IIUM Engineering Journal 2019-07-09T21:50:28+08:00 Prof. Dr. AHM Zahirul Alam Open Journal Systems <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal, published biannually (June and December, <em>plan to change Jan and July from 2020</em>), is a peer-reviewed open-access journal of the Kulliyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).</p> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal publishes original research findings as regular papers, review papers (by invitation). The Journal provides a platform for Engineers, Researchers, Academicians, and Practitioners who are highly motivated in contributing to the Engineering disciplines, and Applied Sciences. 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Salleh, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <h2><u>EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS</u></h2> <p>Abdullah Al-Mamun, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p>Abdumalik Rakhimov, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p>Amir Akramin Shafie, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p>Erry Yulian Triblas Adesta, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p>Erwin Sulaeman, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p>Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</p> <p>Hazleen Anuar, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p>Konstantin Khanin, University of Toronto, Canada</p> <p>Ma'an Al-Khatib, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p>Md Zahangir Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p>Meftah Hrairi, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p>Mohamed B. Trabia, United States</p> <p>Mohammad S. Alam, Texas A&amp;M University-Kingsville, United States</p> <p>Muataz Hazza Faizi Al Hazza, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p>Mustafizur Rahman, National University Singapore, Singapore</p> <p>Nor Farahidah Binti Za'bah, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p>Ossama Abdulkhalik, Michigan Technological University, United States</p> <p>Rosminazuin AB. Rahim, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p>Waqar Asrar, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2><u>INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE</u></h2> <p>Anwar, United States</p> <p>Abdul Latif Bin Ahmad, Malaysia</p> <p>Farzad Ismail, USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia</p> <p>Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</p> <p>Hany Ammar, United States</p> <p>Idris Mohammed Bugaje, Nigeria</p> <p>K.B. Ramachandran, India</p> <p>Kunzu Abdella, Canada</p> <p>Luis Le Moyne, ISAT, University of Burgundy, France</p> <p>M Mujtaba, United Kingdom</p> <p>Mohamed AI-Rubei, Ireland</p> <p>Mohamed B Trabia, United States</p> <p>Mohammad S. Alam, Texas A&amp;M University-Kingsville, United States</p> <p>Nazmul Karim</p> <p>Ossama Abdulkhalik, Michigan Technological University, United States</p> <p>Razi Nalim, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States</p> <p>Syed Kamrul Islam, United States</p> <p>Tibor Czigany, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary</p> <p>Yiu-Wing Mai, The University of Sydney, Australia.</p> <h2>AIMS &amp; SCOPE OF IIUMENGINEERING JOURNAL</h2> <p>The <strong>IIUM Engineering Journal</strong>, published biannually, is a carefully refereed international publication of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). Contributions of high technical merit within the span of engineering disciplines; covering the main areas of engineering: Electrical and Computer Engineering; Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Automation and Mechatronics Engineering; Material and Chemical Engineering; Environmental and Civil Engineering; Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Engineering Mathematics and Physics; and Computer Science and Information Technology are considered for publication in this journal. Contributions from other areas of Engineering and Applied Science are also welcomed. The IIUM Engineering Journal publishes contributions under <em>Regular papers, Invited review papers, Short communications, Technical notes, and Letters to the editor </em>(with publication charge).</p> <h2>REFEREES’ NETWORK</h2> <p>All papers submitted to IIUM Engineering Journal will be subjected to a rigorous reviewing process through a worldwide network of specialized and competent referees. Each accepted paper should have at least two positive referees’ assessments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2>SUBMISSION OF A MANUSCRIPT</h2> <p>A manuscript should be submitted online to the IIUM-Engineering Journal website:</p> <p> Further correspondence on the status of the paper could be done through the journal website and the e-mail addresses of the Executive Editor: <em><a href=""></a></em> Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jan Gombak, 53100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.</p> <p><em>Phone: (603) 6196 4529, Fax:(603) 6196 4488.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>P</strong><strong>ublished by</strong></p> <p><strong><img src="/ejournal/../pub/ejournal/public/site/images/zahirul/Press_logo.jpg"></strong></p> <p><strong>International Islamic University Malaysia</strong></p> <div>Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia</div> <p>Phone (+603) 6196-5018, Fax: (+603) 6196-6298</p> <p>Website:</p> <p>Whilst every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisement herein are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher and the editorial committee accept no liability whatsoever for the consequence of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement.</p> <p><strong>IIUM ENGINEERING JOURNAL</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 1511-788X&nbsp;&nbsp; E-ISSN: 2289-7860</strong></p> <h3>Volume 20, Issue 1, June 2019</h3> <p><strong>Table of Content</strong></p> <div id="pkp_content_main" class="pkp_structure_main" role="main"> <div class="page page_issue"> <div class="obj_issue_toc"> <div class="sections"> <div class="section"> <ul class="cmp_article_list articles"> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">Editorial Page</a></div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;COVER PAGE</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="section"> <h2>CHEMICAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING</h2> <ul class="cmp_article_list articles"> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">COMPARATIVE METAGENOMICS ANALYSIS OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) USING THREE DIFFERENT BIOINFORMATICS PIPELINES</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">Adibah parmen, MOHD NOOR MAT ISA, FARAH FADWA BENBELGACEM, Hamzah Mohd Salleh, Ibrahim Ali Noorbatcha</div> <div class="pages">1 - 11</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">LIPASE IMMOBILIZATION ON FIBERS GRAFTED WITH POLYGLYCIDYL