar telah dibina dan terus berkembang luas. Sistem pengesanan dalam sistem trafik pengawasan telah dicadangkan menggunakan pelbagai algoritma. Algoritma lubang pin digunakan bagi mengesan kereta yang melalui jalan (kawasan kajian). Kamera dipasang tetap pada titik tertentu iaitu dengan menyelaras ketinggian kamera, keamatan cahaya, dan kebolehlihatan kamera. Proses klasifikasi sangat penting bagi menentukan status kesesakan trafik. Status kesesakan trafik akan dihantar ke alamat pelayan yang telah disediakan. Nilai ketepatan ujian pengesanan kesesakan yang diperoleh adalah 85% iaitu menggunakan pembahagi grid 64x64 dan dapatan kajian menunjukkan pengesanan yang baik bagi nilai keamatan cahaya antara 5430 dan 41379 LUX dengan nilai ketepatan antara 60% dan 90%.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION IN SQUARE CYLINDER OF VARIOUS ANGLES OF ATTACK 2022-01-04T08:53:16+08:00 Nur Ain Shafiza Ramzi Kee Quen Lee NUR AMIRA BALQIS MOHD ZAINURI HOOI SIANG KANG NOR’AZIZI OTHMAN KENG YINN WONG <p>An experimental study was carried out to identify the effect of angle of attack on flow-induced vibration (FIV) of square cylinders. The experiment was conducted at the Aeronautical and Wind Engineering Laboratory (AEROLAB), UTM Kuala Lumpur using a wind tunnel that was free from external wind conditions. A supporting structure was designed and fabricated to conduct this experiment. The importance of this support structure was to enable the rigid cylinder to suspend and vibrate freely upon excitation of wind speed. The results were analysed through the response of amplitude and frequency of the rigid cylinder over a velocity range of 0.5m/s to 4.0m/s. The results showed that for a square cylinder of <em>?</em>=0°, vortex-induced vibration (VIV) occurred at low reduced velocity (<em>U<sub>R</sub></em>) in range of 5 ? <em>U<sub>R</sub></em> ? 10 and galloping occurred at higher reduced velocity which started at <em>U<sub>R</sub></em>=15. A tranquil zone was found between VIV and galloping in the reduced velocity range of 10 ? <em>U<sub>R</sub></em> ? 15. As for <em>?</em>=22.5° and 45°, only VIV response was found at low reduced velocity in range of 4? <em>U<sub>R</sub></em> ? 9.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Satu kajian eksperimentasi telah dilakukan bagi mengenal pasti pengaruh sudut serangan oleh getaran cetusan-aliran (FIV) dalam silinder persegi. Eksperimen ini dijalankan di Makmal Kejuruteraan Aeronautika dan Angin (AEROLAB), UTM Kuala Lumpur dengan menggunakan terowong angin yang bebas dari pengaruh angin luar. Struktur sokongan telah direka dan difabrikasi bagi tujuan eksperimen ini. Ini penting bagi membolehkan silinder pegun tergantung dan bergetar dengan bebas semasa ujian kelajuan angin. Dapatan kajian dianalisis melalui tindak balas amplitud dan frekuensi silinder pegun pada kadar halaju 0.5m/s sehingga 4.0m/s. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa bagi silinder persegi <em>?</em> = 0 °, getaran pengaruh-vorteks (VIV) berlaku pada halaju rendah (<em>U<sub>R</sub></em>) dalam julat 5 ? <em>U<sub>R</sub></em> ? 10 dan getaran lebih teruk telah ketara berlaku pada kadar halaju berkurang iaitu bermula pada <em>U<sub>R</sub></em> = 15. Zon tenang dijumpai antara VIV dan getaran teruk pada kadar halaju berkurang 10 ? <em>U<sub>R</sub></em> ? 15. Adapun pada <em>?</em> = 22.5° dan 45°, hanya tindak balas VIV dijumpai pada halaju rendah dalam kadar 4? <em>U<sub>R</sub></em> ? 9.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press VEHICLE AIR CONDITIONER (VAC) CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON PASSENGER COMFORT: A PROOF OF CONCEPT 2022-01-04T08:53:09+08:00 Suroto Munahar Bagiyo Condro Purnomo Muhammad Izzudin Muji Setiyo Madihah Mohd Saudi <p>The air conditioning system (AC) in passenger cars requires precise control to provide a comfortable and healthy driving. In an AC system with limited manual control, the driver has to repeatedly change the setting to improve comfort. This problem may be overcome by implementing an automatic control system to maintain cabin temperature and humidity to meet passenger's thermal comfort. Therefore, this paper presents the development of a laboratory-scale prototype air conditioning control system to regulate temperature, humidity and air circulation in the cabin. The experimental results show that the control system is able to control air temperature in the range of 21 °C to 23 °C and cabin air humidity between 40% to 60% in various simulated environmental conditions which indicate acceptance for comfort and health standards in the vehicle. In conclusion, this method can be applied to older vehicles with reasonable modifications.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Sistem penyejuk udara (AC) pada kenderaan penumpang memerlukan ketepatan kawalan bagi menyediakan keselesaan dan kesejahteraan pemanduan. Melalui sistem AC dengan kawalan manual terhad, pemandu perlu berulang kali mengubah penyesuaian latar bagi meningkatkan keselesaan. Masalah ini dapat diatasi dengan menerapkan sistem kawalan automatik bagi menjaga suhu dan kelembapan kabin agar memenuhi keselesaan suhu penumpang. Oleh itu, kajian ini merupakan pembangunan prototaip sistem kawalan AC skala laboratari bagi mengawal suhu, kelembapan dan peredaran udara dalam kabin. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan sistem kawalan ini mampu mengendali suhu udara pada kitaran 21 °C hingga 23 °C dan kelembaban udara kabin antara 40% hingga 60% pada pelbagai keadaan persekitaran simulasi yang menunjukkan penerimaan standard keselesaan dan kesejahteraan kenderaan. Sebagai kesimpulan, cara ini dapat diaplikasi pada kenderaan lama dengan modifikasi bersesuaian.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press CFD MODELING OF MICROCHANNELS COOLING FOR ELECTRONIC MICRODEVICES 2022-01-04T08:49:53+08:00 Jonathan Fábregas Henry Santamaria Edgardo Buelvas Saul Perez Carlos Díaz Javier Carpintero Ricardo Mendoza Jennifer Villa <p><strong> </strong>A simulation of the cooling of electronic devices was carried out by means of microchannels, using water as a coolant to dissipate the heat generated from a computer processor, and thus stabilize its optimum operating temperature. For the development of this study, computational fluid mechanics modeling was established in order to determine the temperature profiles, pressure profiles, and velocity behavior of the working fluid in the microchannel. In the results of the study, the operating temperatures of the computer processor were obtained, in the ranges of 303 K to 307 K, with fluid velocities in the microchannels of 5 m/s, a pressure drop of 633.7 kPa, and a factor of safety of the design of the microchannel of 15. From the results, the improvement of the heat transfer in a cooling system of electronic devices was evidenced when using a coolant as a working fluid compared to the cooling by forced air flow traditional.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Simulasi penyejukan alatan elektronik telah dibina menggunakan saluran mikro, di samping air sebagai agen penyejuk bagi menghilangkan haba yang terhasil dari pemproses komputer, dan penstabil pada suhu operasi optimum. Kajian ini mengenai model komputasi mekanik bendalir bagi menentukan profil suhu, profil tekanan, dan halaju perubahan bendalir dalam saluran mikro. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan suhu operasi pemproses komputer adalah pada julat suhu 303 K sehingga 307 K, dengan halaju bendalir dalam saluran mikro adalah pada kelajuan 5 m/s, penurunan tekanan sebanyak 633.7 kPa, dan faktor keselamatan 15 bagi reka bentuk saluran mikro. Ini menunjukkan terdapat kenaikan pemindahan haba bagi sistem penyejukan alatan elektronik ini, terutama apabila cecair digunakan sebagai penyejuk haba berbanding kaedah tradisi iaitu dengan mengguna pakai aliran udara sebagai agen penyejuk.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press COMPARATIVE STUDY ON DEGRADATION OF POLYLACTIC ACID/ SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM COMPOSITES AGEING IN OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT AND SOIL BURIAL 2022-01-04T08:49:34+08:00 Salina Budin Normariah Che Maideen Mei Hyie Koay Hamid Yusoff Halim Ghafar <p>Major environmental problems resulting from non-degradable components of plastic wastes have awakened great attention to bioplastic as an alternative material. Among various bioplastic materials, polylactic acid (PLA) is recognised as a promising material especially as a food packaging material. The development of PLA composites using various fillers has extensively been in focus in order to preserve the high quality, safety, and extended shelf-life of packed food. Among the interesting fillers is <em>Syzygium aromaticum</em> (SA). SA, also known as clove, has biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidant properties. This work investigated the effects of SA filler on the degradations of virgin PLA (VPLA) and recycled PLA (RPLA). The VPLA/SA composites and RPLA/SA composites were prepared using the solvent casting method. The content of SA filler varied in the range of 0 to 20 wt%. The composites were aged in outdoor environment and soil burial. The results revealed that the degradation rate was increased with the increase of SA filler in both ageing environments. After 10 weeks of ageing in the outdoor environment, the weight loss of VPLA/SA composites and RPLA/SA composites containing 20 wt% of SA were 7.7% and 12.8% respectively. Whereas in soil burial, the weight loss of VPLA/SA composites and RPLA/SA composites with similar SA content were 25.6% and 38.3% respectively. The degradation rate was observed to be more rapid in the soil burial as compared to the outdoor environment. Comparably, RPLA and RPLA/SA composites experienced higher degradation rates than VPLA and VPLA/SA composites. The degradation rate was consistent with scanning electron microscope (SEM) images which observed the formation of holes, cavities, cleavages, and grooves on the surfaces of the samples. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results on aged samples showed that VPLA/SA composites and RPLA/SA composites that had aged in soil burial decomposed at lower temperatures. The shortening of degradation time of the VPLA/SA composites and RPLA/SA composites could increase their potential to be used as food packaging materials.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Masalah utama terhadap alam sekitar yang disebabkan oleh sisa plastik yang sukar terurai, telah menarik perhatian terhadap bioplastik sebagai bahan alternatif. Di antara pelbagai jenis bahan bioplastik sedia ada, asid polilaktik(PLA) dilihat sebagai bahan yang paling sesuai terutamanya sebagai bahan pembungkusan makanan. Perkembangan di dalam penghasilan komposit asid polilaktik yang ditambah dengan pelbagai bahan pengisi telah menjadi fokus terutamanya bagi tujuan meningkatkan kualiti, kesegaran dan jangka hayat makanan. Salah satu pengisi yang mendapat perhatian adalah <em>Syzygium aromaticum </em>(SA). SA yang juga dikenali sebagai bunga cengkeh mempunyai aktiviti biologi, seperti sifat antibakteria, antijamur, racun serangga dan antioksidan yang tinggi. Didalam kajian ini, siasatan terhadap kesan penambahan SA terhadap penguraian PLA asal (VPLA) dan PLA kitar semula (VPLA). Komposit VPLA/SA dan komposit RPLA/SA disediakan dengan menggunakan kaedah pelarutan pelarut. Kandungan pengisi SA adalah didalam julat 0 – 20% mengikut berat. Komposit tersebut dibiarkan menua didalam persekitaran luaran dan didalam tanah. Keputusan kajian mendapati bahawa kadar penguraian semakin meningkat dengan penambahan peratus berat bahan pengisi SA setelah melalui penuaan didalam kedua-dua persekitaran. Setelah penuaan selama10 minggu di dalam persekiran luaran, pengurang berat komposit VPLA/SA dan komposit RPLA/SA yang mengandungi 20 wt% SA adalah 7.7% dan 12.8%. Manakala bagi penuaan didalam tanah, pengurangan berat komposit VPLA/SA dan komposit RPLA/SA dengan kandungan SA yang sama masing-masing adalah 25.6% dan 38.3%. Kadar penguraian diperhatikan lebih cepat bagi penuan didalam tanah dibandingkan dengan penuaan didalam persekitaran luaran. Disamping itu, RPLA dan komposit RPLA/SA mengalami kadar penguraian yang lebih tinggi berbanding VPLA dan komposit VPLA/SA. Kadar penguraian adalah konsisten dengan imej yang dihasilkan oleh imbasan mikroskop elektron (SEM) dimana dapat dilihat pembentukan lubang, rongga, pembelahan dan alur di permukaan sampel. Hasil analisis termogravimetri (TGA) terhadap sampel yang telah dituakan menunjukkan bahawa komposit VPLA/SA dan komposit RPLA/SA yang melalui penuaan didalam tanah terurai pada suhu yang lebih rendah. Tempoh penguraian komposit VPLA/SA dan komposit RPLA/SA yang lebih pendek ini meningkatkan potensi penggunaannya komposit ini sebagai bahan pembungkusan makanan.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press NUMERICAL MODELLING OF BIRD STRIKE ON A ROTATING ENGINE BLADES BASED ON VARIATIONS OF POROSITY DENSITY 2022-01-04T08:49:28+08:00 Sharis-Shazzali Shahimi Nur Azam Abdullah Ameen Topa Meftah Hrairi Ahmad Faris Ismail <p>A numerical investigation is conducted on a rotating engine blade subjected to a bird strike impact. The bird strike is numerically modelled as a cylindrical gelatine with hemispherical ends to simulate impact on a rotating engine blade. Numerical modelling of a rotating engine blade has shown that bird strikes can severely damage an engine blade, especially as the engine blade rotates, as the rotation causes initial stresses on the root of the engine blade. This paper presents a numerical modelling of the engine blades subjected to bird strike with porosity implemented on the engine blades to investigate further damage assessment due to this porosity effect. As porosity influences the decibel levels on a propeller blade or engine blade, the damage due to bird strikes can investigate the compromise this effect has on the structural integrity of the engine blades. This paper utilizes a bird strike simulation through an LS-Dyna Pre-post software. The numerical constitutive relations are keyed into the keyword manager where the bird’s SPH density, a 10 ms simulation time, and bird velocity of 100 m/s are all set. The blade rotates counter-clockwise at 200 rad/s with a tetrahedron mesh. The porous regions or voids along the blade are featured as 5 mm diameter voids, each spaced 5 mm apart. The bird is modelled as an Elastic-Plastic-Hydrodynamic material model to analyze the bird’s fluid behavior through a polynomial equation of state. To simulate the fluid structure interaction, the blade is modelled with Johnson-Cook Material model parameters of aluminium where the damage of the impact can be observed. The observations presented are compared to previous study of a bird strike impact on non-porous engine blades.