METHACHRYLATE</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">Maan Alkhatib, Nik Adlin Bahrudin, HAMZAH M. SALLEH, Teo M. Ting</div> <div class="pages">12 - 23</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">COLONY COMPOSITION AND BIOMASS OF MACROTERMES GILVUS HAGEN (BLATTODEA: TERMITIDAE) IN INDONESIA</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">NIKEN SUBEKTI, Priyantini Widiyaningrum, Dodi Nandika, Dedy Duryadi Solihin</div> <div class="pages">24 - 28</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="section"> <h2>CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING</h2> <ul class="cmp_article_list articles"> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">A SURVEY OF MATLAB EFFICIENCY IN DAMAGE DETECTION OF CONCRETE GRAVITY IN CONCRETE GRAVITY DAMS</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">Sajad Esmaielzadeh, Hassan Ahmadi, Seyed Abbas Hosseini</div> <div class="pages">29 - 48</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">IMPLEMENTATION OF GOVERNMENT ASSET MANAGEMENT USING TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER (TLS) AS PART OF BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (BIM)</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">Asep Yusup Saptari, S. Hendriatiningsih, Dony Bagaskara, Levana Apriani</div> <div class="pages">49 - 69</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">THE ANALYSIS OF LIQUEFACTION PHENOMENON OF THE FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT USING SEISMIC MONITORING EQUIPMENT</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">RINI KUSUMAWARDANI, Untoro Nugroho, Sri Handayani, Mareta Aspirilia Fananda</div> <div class="pages">70 - 78</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="section"> <h2>ELECTRICAL, COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING</h2> <ul class="cmp_article_list articles"> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">PSG DYNAMIC CHANGES IN METHAMPHETAMINE ABUSE USING RECURRENCE QUANTIFICATION ANALYSIS</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">Sayyed Majid Mazinani, GHASEM SADEGHI BAJESTANI</div> <div class="pages">79 - 89</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF MEMS PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY SCAVENGER BASED ON PZT THIN FILM</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">Aliza Aini Md Ralib, Nur Wafa Asyiqin Zulfakher, Rosminazuin Ab Rahim, Nor Farahidah Za'bah, Noor Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif</div> <div class="pages">90 - 99</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">Evaluation on the Effectiveness of Visual Learning Environment on Programming Course From Students’ Perspectives</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">Nasa Zata Dina, Eto Wuryanto, Rachman Sinatriya Marjianto</div> <div class="pages">100 - 107</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">TOWARDS AN EFFICIENT TRAFFIC CONGESTION PREDICTION METHOD BASED ON NEURAL NETWORKS AND BIG GPS DATA</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">Wiam Elleuch, Ali Wali, Adel M. Alimi</div> <div class="pages">108 - 118</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION METHOD BASED ON TONGUE CLICKING FOR MUTE DISABILITIES</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">NIK NUR WAHIDAH NIK HASHIM, MUHAMMAD AMIRUL AMIN AZMI, HAZLINA MD. YUSOF</div> <div class="pages">119 - 128</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">A COMBINED DEEP LEARNING MODEL FOR PERSIAN SENTIMENT ANALYSIS</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">Zahra Bokaee Nezhad, Mohammad Ali Deihimi</div> <div class="pages">129 - 139</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">MODIFIED CAPACITOR ASSISTED EXTENDED BOOST QUASI Z-SOURCE INVERTER FOR THE GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEM</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">N Hemalatha, Seyezhai Ramalingam</div> <div class="pages">140 - 157</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">A NOVEL USER PROFILE-BASED FUZZY APPROACH FOR EVALUATING TRUST IN SEMANTIC WEB</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">SOMAYEH ASHTARI, MALIHE DANESH, hossein shirgahi</div> <div class="pages">158 - 176</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">PLL-BASED 3Φ; INVERTER CIRCUIT FOR MICROGRID SYSTEM OPERATED BY ELECTROSTATIC GENERATOR</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">S.M.A Motakabber, Tawfikur Rahman, Muhammad I. Ibrahimy, A. H. M. Zahirul Alam</div> <div class="pages">177 - 193</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">INTELLIGENT CONTROL SYSTEM OF A WHEELCHAIR FOR PEOPLE WITH QUADRIPLEGIA PARALYSIS</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">hayder Fadhil; Saif Hussam; Yasseen Sadoon</div> <div class="pages">194 - 201</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="section"> <h2>MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING</h2> <ul class="cmp_article_list articles"> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">Adsorptive removal of Pb (II) using exfoliated graphite adsorbent:influence of experimental conditions and magnetic CoFe2O4 decoration</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">Thi Thuong Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Thu Nguyen, Long Giang Bach, Duy Trinh Nguyen, Thi Phuong Quynh Bui</div> <div class="pages">202 - 215</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">Grease Quality Issues on Middle Voltage Switchgear: Corrosivity, Resistivity, Safety and Ageing</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">Mohd Sabri Mahmud, Sanuri Ishak, Mohd Najib Razali, Mohd Aizudin Abdul Aziz, Musfafikri Musa</div> <div class="pages">216 - 228</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="section"> <h2>MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING</h2> <ul class="cmp_article_list articles"> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">A RANS K-ω SIMULATION OF 2D TURBULENT NATURAL CONVECTION IN AN ENCLOSURE WITH HEATING SOURCES</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">mehdi ahmadi, Seyed Ali Agha Mirjalily, Seyed Amir Abbas Oloomi</div> <div class="pages">240 - 255</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="section"> <h2>MECHATRONICS AND AUTOMATION ENGINEERING</h2> <ul class="cmp_article_list articles"> <li> <div class="obj_article_summary"> <div class="title"><a href="">MAGNETICALLY INDUCED PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTER VIA HYBRID KINETIC MOTION</a></div> <div class="meta"> <div class="authors">Huda Azam, Noor Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif, Aliza Aini Md Ralib</div> <div class="pages">256 - 268</div> </div> <ul class="galleys_links"> <li><a class="obj_galley_link pdf" href="">&nbsp;PDF</a></li> </ul> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) COMPARATIVE METAGENOMICS ANALYSIS OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) USING