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penyelidikan berangka telah dijalankan ke atas bilah enjin berputar tertakluk kepada impak pelanggaran burung. Pelanggaran burung tersebut telah dimodelkan secara berangka sebagai silinder gelatin dengan hujungnya berbentuk hemisfera demi mensimulasikan impaknya ke atas bilah enjin yang berputar. Pemodelan berangka bilah-bilah enjin yang berputar tersebut menunjukkan bahawa pelanggaran burung mampu menyebabkan kerosakan teruk terhadap bilah enjin terutamanya apabila bilah enjin sedang berputar oleh sebab putaran menghasilkan tekanan asal di pangkal bilah enjin. Kajian ini mengetengahkan pemodelan berangka ke atas bilah-bilah enjin tertakluk kepada pelanggaran burung terhadap bilah-bilah enjin yg mempunyai keliangan demi menyelidik dan menilai kerosakan kesan daripada keliangan tersebut. Keliangan juga mempengaruhi tahap-tahap desibel ke atas bilah kipas ataupun bilah enjin, kerosakan hasil serangan burung boleh menterjemah tahap ketahanan struktur integriti bagi bilah-bilah enjin tersebut. Penyelidikan ini mengguna pakai perisian “LS-Dyna Pre-post” untuk simulasi pelanggaran burung. Hubungan konstitutif berangka telah dimasukkan sebagai kata kunci di mana ketumpatan SPH burung, masa simulasi 10ms, dan halaju burung ditetapkan kepada 100 m/s. Bilah tersebut berputar pada 200 rad/s arah lawan jam dengan jejaring tetrahedron. Kawasan berliang atau kosong di sepanjang bilah ditetapkan diameternya kepada 5 mm, dan dijarakkan 5 mm di antara satu sama lain. Burung pula dimodelkan sebagai material “Elastic-Plastic-Hydrodynamic” untuk mengkaji sifat bendalir burung melalui persamaan polinomial. Demi mensimulasi interaksi struktur bendalir, bilah tersebut dimodelkan sebagai parameter aluminium material “Johnson Cook” di mana kerosakan daripada impak tersebut dapat diteliti. Penelitian-penelitian tersebut dibandingkan dengan kajian terdahulu ke atas serangan burung terhadap bilah-bilah enjin tidak berliang.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press CONSOLIDATION INTEGRATED BUOYANCY EQUATION FOR SOFT GROUND IMPROVED WITH LIGHTWEIGHT POLYURETHANE FOAM 2022-01-04T08:54:26+08:00 Diana Che Lat Ismacahyadi Bagus Mohamed Jais Nazri Ali Nor Zurairahetty Mohd Yunus Nor Hibatul Wafi Nor Zarin Atiqah Najwa Zainuddin <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT: </em></strong>Consolidation settlement occurs when a saturated soil is subjected to an increase in overburden pressure that causes a volume change in the soil. When a lightweight material is used as a ground improvement, the stress is reduced as the soft soil is partially removed and replaced by the lightweight material. In addition, the improved ground with lightweight material has a potential to uplift due to the buoyancy of lightweight material. The uplift force reduces the stress imposed on the underlying soil as it acts in the upward direction, thus further reducing the consolidation settlement. This study is executed to produce an alternative equation for consolidation settlement incorporating the buoyancy effect for lightweight polyurethane (PU) foam as a ground improvement method. A Rowe Cell consolidation laboratory test was conducted on untreated marine clay soil as well as on improved marine clay with different thicknesses of lightweight PU foam. Validation of the laboratory test results was done by finite element analysis, PLAXIS 2D. The thickness of PU foam governs the buoyancy and the hydrostatic pressure of water displaced by PU foam, which is incorporated in the alternative equation. The alternative consolidation settlement equation is applicable for ground improved with lightweight polyurethane foam and found to be more economical and practical as the buoyancy is taken into account in the equation.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Mendapan pengukuhan berlaku apabila tanah tepu mengalami peningkatan tekanan beban yang menyebabkan perubahan isipadu tanah. Apabila bahan ringan digunakan sebagai penambahbaikan tanah, tekanan akan berkurang kerana sebahagian tanah lembut dikeluarkan dan diganti dengan bahan ringan. Selain itu, tanah yang diperbaiki dengan bahan ringan berpotensi untuk terangkat ke atas keranan daya apung bahan ringan. Daya angkat bahan ringan mengurangkan tekanan yang dikenakan ke atas tanah kerana daya bertindak ke arah atas, dan seterusnya megurangkan mendapan pengukuhan. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menghasilkan persamaan alternatif bagi mendapan pengukuhan dan digabungkan dengan kesan daya apung untuk busa poliuretena ringan (PU) sebagai kaedah penambahbaikan tanah. Ujian makmal mendapan pengukuhan menggunakan peralatan Rowe Cell dilakukan pada tanah liat marin yang asal serta yang diperbaiki dengan ketebalan busa PU ringan yang berbeza. Pengesahan hasil ujian makmal dilakukan dengan analisis elemen terhingga, PLAXIS 2D. Ketebalan busa PU mempengaruhi daya apung dan tekanan hidrostatik bagi kedalaman air yang disesarkan oleh busa PU dan digabungkan dalam persamaan alternatif. Persamaan alternatif mendapan pengukuhan tersebut boleh digunapakai untuk pembaikan tanah menggunakan bahan ringan busa poliuretena dan didapati menjimatkan kos dan praktikal kerana keapungan diambilkira didalam persamaan tersebut.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press POTENTIAL VOLUMIZING EFFECT OF THE POST-MORPH LIME FILLER IN ATTENUATING CONCRETE CARBONATION 2022-01-04T08:53:42+08:00 Muhamad Hasif Hussin Mohd Haziman Wan Ibrahim Nor Hazurina Othman Mohammed Yahya Mohammed Al-Fasih Mohd Fadzil Arshad <p>A study on the crystallography of the lime that comes from mussel shell has been conducted to determine the packing density of the material. The experimental analysis encompasses of concrete samples preparation with lime replacement at 5%, 7.5% and 10% by cement weight. The samples were carbonised naturally over a period of six months and subjected to the phenolphthalein test at 60, 90, 120 and 180 days. It has been found that lime originating from the mussel shell is of both the aragonitic and calcitic crystal types. Both crystal polymorphs of aragonite and calcite are denser than the typical normal concrete by 27.8% and 18.3% respectively. This suggest a volumizing effect that is beneficial to reduce carbonation penetration into the capillarity of the concrete. Results from the carbonation test indicate that concrete containing mussel shell lime ash showed up to 51% lower carbonation coefficient and significantly lower intensity of capillarity as shown via FESEM.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian mengenai kristalografi kapur yang didapati daripada kulit kupang telah dijalankan bagi menentukan kepadatan bahan tersebut. Analisis eksperimen merangkumi penyediaan sampel-sampel konkrit yang mengandungi gantian kapur pada 5%, 7.5% dan 10% daripada berat simen. Sampel-sampel telah dikarbonatkan secara alami selama enam bulan dan menjalani ujian fenolftalin pada usia 60, 90, 120 dan 180 hari. Kajian telah mendapati bahawa kulit kupang terdiri daripada kapur-kapur berjenis aragonit dan kalsit. Kedua-dua polimorf kapur aragonit dan kalsit adalah 27.8% dan 18.3% lebih tumpat berbanding konkrit biasa. Hal ini berpotensi menjadi bahan penumpat yang bagus untuk mengurangkan serapan pengkarbonatan ke dalam kapilari konkrit. Keputusan ujian pengkarbonatan menunjukkan konkrit yang mengandungi abu kapur kulit kupang mempunyai pekali pengkarbonatan sehingga 51% lebih rendah dan mempunyai kerendahan kapilariti yang signifikan seperti yang ditunjukkan melalui FESEM.