THREE DIFFERENT BIOINFORMATICS PIPELINES 2019-06-02T10:59:28+08:00 Adibah parmen MOHD NOOR MAT ISA FARAH FADWA BENBELGACEM Hamzah Mohd Salleh Ibrahim Ali Noorbatcha <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> The substantial cost reduction and massive production of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data have contributed to the progress in the rapid growth of metagenomics. However, production of the massive amount of data by NGS has revealed the challenges in handling the existing bioinformatics tools related to metagenomics. Therefore, in this research we have investigated an equal set of DNA metagenomics data from palm oil mill effluent (POME) sample using three different freeware bioinformatics pipelines’ websites of metagenomics RAST server (MG-RAST), Integrated Microbial Genomes with Microbiome Samples (IMG/M) and European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) Metagenomics, in term of the taxonomic assignment and functional analysis. We found that MG-RAST is the quickest among these three pipelines. However, in term of analysis of results, IMG/M provides more variety of phylum with wider percent identities for taxonomical assignment and IMG/M provides the highest carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, and coenzymes transport and metabolism functional annotation beside the highest in total number of glycoside hydrolase enzymes. Next, in identifying the conserved domain and family involved, EBI Metagenomics would be much more appropriate. All the three bioinformatics pipelines have their own specialties and can be used alternately or at the same time based on the user’s functional preference.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Pengurangan kos dalam skala besar dan pengeluaran data ‘next-generation sequencing’ (NGS) secara besar-besaran telah menyumbang kepada pertumbuhan pesat metagenomik. Walau bagaimanapun, pengeluaran data dalam skala yang besar oleh NGS telah menimbulkan cabaran dalam mengendalikan alat-alat bioinformatika yang sedia ada berkaitan dengan metagenomik. Justeru itu, dalam kajian ini, kami telah menyiasat satu set data metagenomik DNA yang sama dari sampel effluen kilang minyak sawit dengan menggunakan tiga laman web bioinformatik percuma iaitu dari laman web ‘metagenomics RAST server’ (MG-RAST), ‘Integrated Microbial Genomes with Microbiome Samples’ (IMG/M) dan ‘European Bioinformatics Institute’ (EBI) Metagenomics dari segi taksonomi dan analisis fungsi. Kami mendapati bahawa MG-RAST ialah yang paling cepat di antara ketiga-tiga ‘pipeline’, tetapi mengikut keputusan analisa, IMG/M mengeluarkan maklumat philum yang lebih pelbagai bersama peratus identiti yang lebih luas berbanding yang lain untuk pembahagian taksonomi dan IMG/M juga mempunyai bacaan tertinggi dalam hampir semua anotasi fungsional karbohidrat, amino asid, lipid, dan koenzima pengangkutan dan metabolisma malah juga paling tinggi dalam jumlah enzim hidrolase glikosida. Kemudian, untuk mengenal pasti ‘domain’ terpelihara dan keluarga yang terlibat, EBI metagenomics lebih bersesuaian. Ketiga-tiga saluran ‘bioinformatics pipeline’ mempunyai keistimewaan mereka yang tersendiri dan boleh digunakan bersilih ganti dalam masa yang sama berdasarkan pilihan fungsi penggun.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Engineering Journal LIPASE IMMOBILIZATION ON FIBERS GRAFTED WITH POLYGLYCIDYL METHACHRYLATE 2019-06-02T10:59:42+08:00 Maan Alkhatib Nik Adlin Bahrudin HAMZAH M. SALLEH Mohamed M. E. Nasef Teo M. Ting <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> Lipase enzyme originated from wheat germ was immobilized on nylon -6- grafted with polyglycidyl methachrylate (PGMA). The immobilization of enzyme experiments were designed and studied using face centred central composite design (FCCCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). Prior to immobilization, the polymer was activated with diethyl amine/ethanol to introduce an amine functional group to facilitate covalent bonding with the enzyme. The immobilized and free enzymes were characterized for effect of temperature and pH on enzyme activity, stability, storage and reusability as well as kinetics studies. ANOVA revealed that optimum lipase activity of 0.287 U/ml was achieved at immobilization time of 5 h, pH of 6 and 1.0 mg/ml for enzyme concentration. The optimum temperatures and pH for immobilized and free enzymes were 45 °C and 35 °C, and 8 and 7, respectively. The immobilized enzyme showed higher stability compared to free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme retained 18% of its activity after being recycled 8 times. In a storage stability test, immobilized lipase was able to retain 70% of its activity after being stored for 30 days, while free enzyme activity dropped to 15 % after 20 days of storage.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK</em></strong><strong>:</strong>Enzim Lipase telah dihasilkan daripada mikroorganisma pegun gandum di atas nilon -6- dan digraf bersama poliglisidel methakrilet (PGMA). Enzim pegun ini direka dan dikaji secara eksperimen menggunakan reka bentuk campuran pusat pada permukaan (FCCCD) di bawah kaedah tindak balas permukaan (RSM). Sebelum menjadi pegun, polimer ini telah diaktifkan dengan dietil amine/ethanol bagi menghasilkan kumpulan fungsi amine bagi membantu ikatan kovalen atom pada enzim. Enzim pegun dan bebas ini telah dikategorikan mengikut kesan enzim ke atas suhu, aktiviti enzim ke atas kesan pH, kestabilan, keboleh-simpanan dan keboleh-gunaan balik, serta ujian tindak balas kinetik. ANOVA membuktikan bahawa aktiviti optimum enzim lipase ini adalah sebanyak 0.287 U/ml telah terhasil selama 5 jam pegun, pada pH 6 dan kepekatan enzim sebanyak 1.0 mg/ml. Suhu dan pH optimum, pada enzim pegun dan enzim bebas ini adalah pada 45 °C dan 35 °C, dan pH 8 dan 7, masing-masing. Enzim pegun ini menunjukkan lebih stabil daripada enzim bebas. Enzim pegun dilihat kekal 18% daripada aktivitinya selepas 8 kali ulangan. Melalui ujian kestabilan simpanan, enzim lipase pegun dapat mengekalkan 70% daripada aktivinya selepas disimpan selama 30 hari, manakala aktiviti enzim bebas telah menurun kepada 15% selepas 20 hari dalam simpanan.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press COLONY COMPOSITION AND BIOMASS OF MACROTERMES GILVUS HAGEN (BLATTODEA: TERMITIDAE) IN INDONESIA 2019-06-01T19:27:45+08:00 NIKEN SUBEKTI Priyantini Widiyaningrum Dodi Nandika Dedy Duryadi Solihin <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>: </em></strong>There is no study conducted to investigate the composition and biomass of <em>Macrotermes gilvus Hagen</em> in natural forest ecosystem. This study aimed to analyze the colony composition and biomass of &nbsp;<em>M. gilvus Hagen</em> colony in natural forest and to evaluate the need of food of the species as well as factors affecting it. Research was conducted in Yanlappa Sanctuary, Bogor, West Java. Termites were surveyed by collecting individual <em>M. gilvus</em> Hagen from different colony at different size of mound, small (0 – 0.99 m), medium (1- 1.99 m), large (≥ 2 m) and then were measured the number of individuals, wet and dry body mass, ratio of dry or wet body mass, and the average of biomass. Results indicated that the small mount was dominated by workers, whereas the medium and the large nest was dominated by nymph. Mean of the termite biomass was 936 kg/ha<sup>2</sup>. Average of termite biomass collected from large mount was 949.8 kg/km2, medium mount was 605.2 kg/ha<sup>2</sup> and small mount was about 537.5 kg/ha<sup>2</sup>. Factor affecting the biomass of subterranean termite <em>M. gilvus</em> <em>Hagen</em> are food source, energy efficiency, predators, and environment. The presence of termite mounds influences natural ecosystem, but that the type of mound plays a crucial role in determining the nature of the effects.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Kajian tentang komposisi koloni dan biomas anai-anai tanah <em>M. gilvus Hagen</em> di hutan alam belum pernah dilakukan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis komposisi koloni dan biomas koloni anai-anai tanah <em>M. gilvus Hagen</em> di hutan alam dan menganalisa faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pemakanannya. Kajian ini dilakukan di Cagar Alam Yanlappa, Bogor, Jawa Barat. Hasil kaji selidik menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan koloni didasarkan pada ukuran tinggi sarang. Sarang kecil (0 – 0.99 m), sarang sedang (1- 1.99 m),&nbsp; dan sarang besar (≥ 2 m) dan ukuran berat basah, berat kering serta kadar berat basah atau berat kering, dan rata-rata biomas. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa sarang kecil didominasi oleh koloni pekerja, sementara itu sarang serdahana dan sarang besar didominasi oleh koloni nympha.&nbsp; Rata-rata biomas yang ditemukan untuk sarang besar 949.8 kg/ha2, sarang serdahana 605.2 kg/ha2, dan sarang kecil 537.5 kg/ha2.&nbsp; Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi biomas anai-anai tanah <em>M. gilvus Hagen</em> adalah makanan, tenaga, pemangsa dan lingkungan. Kehadiran koloni anai-anai mempengaruhi ekosistem semulajadi, tetapi jenis koloni memainkan peranan penting dalam menentukan sifat kesannya.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press A SURVEY OF MATLAB EFFICIENCY IN DAMAGE DETECTION OF CONCRETE GRAVITY IN CONCRETE GRAVITY DAMS 2019-06-02T10:59:33+08:00 Sajad Esmaielzadeh Hassan Ahmadi Seyed Abbas Hosseini <p>&nbsp;Detection of damage in concrete gravity dams (CGDs) is one of the challenges that need to be overcome since dam failure may lead to irreversible consequences. This research aims to detect structural damage within CGDs by wavelet analysis. From a structural point of view, stiffness is an important factor in the dynamic behaviour of concrete gravity dam systems. Any sudden change in the stiffness leads to alteration in the dynamic response of the structures. The proposed analysis of such a condition will help to investigate the responses before and after the occurrence of any structural damage. The main contributions of this paper are to detect the existence of any damage in the dam structure and determine the damage location along the height of the dam. In order to achieve these purposes, three finite element models of the Pine Flat, Bluestone, and Folsom dams are chosen as case studies. These dams have been modelled for both intact and damaged states, and their geometrical, physical, and mechanical characteristics are defined by SAP2000 software. A series of modal analyses was performed to determine the frequencies and shapes of the structural motions. After reduction of the elasticity modulus by 20% and 50%, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) was applied to the difference between the intact and damaged observations. Then, the DWT outputs were analysed to get information about the existence of damage as well as its location in the dam structure. Overall, from the obtained results, the main finding of this study states that the location and severity of the structural damages have been efficiently detected according to the significant amplitude variations in DWT diagrams.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Pengesanan kerosakan pada empangan graviti konkrit (CGDs) adalah salah satu cabaran yang perlu diatasi disebabkan kegagalan empangan yang boleh membawa kepada akibat buruk. Kajian ini bertujuan bagi mengesan kerosakan struktur dalam CGDs menggunakan analisis wavelet. Dari sudut pandang struktur, struktur yang kukuh adalah faktor penting dalam sifat dinamik sistem empangan graviti konkrit. Sebarang perubahan secara tiba-tiba pada struktur bangunan membawa kepada perubahan tindak balas dinamik struktur. Analisis yang dicadangkan terhadap keadaan ini membantu dalam memberi tindak balas sebelum dan selepas jika berlaku sebarang kerosakan struktur. Sumbangan utama kajian ini adalah bagi mengesan jika terdapat sebarang kerosakan pada struktur dalam empangan dan menentukan lokasi kerosakan sepanjang ketinggian empangan. Bagi mencapai matlamat ini, tiga model unsur terhingga daripada empangan Pine Flat, Bluestone dan Folsom telah dipilih sebagai kes kajian. Kesemua empangan ini dimodelkan bagi kedua-dua keadaan iaitu ketika baik dan rosak. Ciri geometri, fizikal dan ciri-ciri mekanikal juga telah ditakrif menggunakan perisian SAP2000. Satu siri model analisis telah dijalankan bagi menentukan frekuensi dan bentuk gerakan struktur. Selepas pengurangan modulus keanjalan sebanyak 20% dan 50%, Transformasi Wavelet Diskret (DWT) telah digunakan bagi mengesan perbezaan antara keadaan baik dan rosak. Kemudian, hasil dari DWT ini dianalisis bagi mendapatkan maklumat mengenai kewujudan kerosakan pada empangan dan juga lokasi kerosakan dalam struktur empangan. Secara keseluruhan, hasil kajian berjaya menentukan lokasi dan tahap kerosakan struktur dengan cekap mengikut variasi amplitud ketara dalam rajah DWT.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press IMPLEMENTATION OF GOVERNMENT ASSET MANAGEMENT USING TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER (TLS) AS PART OF BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (BIM) 2019-06-01T19:27:51+08:00 Asep Yusup Saptari S. Hendriatiningsih Dony Bagaskara Levana Apriani <p>Building asset management is a system for organizing building assets in order to provide information to support decision making. One part of asset management is the inventory of building assets. Asset inventory can be done based on Building Information Modelling (BIM). BIM is one of the approaches to look at the building as a large unified database that can provide different information. The research case is the<br>inventory of local government assets, especially state university assets because in Indonesia, state university assets belong to local government assets. The first step of local government asset inventory is to do three-dimensional modelling using a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) assisted by Autodesk Revit. A textual database is created which contains the location code and item code on the asset referring to the Regulation of the<br>Minister of the Home Affairs Number 108 Year 2016 on the Classification and Codification of Regional Property. The database is directly integrated with the threedimensional model of the building. By doing these two things, there will be a building asset management process that is integrated with BIM and can be used to plan asset<br>development.