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (BIM) IMPLEMENTATION FOR POWER PLANT PROJECTS IN MALAYSIA 2022-01-04T08:49:42+08:00 Mohd Azrul Aziz Chee Fui Wong Nuzul Azam Haron Aidi Hizami Ales@Alias Raja Ahmad Azmeer Raja Ahmad Effendi Ooi Kuan Tan <p>Building Information Modelling (BIM) has become increasingly important for the construction industry in Malaysia. BIM implementation process requires proper strategic planning and considerations from many aspects.Malaysian government has realised the importance of BIM as an emerging technology to transform the construction industry in Malaysia,and thus has classified BIM as one of the twelve main technology in CIDB “Construction 4.0 Strategic Plan 2021-2025”. BIM implementation offer significant benefits to the power generation sector in Malaysia Thisstudy was conducted using the quantitaive research method in which questionnaires survey were distributed to the clients‘ representatives in the Malaysian power sector. This study has identified the 13 critical success factors to be considered by clients for BIM implementation in power plant projects in Malaysia. The success factors were classified based on the four (4) main fields or factors namely management, people, process and technology. The study findings show that management support is the most important success factor for the power plant projects while other success factors such as people, process and technology were also identified and discussed.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Model Pembangunan Maklumat (BIM) merupakan sebuah konsep penting bagi industri pembinaan di Malaysia. Proses pelaksanaan BIM memerlukan perancangan strategik dan pertimbangan wajar dari pelbagai aspek. Kerajaan Malaysia sedar akan kepentingan BIM sebagai teknologi pemangkin dalam transformasi industri pembinaan Malaysia di mana BIM telah disenaraikan sebagai salah satu daripada 12 teknologi utama dalam CIDB “Plan Strategik 4.0 Pembangunan 2021-2025”. Pelaksanaan BIM memberi faedah ketara kepada sektor jana kuasa di Malaysia. Kajian ini dibuat menggunakan kaedah kuantitatif melalui kaji selidik ke atas wakil klien dalam sektor tenaga Malaysia. Kajian ini telah mengenal pasti 13 faktor kejayaan kritikal yang perlu dipertimbangkan oleh klien bagi menghasilkan projek loji jana kuasa di Malaysia. Faktor kejayan ini telah diklasifikasi berdasarkan 4 bidang utama seperti pengurusan, pekerja, proses dan teknologi. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa sokongan daripada pihak pengurusan merupakan faktor utama bagi kejayaan sesebuah projek jana kuasa, di samping faktor-faktor lain seperti pekerja, proses dan teknologi juga telah dikenal pasti dan dibincangkan.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press BIODEGRADATION OF MANGO SEED STARCH FILMS IN SOIL 2022-01-04T08:54:48+08:00 Nur'Aishah Ahmad Shahrim Norshahida Sarifuddin Ahmad Zahirani Ahmad Azhar Hafizah Hanim Mohd Zaki <p>The typical petroleum-based plastics have triggered environmental problems. For this purpose, biodegradable polymers such as starch are often used to manufacture biodegradable plastics. At present, the efforts are underway to extract starch as a promising biopolymer from mango seeds and subsequently to produce a biodegradable starch film to be used as plastic packaging. As such, in this work, glycerol-plasticized mango starch films were prepared using a solution casting process, using different amounts of citric acid as a cross-linking agent. The blend ratio of starch to glycerol was set at 3:5 wt. each, while the amount of citric acid ranged from 0 to 10 wt.%. Then, the casted films underwent 21 days of soil burial testing in the natural environment to determine their biodegradability behavior. The soil burial test is one of the common methods chosen to assess the biodegradability of polymers. The idea is that, by burying samples in the soil for a fixed time, samples are exposed to microorganisms (i.e. bacteria and fungi) present in the soil that serve as their food source. This is somehow likely to facilitate the process of deterioration. For this reason, the soil burial test can be regarded as an authentic approach to the process of deterioration in the natural environment. The films' susceptibility to biodegradation reactions was assessed within intervals of seven days through their physical appearance and weight loss. Interestingly, it was found that the cross-linked starch films have been observed to degrade slower than the non-cross-linked starch films as burial time progressed. The declining percentages of weight loss, as well as the presence of microorganisms and eroded surface on the films observed by SEM, explained the degradation behavior of the cross-linked starch films compared to the non-cross-linked starch films. Hence it is believed that cross-linked starch-glycerol films are biodegradable in soil, henceforth, the potential to be commercialized as a biodegradable packaging material soon. At the same time, this plastic packaging is expected to be recognized as a value-added product since the raw materials ergo mango seeds utilized to develop this product are from waste, therefore, environmentally friendly.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Plastik yang berasaskan petroleum telah mencetuskan masalah persekitaran. Untuk tujuan ini, polimer biodegradasi seperti kanji sering digunakan untuk membuat plastik yang boleh terurai. Pada masa ini, usaha sedang dilakukan untuk mengekstrak pati sebagai biopolimer yang menjanjikan dari biji mangga dan kemudiannya menghasilkan filem pati yang terbiodegradasi untuk digunakan sebagai kemasan plastik. Oleh yang demikian, dalam karya ini, filem pati mangga plastik-gliserol disusun menggunakan proses pemutus larutan, menggunakan jumlah asid sitrik yang berlainan sebagai agen penghubung silang. Nisbah campuran pati dan gliserol ditetapkan pada 3:5 wt.% masing-masing, sementara jumlah asid sitrik berkisar antara 0 hingga 10 wt.% berat. Kemudian, sampel plastik tersebut ditanam di dalam tanah selama 21 hari di persekitaran semula jadi untuk menentukan tingkah laku biodegradasinya. Ujian penguburan tanah adalah salah satu kaedah biasa yang dipilih untuk menilai biodegradasi polimer. Ideanya adalah bahawa, dengan menguburkan sampel di tanah untuk waktu yang tetap, sampel terdedah kepada mikroorganisma (iaitu bakteria dan jamur) yang terdapat di dalam tanah yang berfungsi sebagai sumber makanan mereka. Ini mungkin memudahkan proses kemerosotan. Atas sebab ini, ujian penguburan tanah dapat dianggap sebagai pendekatan yang sahih terhadap proses kemerosotan di persekitaran semula jadi. Kerentanan filem terhadap reaksi biodegradasi dinilai dalam selang waktu tujuh hari melalui penampilan fizikal dan penurunan berat badan. Menariknya, didapati bahawa filem-filem pati berangkai silang telah dilihat menurun lebih perlahan daripada filem-filem pati yang tidak bersilang ketika masa pengebumian berlangsung. Peratusan penurunan berat badan yang menurun, serta kehadiran mikroorganisma dan permukaan yang terhakis pada filem yang diperhatikan oleh SEM, menjelaskan tingkah laku degradasi filem pati berangkai silang berbanding dengan filem pati yang tidak bersilang. Oleh itu, dipercayai bahawa filem kanji-gliserol berangkai silang dapat terbiodegradasi di dalam tanah, dan seterusnya, potensi untuk dikomersialkan sebagai bahan pembungkusan yang boleh terurai tidak lama lagi. Pada masa yang sama, pembungkusan plastik ini diharapkan dapat diakui sebagai produk bernilai tambah kerana bahan mentah ergo mangga yang digunakan untuk mengembangkan produk ini adalah dari sisa, oleh itu, mesra alam.