&nbsp;<br><em><strong>ABSTRAK</strong></em>: Pengurusan aset bangunan adalah sistem untuk menganjurkan aset bangunan untuk memberikan maklumat untuk menyokong pengambilan keputusan. Satu bahagian pengurusan aset adalah inventori aset bangunan. Penyediaan aset boleh dilakukan berdasarkan Pemodelan Maklumat Bangunan (BIM). BIM adalah salah satu pendekatan untuk melihat bangunan sebagai pangkalan data bersatu yang besar yang dapat memberikan maklumat yang berbeza. Kes penyelidikan adalah untuk inventori aset kerajaan tempatan, terutamanya aset universiti negeri, kerana di Indonesia, aset universiti negeri adalah milik aset pemerintah daerah. Langkah pertama inventori aset kerajaan tempatan adalah melakukan pemodelan tiga dimensi menggunakan pengimbas laser bumi (TLS) yang dibantu oleh Autodesk Revit. Pangkalan data teks dicipta yang<br>mengandungi kod lokasi dan kod item aset yang merujuk kepada Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nombor 108 Tahun 2016 tentang Klasifikasi dan Pengkodifikasi Harta Daerah. Pangkalan data secara langsung disepadukan dengan model tiga dimensi bangunan itu. Dengan melakukan dua perkara ini, akan membina proses pengurusan aset yang disatukan dengan BIM dan boleh digunakan untuk merancang pembangunan aset.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press THE ANALYSIS OF LIQUEFACTION PHENOMENON OF THE FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT USING SEISMIC MONITORING EQUIPMENT 2019-06-01T19:27:46+08:00 RINI KUSUMAWARDANI Untoro Nugroho Sri Handayani Mareta Aspirilia Fananda <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong>&nbsp; Liquefaction phenomenon is generally caused by high dynamic vibrations in a very fast duration. This article investigated the behavior of dynamic vibrations caused by vehicles on the road. This study employed the HVSR (Horizontal Vertical Spectral Ratio) with an accelerometer. The result of dynamic vibration generated by the passing vehicle or the micro tremor / micro seismic vibration was recorded by seismic monitoring devices. This seismic monitoring equipment converted vibration into natural frequency (f<sub>0</sub>) and amplification (A<sub>0</sub>) using Geopsy software. The result of HVSR (Horizontal Vertical Spectral Ratio) was the soil vulnerability index (K<sub>g</sub>). The results of this study indicated that the three parameters above were then analyzed with the assumption that if the amplification value (A<sub>0</sub>) was higher and associated with a lower natural frequency value (Æ’<sub>0</sub>) with a high vulnerability index (K<sub>g</sub>), then the area had the potential liquefaction, with laboratory research results in the form of granular gradation testing as the supporting data. Therefore, the results of the analysis and the laboratory can concluded that the three research locations have the potential liquefaction.</p> <p><strong>ABSTRAK: </strong>Fenomena pececairan umumnya disebabkan oleh adanya getaran dinamik tinggi dalam tempoh yang sangat cepat. Artikel ini mengkaji fenomena getaran dinamik yang disebabkan oleh kenderaan di jalan raya. Kajian ini menggunakan HVSR (Nisbah Spektral Menegak Mendatar) dengan pecutan. Hasil getaran dinamik yang dihasilkan oleh kenderaan yang melalui atau gegaran mikro / mikro getaran seismik dicatatkan oleh alat pemantauan seismik. Peralatan pemantauan seismik ini mengubah getaran ke frekuensi semula jadi (f0) dan amplifikasi (A0) menggunakan perisian Geopsy. Hasil HVSR (Nisbah Spektral Vertikal Mendatar) adalah indeks kelemahan tanah (Kg). Keputusan kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa ketiga-tiga parameter di atas kemudian dianalisis dengan anggapan bahawa jika nilai amplifikasi (A0) lebih tinggi dan dikaitkan dengan nilai kekerapan semulajadi yang lebih rendah (Æ’0) dengan indeks kelemahan tinggi (Kg), maka kawasan mempunyai potensi pencairan, dengan hasil penyelidikan makmal berupa pengujian gradasi granular sebagai data pendukung. Oleh itu, hasil analisis dan makmal dapat menyimpulkan bahawa tiga lokasi penyelidikan mempunyai potensi adanya pececairan.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press PSG DYNAMIC CHANGES IN METHAMPHETAMINE ABUSE USING RECURRENCE QUANTIFICATION ANALYSIS 2019-06-01T19:27:54+08:00 Sayyed Majid Mazinani GHASEM SADEGHI BAJESTANI <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> Polysomnography (PSG) is a standard approach based on comprehensive monitoring of cardiorespiratory signals during sleep. This study has been conducted on subjects with a record of methamphetamine abuse. The significance of this work is methamphetamine abuse detection and measurement without the use of blood tests. With regard to the nonlinear and chaotic dynamic of vital signals and the richness of PSG, the tool employed to carry out the study is Recurrence Qualification Analysis. The objective behind this is to observe and quantify nonlinear dynamic changes of vital signals caused by methamphetamine abuse. Results reveal that: 1) chaotic signals, in other words, system complexity has decreased; 2) under the influence of methamphetamine, signal entropy has increased, bringing about the irregularity of the signals; 3) methamphetamine consumption prompts signal compression to overtake signal expansion which means signal information has declined.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Polisomnografi (PSG) adalah pendekatan piawai berdasarkan pengawasan menyeluruh signal kardiorespiratori ketika tidur. Kajian ini telah dijalankan ke atas subjek yang mempunyai rekod salah guna methapitamin. Kepentingan kajian ini adalah bagi mengesan salah guna methapitamin dan mengukurnya tanpa menggunakan ujian darah. Dengan mengambil kira ketidak-linearan dan signal penting dinamik dan PSG yang berharga, kaedah yang digunakan bagi menjalankan kajian ini adalah Analisis Kelayakan Berulang. Objektif di sebalik kajian ini adalah bagi melihat dan mengkuantiti perubahan dinamik tidak linear ke atas signal penting disebabkan salah guna methapitamin. Hasil menunjukkan: 1) Signal huru-hara, atau kata lain, kesulitan sistem telah berkurang; 2) di bawah pengaruh methapitamin, signal entropi telah bertambah, menjadikan signal tidak normal; 3) pengambilan methapitamin menyebabkan signal mampat mengambil alih signal kembang bermaksud informasi signal telah berkurang.