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF MULTI-RECYCLING ON THE FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF POST CONSUMER HIGH IMPACT POLYSTYRENE FROM DISPOSABLE CUPS EVALUATED BY THE J-INTEGRAL APPROACH. 2022-01-04T08:54:41+08:00 Hanan EL BHILAT MABCHOUR Hassan SALMI Houda HACHIM Abdelilah EL HAD Khalid <p>The aim of the present paper is to study the effect of multi-recycling on the fracture behavior of high impact polystyrene from disposable cups. After collecting and washing the material, it was subjected to six cycles of recycling. After each cycle, it was subjected to tensile tests to determine the R-curves. The theory of the J-integral contour has been used for the development of a characterization method of the fracture strength appropriate to the case of this non-linear elastoplastic polymer material. To this end, the method of multiple specimens (Single edge notch tension SENT) of thin thickness was used, by introducing cracks of the same lengths to several identical test pieces. The results suggested a slight decrease in crack resistance of recycled high impact polystyrene, especially during the first cycle, demonstrated by a comparison of J<sub>IC</sub> values related to initiation of crack propagation. The fracture energy absorbed as a function of the cycles suggested a weakening within the material.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Tujuan kajian ini adalah bagi mengkaji kesan tindak balas pada pelbagai peringkat-kitar semula ke atas kerapuhan polisterin berimpak tinggi pada cawan pakai buang. Selepas mengumpul dan membasuh cawan ini, terdapat enam peringkat kitar semula. Pada setiap peringkat, ianya akan melalui ujian tegangan bagi mendapatkan lengkung-R. Teori kamiran-J kontur telah digunakan bagi mencipta kaedah khas bagi mengkaji kekuatan retakan bersesuaian bagi kes bahan polimer elastoplastik yang tidak-linear. Sehingga kini, kaedah Regangan Tepi Takuk Tunggal (SENT) telah digunakan pada spesimen berketebalan rendah, dengan menghasilkan keretakan sama panjang di permulaan kajian di buat pada pelbagai bahan uji yang serupa. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan rintangan pada retakan telah berkurang sedikit pada polisterin kitar semula berimpak tinggi, terutama pada kitaran pertama, yang ditunjukkan pada nilai J<sub>IC</sub> pada permukaan rambatan retakan awal. Tenaga kerapuhan yang meresap pada setiap kitaran menunjukkan bahan telah melemah dari dalam.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press EFFECT OF ETHYLENE OXIDE STERILIZATION ON PLASTISIZER MIGRATION AND MECHANICAL AND BLOOD PROPERTIES OF MEDICAL GRADE POLYVINYLE CHOLORIDE 2022-01-04T08:54:30+08:00 Maryam Poostchi Hamed Bagheri <p>The use of phthalates as a plasticizer in plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) always poses the threat of migration of phthalates into the environment through medical equipment. Phthalates can be used with natural-based plasticizers, such as Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) known as phthalate’s scavenger and PVC stabilizers. PVC formulations were characterized by different combinations of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) 30-40% with 5% ESBO. PVC flexibility increased significantly in the presence of ESBO, without a change in strength (tensile test). The decrease of the Tg temperature by adding ESBO in Differential Scanning Calorimetry indicated that ESBO preserved DEHP in the polymer. Also, it was shown that the sterilization process with Ethylene Oxide, similar to ESBO, decreased the Tg of polymer. DEHP migration was evaluated at a maximum level to the environment using the Gas Chromatography test. Samples containing ESBO showed less hemolysis.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penggunaan phthalates sebagai plasticizer dalam plastik polyvinyl chloride (PVC) selalu menimbulkan ancaman penghijrahan phthalates ke alam sekitar melalui peralatan perubatan. Phthalates boleh digunakan dengan plasticizer berasaskan semula jadi, seperti minyak kacang soya Epoxidized (ESBO) yang dikenali sebagai pemulung phthalate dan penstabil PVC. Formulasi PVC dicirikan oleh kombinasi yang berbeza di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) 30-40% dengan 5% ESBO. Fleksibiliti PVC meningkat dengan ketara di hadapan ESBO, tanpa perubahan kekuatan (ujian tegangan). Penurunan suhu Tg dengan menambahkan ESBO dalam Calorimetri Pengimbasan Berbeza menunjukkan bahawa ESBO mengekalkan DEHP dalam polimer. Juga, ditunjukkan bahawa proses pensterilan dengan Etilena Oksida, serupa dengan ESBO, menurunkan Tg polimer. Penghijrahan DEHP dinilai pada tahap maksimum ke lingkungan menggunakan uji Kromatografi Gas. Sampel yang mengandungi ESBO menunjukkan kurang hemolisis. </p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press MAGNETICALLY MODIFIED SUGARCANE BAGASSE BIOCHAR AS CADMIUM REMOVAL AGENT IN WATER 2022-01-04T08:53:05+08:00 Nur Izzaty Syahirah Baharudin Noraini Mohamed Noor Ezzat Chan Abdullah Raihan Othman Mubarak Nasibab Mujawar <p>Heavy metals are hazardous to health at certain levels. Currently, heavy metals are removed by physicochemical treatments, such as adsorption, flotation, and electrochemical deposition, and also biological treatments, such as algal biofilm reactor and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. In this study, magnetic biochar was produced to enhance the effectiveness and performance of the adsorbent for heavy metal removal. This study aimed to synthesise high-performance magnetic biochar, to determine the optimum parameters and conditions for high yield of magnetic biochar and high removal of cadmium (Cd<sup>2+</sup>) from aqueous solution, and to determine the adsorption kinetics and isotherms for Cd<sup>2+</sup> removal. Nickel oxide (NiO)-impregnated sugarcane bagasse was subjected to slow pyrolysis to produce magnetic biochar. The impregnated metal, pyrolysis temperature, and pyrolysis time were varied to determine the optimum parameters and conditions to produce high-performance magnetic biochar. The removal of Cd<sup>2+</sup> from aqueous solution and batch adsorption study were conducted. The synthesised magnetic biochar was characterised using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The adsorption data agreed well with the pseudo-second-order model and followed the Langmuir isotherm model. This study achieved 88.47% removal efficiency of Cd<sup>2+</sup> from aqueous solution. Thus, the removal of this heavy metal as a human carcinogen reduces the hazardous effects on human health and reduces the toxicity in the environment.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Logam berat adalah berbahaya bagi kesihatan di peringkat tertentu. Pada masa ini, logam berat disingkirkan melalui rawatan fizikokimia, seperti penyerapan, pengapungan, dan deposit elektrokimia, dan rawatan biologikal, seperti reaktor biofilem alga dan oksidasi ammonium anerobik. Kajian ini menghasilkan biochar magnetik bagi meningkatkan keberkesanan dan prestasi penyerapan penyingkiran logam berat. Kajian ini bertujuan bagi mengsintesis biochar magnetik pada prestasi tinggi, bagi menghasilkan parameter optimum dan keadaan pengeluaran tinggi biochar magnetik dan penyingkiran tinggi kadmium (Cd<sup>2+</sup>) daripada larutan akues, dan bagi mendapatkan penyerapan kinetik dan isoterma penyingkiran Cd<sup>2+</sup>. Nikel oksida (NiO)-impregnat hampas tebu adalah berdasarkan pirolisis perlahan bagi menghasilkan biochar magnetik. Logam yang terimpregnat, suhu pirolisis dan tempoh pirolisis dipelbagaikan bagi mendapatkan parameter optimum dan keadaan bagi menghasilkan biochar magnetik berprestasi-tinggi. Penyingkiran Cd<sup>2+</sup> daripada larutan akues dan kajian penyerapan berkumpulan telah dibuat. Biochar magnetik yang disentisis diklasifikasikan menggunakan mikroskopi elektron imbasan medan-pancaran (FESEM), tenaga sebaran X-ray (EDX), pembelauan X-ray (XRD), kawasan permukaan Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Penjelmaan Fourier inframerah (FTIR), dan sampel getaran magnetometer (VSM). Data penyerapan menunjukkan persetujuan dengan model aturan-kedua-pseudo dan mengikuti model isoterma Langmuir. Kajian ini mencapai 88.47% keberkesanan penyingkiran Cd<sup>2+</sup> daripada larutan akues. Oleh itu, penyingkiran logam berat ini sebagai karsinogen manusia mengurangkan kesan teruk pada kesihatan manusia dan pengurangan toksik pada alam sekitar.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press APPLICATION OF HOUSE OF QUALITY IN THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF BATIK WAX EXTRUDER AND PRINTER 2022-01-04T08:52:53+08:00 nurul anissa mohd asri ABDUL MALEK ABDUL HAMID NORHASHIMAH SHAFFIAR NOR AIMAN SUKINDAR SHARIFAH IMIHEZRI SYED SHAHARUDDIN FARID SYAZWAN HASSAN <p>Malaysian batik production is dominated by two techniques known as hand-drawn batik, or batik tjanting, and stamp batik, or batik block. In comparison to batik block, the more popular batik tjanting takes a longer time to produce. A Standardized Nordic Questionnaire (SNQ) for musculoskeletal symptom examination involving batik artisans in Kelantan and Terengganu identified high rates of musculoskeletal disorders in respondents due to their working posture during the batik tjanting process. It was also observed that the number of workers and artisans willing to participate in the traditional batik industry is on the decline. These problems have led to a systematic Quality Functional Deployment approach to facilitate the decision-making process for the conceptual design of an automatic batik printer. In this study, house of quality (HOQ) was applied to identify the critical features for a batik printer based on the voice of the customer (VOC). A survey done to rate the importance of VOC using an 8-point Likert scale revealed that the batik practitioners topmost priority for the batik printer feature is the 'ability to adjust and maintain the temperature of wax' (17.54%) while the non-batik practitioners chose 'ability to deliver a variety of complex designs' (15.94%). The least required feature for the batik printer was related to the size of the batik printer. The mapping between customer requirements (VOC) and technical requirements identified that the extruder design (21.3%), the heating element (18%), and nozzle diameter (17.8%) were the most critical components for the batik printer. Several conceptual designs of the extrusion unit, cartesian-based batik printer, and 2D image conversion using open-sourced software were proposed at the end of this work.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Pengeluaran batik Malaysia telah didominasi oleh dua teknik yang dikenali sebagai batik lukisan-tangan (batik canting) dan batik cap (batik blok). Sebagai perbandingan, batik canting yang popular mengambil masa lebih lama bagi dihasilkan. Soal Selidik Nordic Standad (SNQ) bagi meneliti gejala muskuloskeletal melibatkan tukang batik di Kelantan dan Terengganu telah menunjukkan persamaan kadar muskuloskeletal yang tinggi pada postur badan semasa bekerja canting batik. Bilangan pekerja yang terlibat dalam industri tradisional batik ini turut terjejas. Masalah-masalah ini telah mengarah kepada kaedah Pengerahan Fungsi Kualiti bagi membantu proses membuat keputusan dalam rekaan konsep pencetak batik automatik. Kajian ini telah mengadaptasi Kualiti Rumah (HOQ) bagi mengesan ciri-ciri kritikal pada pencetak batik berdasarkan suara pelanggan (VOC). Kaji selidik telah dilakukan bagi menilai kepentingan VOC menggunakan skala Likert 8-poin. Didapati keutamaan yang diperlukan oleh 17.54% ahli batik adalah; ciri pencetak batik ini perlu mempunyai ‘keupayaan dalam menyelaras dan menetapkan suhu lilin’, manakala sebanyak 15.94% bukan ahli batik memilih ‘keupayaan pencetak ini harus berjaya menghasilkan pelbagai rekaan yang kompleks’. Ciri yang kurang diberi tumpuan adalah berkaitan saiz pencetak batik. Persamaan antara kehendak pelanggan (VOC) dan kehendak teknikal dalam mengenal pasti komponen-komponen penting bagi pencetak batik adalah rekaan penyemperit (21.3%), elemen pemanas (18%), dan diameter nozel (17.8%). Pelbagai rekaan konsep bagi unit penyemperit, pencetak batik canting, dan imej konversi 2D menggunakan perisian sumber terbuka telah dicadangkan di bahagian akhir kajian ini.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF E-GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYESTER/ MWCNTS NANOCOMPOSITES 2022-01-04T08:52:50+08:00 Gerges Naguib <p>Mechanical properties of polyester/glass fiber reinforced by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied. MWCNTs nano particles are mixed within resin in various weight fractions of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 % using sonication. E-Glass fiber (chopped strand mat) is used in various weight fractions within the composite like 80/20 wt%, 70/30 wt%, 50/50 wt% to fabricate polyester/CSM/MWCNTs composites. The effect of the addition of MWCNTs nanoparticles on the mechanical characteristics such as hardness and tensile strength were investigated. The effect of various E-glass fiber chopped strand mat (CSM) wt.% reinforcement is also investigated. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to show the nanocomposites morphological properties such as reinforcement orientation and the bonding between matrix and fiber. It was found that the addition of 0.4 wt% MWCNTs improves the mechanical properties of composites, especially the 50 wt% polyester / 50 wt% CSM composite. The tensile strength improved by 39.8%, and the hardness improved by 38%.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Ciri-ciri mekanikal bagi poliester / gelas fiber diperkukuh dengan dinding berbilang karbon nanotiub (MWCNTs) dikaji. Partikel nano MWCNT telah dicampur ke dalam resin pelbagai berat pada pecahan 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 dan 0.6 % menggunakan sonikasi. Gentian Kaca-E (potongan lembaran) telah digunakan dalam pelbagai pecahan berat dalam komposit 80/20 wt%, 70/30 wt%, 50/50 wt% bagi menghasilkan komposit poliester/CSM/MWCNT. Kesan penambahan nanopartikel MWCNT pada ciri-ciri mekanikal seperti kekerasan dan kekuatan tensil diuji. Kesan pelbagai gentian Kaca-E (potongan lembaran) (CSM) wt.% bersama agen pengukuh turut dikaji. Pengimbas Mikroskop Elektron (SEM) digunakan bagi menilai ciri-ciri morfologi komposit nano seperti orientasi pengukuh dan ikatan antara matrik dan gentian. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan dengan penambahan sebanyak 0.4 wt% MWCNT dapat memperbaiki ciri-ciri mekanikal komposit terutama komposit campuran (50 wt% polyester / 50 wt% CSM). Ketahanan tensil meningkat sebanyak 39.8%, dan kekerasan telah bertambah sebanyak 38%.