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF MEMS PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY SCAVENGER BASED ON PZT THIN FILM 2019-06-02T10:59:36+08:00 Aliza Aini Md Ralib Nur Wafa Asyiqin Zulfakher Rosminazuin Ab Rahim Nor Farahidah Za'bah Noor Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif <p>Vibration energy harvesting has been progressively developed in the advancement of technology and widely used by a lot of researchers around the world. There is a very high demand for energy scavenging around the world due to it being cheaper in price, possibly miniaturized within a system, long lasting, and environmentally friendly. The conventional battery is hazardous to the environment and has a shorter operating lifespan. Therefore, ambient vibration energy serves as an alternative that can replace the battery because it can be integrated and compatible to micro-electromechanical systems. This paper presents the design and analysis of a MEMS piezoelectric energy harvester, which is a vibration energy harvesting type. The energy harvester was formed using Lead Zicronate Titanate (PZT-5A) as the piezoelectric thin film, silicon as the substrate layer and structural steel as the electrode layer. The resonance frequency will provide the maximum output power, maximum output voltage and maximum displacement of vibration. The operating mode also plays an important role to generate larger output voltage with less displacement of cantilever. Some designs also have been studied by varying height and length of piezoelectric materials. Hence, this project will demonstrate the simulation of a MEMS piezoelectric device for a low power electronic performance. Simulation results show PZT-5A piezoelectric energy with a length of 31 mm and height of 0.16 mm generates maximum output voltage of 7.435 V and maximum output power of 2.30 mW at the resonance frequency of 40 Hz.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penuaian tenaga getaran telah berkembang secara pesat dalam kemajuan teknologi dan telah digunakan secara meluas oleh ramai penyelidik di seluruh dunia. Terdapat permintaan yang sangat tinggi di seluruh dunia terhadap penuaian tenaga kerana harganya yang lebih murah, bersaiz kecil dalam satu sistem, tahan lama dan mesra alam. Manakala, bateri konvensional adalah berbahaya bagi alam sekitar dan mempunyai jangka hayat yang lebih pendek. Oleh itu, getaran tenaga dari persekitaran lebih sesuai sebagai alternatif kepada bateri kerana ia mudah diintegrasikan dan serasi dengan sistem mikroelektromekanikal. Kertas kerja ini &nbsp;membentangkan reka bentuk dan analisis tenaga piezoelektrik MEMS iaitu salah satu jenis penuaian tenaga getaran. Penuai tenaga ini dibentuk menggunakan Lead Zicronate Titanate (PZT-5A) sebagai lapisan filem tipis piezoelektrik, silikon sebagai lapisan substrat dan keluli struktur sebagai lapisan elektrod. Frekuensi resonans akan memberikan hasil tenaga maksima, voltan tenaga maksima dan getaran jarak maksima. Mod pengendalian juga memainkan peranan penting bagi menghasilkan tenaga yang lebih besar. Reka bentuk yang mempunyai ketinggian dan panjang berlainan juga telah diuji dengan menggunakan bahan piezoelektrik yang sama. Oleh itu, projek ini akan menghasilkan simulasi piezoelektrik MEMS yang sesuai digunakan bagi alat elektronik berkuasa rendah. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan dengan panjang 31 mm dan ketinggian 0.16 mm, piezoelektrik PZT ini menghasilkan voltan maksima sebanyak 7.435 V dan tenaga output maksima 2.30 mW pada frekuensi resonans 40 Hz.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press Evaluation on the Effectiveness of Visual Learning Environment on Programming Course From Students’ Perspectives 2019-06-02T10:59:38+08:00 Nasa Zata Dina Eto Wuryanto Rachman Sinatriya Marjianto <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong>&nbsp; This paper discusses the effectiveness of visual learning environment which is used to help students in university to study programming course. The visual learning environment which is used in this study is Greenfoot and Alice. The main goal of this article is to obtain the correlation between students‘ satisfaction level and their grades in studying programming course using visual learning environment tools. The participants were conducted on 110 students who took programming course during their first year. A survey was sent to students about their satisfaction level in learning programming course. Two-variable correlation analysis, significance test and descriptive analysis were conducted to find out the relationship between students' learning satisfaction level and their grades in programming course. This study discusses the student perspectives that are summarized in ten questions. There is a significant correlation between independent and dependent variables. The β value is 2.09 which proves that the independent variable in the form of student's learning satisfaction level is useful to obtain better assessment of their grades. Based on their perspectives, it is found that visual learning environment tools have more significant influence in improving the students‘ grade than traditional learning method. Further research is needed to find out other impact factors.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Makalah ini membincangkan keberkesanan persekitaran pembelajaran visual yang digunakan untuk membantu pelajar di universiti untuk mempelajari kursus pengaturcaraan. Persekitaran pembelajaran visual yang digunakan dalam kajian ini ialah Greenfoot dan Alice. Matlamat utama artikel ini adalah untuk mendapatkan korelasi antara tahap kepuasan pelajar dan gred mereka dalam mengkaji kursus pengaturcaraan menggunakan alat-alat persekitaran pembelajaran visual. Para peserta telah diadakan pada 110 orang pelajar yang mengambil kursus pengaturcaraan pada tahun pertama mereka. Satu tinjauan telah dihantar kepada pelajar tentang tahap kepuasan mereka dalam pembelajaran kursus pengaturcaraan. Analisis korelasi dua-pembolehubah, ujian penting dan analisis deskriptif telah dijalankan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara tahap kepuasan belajar pelajar dan gred mereka dalam kursus pengaturcaraan. Kajian ini membincangkan perspektif pelajar yang diringkaskan dalam sepuluh soalan. Terdapat korelasi yang signifikan antara pembolehubah bebas dan bergantung. Nilai β ialah 2.09 yang membuktikan bahawa pemboleh ubah bebas dalam bentuk tahap kepuasan pembelajaran pelajar adalah berguna untuk mendapatkan penilaian yang lebih baik dari gred mereka. Berdasarkan perspektif mereka, didapati alat persekitaran pembelajaran visual mempunyai pengaruh yang lebih besar dalam meningkatkan gred pelajar daripada kaedah pembelajaran tradisional. Kajian lanjut diperlukan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor kesan yang lain.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press TOWARDS AN EFFICIENT TRAFFIC CONGESTION PREDICTION METHOD BASED ON NEURAL NETWORKS AND BIG GPS DATA 2019-06-02T10:59:40+08:00 Wiam Elleuch Ali Wali Adel M. Alimi <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> The prediction of accurate traffic information such as speed, travel time, and congestion state is a very important task in many Intelligent Transportations Systems (ITS) applications. However, the dynamic changes in traffic conditions make this task harder. In fact, the type of road, such as the freeways and the highways in urban regions, can influence the driving speeds and the congestion state of the corresponding road. In this paper, we present a NNs-based model to predict the congestion state in roads. Our model handles new inputs and distinguishes the dynamic traffic patterns in two different types of roads: highways and freeways. The model has been tested using a big GPS database gathered from vehicles circulating in Tunisia. The NNs-based model has shown their capabilities of detecting the nonlinearity of dynamic changes and different patterns of roads compared to other nonparametric techniques from the literature.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Ramalan maklumat trafik yang tepat seperti kelajuan, masa perjalanan dan keadaan kesesakan adalah tugas yang sangat penting dalam banyak aplikasi Sistem Pengangkutan Pintar (ITS). Walau bagaimanapun, perubahan keadaan lalu lintas yang dinamik menjadikan tugas ini menjadi lebih sukar. Malah, jenis jalan raya, seperti jalan raya dan lebuh raya di kawasan bandar, boleh mempengaruhi kelajuan memandu dan keadaan kesesakan jalan yang sama. Dalam makalah ini, kami membentangkan model berasaskan NN untuk meramalkan keadaan kesesakan di jalan raya. Model kami mengendalikan input baru dan membezakan corak trafik dinamik dalam dua jenis jalan raya yang lebuh raya dan jalan raya. Model ini telah diuji menggunakan pangkalan data GPS yang besar yang dikumpulkan dari kenderaan yang beredar di Tunisia. Model berasaskan NNs telah menunjukkan keupayaan mereka untuk mengesan ketiadaan perubahan dinamik dan pola jalan yang berbeza berbanding dengan teknik nonparametrik yang lain dari kesusasteraan.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION METHOD BASED ON TONGUE CLICKING FOR MUTE DISABILITIES 2019-06-02T10:59:43+08:00 NIK NUR WAHIDAH NIK HASHIM MUHAMMAD AMIRUL AMIN AZMI HAZLINA MD. YUSOF <p>This paper presents a pilot study for a novel application of converting tongue clicking sound to words for people with the inability to speak. 15 features of speech that are related to speech timing patterns, amplitude modulation, zero crossing and peak detection were extracted. The experiments were conducted with three different patterns using binary Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification with 10 recordings as training data and 10 recordings as development data. Peak size outperformed all features with 85% classification rate for pattern P1-P3 whereas multiple features produced 100% classification rate for P1-P2 and P2-P3. A GUI based system was developed to validate the trained classifier. Multiclass SVM were constructed based on the best features obtained from binary SVM classification outcome, namely peak size and skewness amplitude modulation, and then tested on 15 recordings. The GUI based multiclass SVM obtained a satisfying performance of 67% correct classification of the test data set.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK</em>: </strong>Kertas ini membentangkan panduan kajian kepada aplikasi terkini dalam menukar bunyi klik pada lidah kepada perkataan untuk orang yang mempunyai kehilangan upaya dalam bertutur. 15 ciri khas berkaitan pertuturan adalah pola masa, modulasi nilai tertinggi, tiada titik persilangan dan nilai terpilih yang dikesan. Eksperimen telah dijalankan dengan tiga corak berlainan menggunakan perduaan Mesin Vektor Sokongan &nbsp;(SVM) klasifikasi dengan 10 rakaman sebagai data terlatih dan 10 rakaman sebagai data yang dibina. Saiz tertinggi yang melebihi semua ciri-ciri pada 85% kadar klasifikasi dilihat pada corak P1-P3, sedangkan ciri-ciri pelbagai telah terhasil pada 100% kadar klasifikasi P1-P2 dan P2-P3. Sistem berdasarkan GUI telah dibina bagi menilai ciri terlatih. Kelas pelbagai SVM telah dibina berdasarkan ciri-ciri terbaik dan dihasilkan daripada klasifikasi perduaan SVM, iaitu saiz tertinggi dan modulasi saiz tertinggi tidak linear, dan telah diuji dengan 15 rakaman. Kelas pelbagai SVM yang didapati melalui GUI ini adalah memberangsangkan iaitu 67% klasifikasi adalah tepat pada set data yang diuji.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press A COMBINED DEEP LEARNING MODEL FOR PERSIAN SENTIMENT ANALYSIS 2019-06-02T10:59:44+08:00 Zahra Bokaee Nezhad Mohammad Ali Deihimi <p>With increasing members in social media sites today, people tend to share their views about everything online. It is a convenient way to convey their messages to end users on a specific subject. Sentiment Analysis is a subfield of Natural Language Processing (NLP) that refers to the identification of users’ opinions toward specific topics. It is used in several fields such as marketing, customer services, etc. However, limited works have been done on Persian Sentiment Analysis. On the other hand, deep learning has recently become popular because of its successful role in several Natural Language Processing tasks. The objective of this paper is to propose a novel hybrid deep learning architecture for Persian Sentiment Analysis. According to the proposed model, local features are extracted by Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and long-term dependencies are learned by Long Short Term Memory (LSTM). Therefore, the model can harness both CNN's and LSTM's abilities. Furthermore, Word2vec is used for word representation as an unsupervised learning step. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt where a hybrid deep learning model is used for Persian Sentiment Analysis. We evaluate the model on a Persian dataset that is introduced in this study. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed model with an accuracy of 85%.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Hari ini dengan ahli yang semakin meningkat di laman media sosial, orang cenderung untuk berkongsi pandangan mereka tentang segala-galanya dalam talian. Ini adalah cara mudah untuk menyampaikan mesej mereka kepada pengguna akhir mengenai subjek tertentu. Analisis Sentimen adalah subfield Pemprosesan Bahasa Semula Jadi yang merujuk kepada pengenalan pendapat pengguna ke arah topik tertentu. Ia digunakan dalam beberapa bidang seperti pemasaran, perkhidmatan pelanggan, dan sebagainya. Walau bagaimanapun, kerja-kerja terhad telah dilakukan ke atas Analisis Sentimen Parsi. Sebaliknya, pembelajaran mendalam baru menjadi popular kerana peranannya yang berjaya dalam beberapa tugas Pemprosesan Bahasa Asli (NLP). Objektif makalah ini adalah mencadangkan senibina pembelajaran hibrid yang baru dalam Analisis Sentimen Parsi. Menurut model yang dicadangkan, ciri-ciri tempatan ditangkap oleh Rangkaian Neural Convolutional (CNN) dan ketergantungan jangka panjang dipelajari oleh Long Short Term Memory (LSTM). Oleh itu, model boleh memanfaatkan kebolehan CNN dan LSTM. Selain itu, Word2vec digunakan untuk perwakilan perkataan sebagai langkah pembelajaran tanpa pengawasan. Untuk pengetahuan yang terbaik, ini adalah percubaan pertama di mana model pembelajaran mendalam hibrid digunakan untuk Analisis Sentimen Persia. Kami menilai model pada dataset Persia yang memperkenalkan dalam kajian ini. Keputusan eksperimen menunjukkan keberkesanan model yang dicadangkan dengan ketepatan 85%.