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press INFLUENCE OF IPNS (VINYLESTER/EPOXY/POLYURETHANE) ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF GLASS/CARBON FIBER REINFORCED HYBRID COMPOSITES 2022-01-04T08:52:43+08:00 Santhosh priya Karjala Vijay Kumar Kuttynadar Rajammal Suresh Gopi Rajesh Ravi Devanathan Chockalingam Meenakshi Chinathambi Muthukaruppan <p>The main objective of this study is to compare the interpenetrating polymer networks’ (IPNs) physical strengths with different variants of fibers. In this study, E-glass, carbon, and a combination of E-glass and carbon fiber (hybrid) have been taken as the reinforcement. Similarly, three combinations of the IPNs were chosen as the matrix material, namely epoxy / polyurethane (EP), vinyl ester / polyurethane (VP) and epoxy/vinyl ester (EV) as IPN blends. In order to thoroughly understand the physical characteristics of the combination of blends and fibers, nine variants (laminates) were fabricated: combinations of epoxy / polyurethane / E-glass (EPG), epoxy / polyurethane / carbon (EPC), epoxy / vinyl ester / glass / carbon (EPGC-hybrid), vinyl ester / polyurethane / glass (VPG), vinyl ester / polyurethane / carbon (VPC), vinyl ester / polyurethane / glass / carbon (VPGC), epoxy / vinyl ester / glass (EVG), epoxy / vinyl ester / carbon (EVC), and epoxy / vinyl ester / glass / carbon (EVGC-hybrid), all with help of a hand-layup technique. Furthermore, mechanical tests such as tensile, flexural, impact, and HDT (heat distortion temperature) were performed on all the variants as per the ASTM standards. Results shows that carbon fiber reinforcement with all IPN combinations has shown extraordinary performance (double fold) over the E-glass fiber reinforcement, whereas the hybrid (combination of E-glass/carbon) laminates have shown excellent characteristics over E-glass fiber reinforcement, irrespective of IPN matrix material. All the results were compared with each other and their corresponding variations were plotted as bar charts.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong> Objektif utama kajian ini adalah bagi membandingkan kekuatan fizikal rangkaian polimer saling menusuk (IPN) dengan pelbagai jenis gentian berbeza. Kajian ini mengguna pakai gentian kaca-E, karbon dan gabungan kaca-E dan gentian karbon (hibrid) sebagai penguat. Begitu juga, tiga kombinasi IPN dipilih sebagai bahan matrik, iaitu epoksi / poliuretan (EP), ester vinil / poliuretan (VP) dan epoksi / ester vinil (EV) sebagai campuran IPN. Bagi tujuan memahami secara mendalam ciri-ciri fizikal gabungan campuran dan gentian, sembilan varian (lamina) dihasilkan, malaui kombinasi seperti epoksi / poliuretan / kaca-E (EPG), epoksi / poliuretan / karbon (EPC), epoksi / ester vinil / kaca / karbon (EPGC-hibrid), ester vinil / poliuretan / kaca (VPG), ester vinil / poliuretan / karbon (VPC), ester vinil / poliuretan / kaca / karbon (VPGC), epoksi / ester vinil / kaca (EVG), epoksi / ester vinil / karbon (EVC), epoksi / ester vinil / kaca / karbon (EVGC-hibrid) dengan teknik susun atur lapisan menggunakan tangan. Selain itu, ujian mekanikal seperti tegangan, lenturan, hentaman dan HDT (suhu kelenturan panas) dilakukan pada semua varian mengikut piawaian ASTM. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa, penguat gentian karbon dengan semua kombinasi IPN telah menunjukkan prestasi luar biasa (dua kali ganda) daripada penguat gentian kaca-E, manakala lamina hibrid (campuran kaca-E / karbon) telah menunjukkan ciri-ciri sangat baik berbanding penguat gentian kaca-E tanpa mengira bahan matrik IPN. Semua hasil dapatan dibandingkan antara satu sama lain dan padanan variasi diplot sebagai carta bar.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press EVALUATION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE IN ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING OF AL-ALLOY WITH 10%SIC 2022-01-04T08:49:49+08:00 Abbas Fadhil <p>Aluminum-based metallic matrix compounds are widely used in industrial and aircraft manufacturing due to their advanced characteristics, such as toughness and high strength resistance to weight ratio, etc. Silicon carbide is an important industrial ceramic and it is the fourth hardest ceramic after diamond, boron nitride, and boron carbide. Owing to its low fracture toughness, it is difficult to machine silicon carbide using traditional machining processes. Electrical discharge machine can machine such materials irrespective of their hardness. Aluminum alloy 6061 and 10% SiC based-metal matrix composite were used as a workpiece that was produced by stir casting. In the experimental investigation, pulse current Pc (10, 20, and 30 A), pulse on (Pon) duration (100, 150, and 200 ?sec), and pulse off (Poff) duration (6, 12, and 24 ?sec) were treated as the input variables. The output responses were surface roughness (SR) and material removal rate (MRR). The best value for surface roughness (Ra) reached (1.032 µm) at Pc (10 A), Pon duration (100 ?sec) and Poff (15 ?sec). Also, the best result for the productivity of the process (MRR) reached (69.49 × 10<sup>-3</sup> g/min) at Pc (30 A) Pon, (200 ?sec) and (6 ?sec) Poff. Therefore, the experimental outcomes were optimized for surface roughnes and material removal rate by adding 10% SiC to aluminum alloy 6061.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Sebatian matrik logam berasaskan aluminium telah digunakan secara meluas dalam industri pembuatan dan pesawat kerana ciri-cirinya yang canggih, seperti ketahanan dan daya rintangan yang tinggi kepada nisbah berat, dan lain-lain. Silikon karbida adalah seramik industri yang penting dan ia merupakan seramik keempat terkuat setelah berlian, boron nitrida dan boron karbida. Disebabkan ketahanan frakturnya yang rendah, adalah sukar bagi menghasilkan mesin silikon karbida menggunakan proses pemesinan tradisional. Mesin pelepasan elektrik mampu menghasilkan mesin menggunakan bahan tersebut tanpa mengira kekerasan. Aloi aluminium 6061 dan komposit matrik logam berasaskan SiC 10% telah digunakan sebagai bahan kerja yang terhasil melalui tuangan kacauan. Melalui penyelidikan eksperimen, detik arus Pc (10, 20, dan 30 A), detik hadir (Pon) berdurasi (100, 150, dan 200 ?sec), dan detik henti (Poff) berdurasi (6, 12, dan 24 ?sec) dirawat sebagai pemboleh ubah input. Respon pengeluaran adalah kekasaran permukaan (SR) dan kadar penyingkiran bahan (MRR). Nilai terbaik bagi kekasaran permukaan (Ra) telah mencapai (1.032 µm) pada Pc (10 A), berdurasi Pon (100 ?sec) dan Poff (15 ?sec). Tambahan, hasil terbaik bagi proses produktiviti (MRR) mencapai (69.49 × 10<sup>-3</sup> g/min) pada Pc (30 A) Pon, (200 ?sec) dan (6 ?sec) Poff. Oleh itu, hasil eksperimen dioptimumkan bagi permukaan kasar dan kadar penyingkiran bahan dengan tambahan 10% SiC ke aloi aluminium 6061.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press Editorial 2022-01-04T08:49:21+08:00 AHM Zahirul Alam <h2 style="margin: 18.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">CHIEF EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ahmad Faris Ismail, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">TECHNICAL EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Sany Izan Ihsan, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">EXECUTIVE EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">AHM Zahirul Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">ASSOCIATE EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Nor Farahidah Za’bah, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin-left: 0cm; line-height: normal;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">LANGUAGE EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .1pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Lynn Mason, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 6.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">COPY EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 6.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">MALAY TRANSLATOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Nurul Arfah Che Mustapha, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;">&nbsp;</p> <h2 style="line-height: 10.75pt; margin: 12.0pt 0cm 6.0pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><a name="OLE_LINK2"></a><span lang="EN-US">Abdullah Al-Mamun, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Abdumalik Rakhimov, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ali Sophian, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Erwin Sulaeman, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hazleen Anuar, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Konstantin Khanin, University of Toronto, Canada</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ma'an Al-Khatib, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Md Zahangir Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Meftah Hrairi, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mohamed B. Trabia, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mohammad S. Alam, Texas A&amp;M University-Kingsville, United States </span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mustafizur Rahman, National University Singapore, Singapore</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ossama Abdulkhalik, Michigan Technological University, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Othman O Khalifa, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Razi Nalim, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Rosminazuin AB. Rahim, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Sharifah Imihezri Syed Shaharuddin, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Waqar Asrar, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 171.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></p> <h1><strong>INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE</strong></h1> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Anwar, United States</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Abdul Latif Bin Ahmad, Malaysia</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Farzad Ismail, USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Hany Ammar, United States</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Idris Mohammed Bugaje, Nigeria</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">K.B. Ramachandran, India</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Kunzu Abdella, Canada</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Luis Le Moyne, ISAT, University of Burgundy, France</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">M Mujtaba, United Kingdom</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Mohamed AI-Rubei, Ireland</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Mohamed B Trabia, United States</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Syed Kamrul Islam, United States</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Tibor Czigany, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">Yiu-Wing Mai, The University of Sydney, Australia.</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">&nbsp;</p> <h2 style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIMS &amp; SCOPE OF IIUM ENGINEERING JOURNAL</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: 5.6pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US">The <strong>IIUM Engineering Journal</strong>, published biannually (January and July), is a carefully refereed international publication of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). Contributions of high technical merit within the <span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">span </span>of engineering disciplines; covering the main <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">areas </span>of engineering: Electrical and <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">Computer </span>Engineering; Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Automation <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and</span> Mechatronics Engineering; Material and Chemical Engineering; Environmental <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and</span> Civil Engineering; Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Engineering Mathematics and Physics; and Computer Science and Information Technology are considered for publication in this journal. Contributions from <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">other areas </span>of Engineering <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and </span>Applied Science are also welcomed. The <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">IIUM </span>Engineering Journal publishes contributions under <em>Regular papers and Invited review papers</em>. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the specific challenges of the developing world, and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: 5.6pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.55pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">REFEREES’ NETWORK</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: 5.9pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: -.05pt; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US">All papers submitted to IIUM Engineering Journal will be subjected to a rigorous reviewing process through a worldwide network of specialized and competent referees. Each accepted paper should have at least two positive referees’ assessments.</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">SUBMISSION OF A MANUSCRIPT</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.7pt;"><span lang="EN-US">A manuscript should be submitted online to the IIUM-Engineering Journal website at </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-right: 6.05pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height: 98%;"><a href=""> <span style="font-size: small;"></span></a><span style="font-size: small;">. Further correspondence on the status of the paper could be done through the journal website.</span></span></p> <div class="WordSection2"> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 113%; margin: 0cm 5.85pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Whilst every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisement herein are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher and the editorial committee accept no liability whatsoever for the consequence of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement.</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 113%; margin: 0cm 5.85pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;" align="center"><img src="" alt="" width="231" height="135"></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; margin-bottom: 0;" align="center"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 13.0pt;">IIUM Engineering Journal</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; margin-bottom: 0;" align="center"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 9.0pt;">ISSN: 1511-788X&nbsp;&nbsp; E-ISSN: 2289-7860</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;" align="center"><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></p> </div> <p><strong>Published by:</strong> <br><strong>IIUM Press</strong>, <br>International Islamic University Malaysia <br>Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia <br>Phone (+603) 6421-5014, Fax: (+603) 6421-6298</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM Press