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press MODIFIED CAPACITOR ASSISTED EXTENDED BOOST QUASI Z-SOURCE INVERTER FOR THE GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEM 2019-06-02T10:59:47+08:00 N Hemalatha Seyezhai Ramalingam <p>A grid-tied, single stage, three phase, PV system provides higher efficiency than a two-stage PV system. This paper presents a three-phase, single stage, grid-connected PV system with MPPT and reactive power injection capability into the grid using modified capacitor assisted extended boost quasi Z-source inverter (MCAEB q-ZSI) as the grid-tied PV inverter. The adaptability of the inverter for irradiance changes and the boost factor control with its shoot-through duty ratio adjustment made it highly recommended for the grid system. The shoot-through control technique like maximum constant boost control with a third harmonic injection enhances the performance of the inverter by reducing the low order ripples and voltage stress. The fuzzy voltage controller is proposed with the capacitor linearization algorithm to regulate the DC-link voltage. The current approach uses a fuzzy controller to control the real and the reactive power injection into the grid. The performance evaluation of the fuzzy and PI grid controller is carried out for the constant irradiance condition and from the investigation, parameters like boost factor (B), the shoot-through duty ratio(D<sub>s</sub>), real power (P), reactive power (Q),&nbsp; power factor and harmonics in the current injection are determined. A laboratory setup of the PV powered grid system is implemented, tested and validated with the simulation results.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Dalam sistem fotovoltaik (PV) yang bersambung dengan satu peringkat, satu sistem elektronik kuasa yang mempunyai keuntungan dan kecekapan yang tinggi diperlukan untuk menginterupasi dengan utiliti tersebut. Dalam makalah ini, kapasitor yang diubah suai dibantu oleh pemacu kuadratik Z-source yang dilanjutkan (MCAEB q-ZSI) bertindak sebagai unit interfacing antara PV dan grid. Penyesuaian penyongsang untuk perubahan sinaran dan kawalan faktor rangsangan dengan pelarasan nisbah tugas menembak membuatnya sangat disyorkan untuk sistem grid. Teknik kawalan menembak seperti kawalan rangsangan berterusan maksimum dengan suntikan harmonik ketiga meningkatkan prestasi penyongsang dengan mengurangkan aruhan pesanan rendah dan tekanan voltan. Pendekatan semasa menggunakan pengawal kabur untuk mengawal suntikan kuasa sebenar dan reaktif ke grid. Penilaian prestasi pengawal grid fuzzy dan PI dilakukan untuk keadaan iradiasi malar dan dari penyiasatan, parameter seperti faktor rangsangan (B), nisbah tugas menembak (Ds), kuasa nyata (P), kuasa reaktif Q), faktor kuasa dan harmonik dalam suntikan semasa ditentukan.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press A NOVEL USER PROFILE-BASED FUZZY APPROACH FOR EVALUATING TRUST IN SEMANTIC WEB 2019-06-02T10:59:48+08:00 SOMAYEH ASHTARI MALIHE DANESH hossein shirgahi <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> As a developed World Wide Web architecture, the Semantic Web collects traditional web contents with a formal and understandable semantic using a machine. The main purpose of the Semantic Web is to increase automation, web information processing, and improve interactions and collaboration among information systems. The subject of trust is one of the main challenges in the semantic web. Since different tools and individuals exist in the semantic web, a certain measure of trust in an entity cannot be used and a central system is responsible for data collection and estimating the reliability. In this study, a fuzzy system is used to evaluate the trust measure in the semantic web. For this purpose, the user profile data including a list of pages, user sessions, and visited pages in each session, and the time of page viewings are used as semantic parameters. After determining the general framework of trust in the semantic web, the effectiveness of the above mentioned semantic parameters on the trust measure is investigated and effective parameters are used for evaluation in the fuzzy system. The experiment results show that the proposed fuzzy method with a mean absolute error of 2.5% and an average precision of 97.5% could achieve the right value of trust in the semantic web.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong>&nbsp; Sebagai senibina World Wide Web, Semantik Web mengumpul kandungan web tradisional bersama semantik formal dan mudah difahami menggunakan mesin. Tujuan utama Semantik Web adalah bagi meningkatkan automasi, pemprosesan maklumat web, dan meningkatkan interaksi dan kerjasama antara sistem maklumat. Kepercayaan adalah salah satu cabaran utama dalam web semantik. Disebabkan perbezaan alatan dan pelbagai individu wujud dalam web semantik, langkah tertentu sebagai entiti dipercayai tidak dapat digunakan dan sistem pusat adalah bertanggungjawab bagi pengumpulan data dan kebolehpercayaan anggaran. Dalam kajian ini, sistem rawak telah digunakan bagi menilai tahap kepercayaan dalam web semantik. Bagi tujuan ini, data profil pengguna termasuk senarai halaman, sesi pengguna, dan halaman yang dikunjungi dalam setiap sesi, dan masa paparan halaman telah digunakan sebagai parameter semantik. Selepas menentukan rangka umum kepercayaan dalam web semantik, keberkesanan parameter semantik yang dinyatakan di atas pada ukuran kepercayaan telah disiasat dan parameter yang berkesan telah digunakan bagi penilaian sistem rawak. Keputusan eksperimen menunjukkan bahawa kaedah rawak yang dicadangkan dengan ralat mutlak purata sebanyak 2.5% dan ketepatan purata sebanyak 97.5% dapat mencapai nilai kepercayaan yang benar dalam web semantik.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press PLL-BASED 3Φ INVERTER CIRCUIT FOR MICROGRID SYSTEM OPERATED BY ELECTROSTATIC GENERATOR 2019-07-09T21:50:28+08:00 S.M.A Motakabber Tawfikur Rahman Muhammad I. Ibrahimy A. H. M. Zahirul Alam <p>A current source control based PLL (phase lock loop) technique is one of the most efficient methods for modern 3Φ synchronized grid power systems. When an inverter circuit is driven by an electrostatic generator with wind power, it encounters some problems, such as static and dynamic turn-on-off switching losses, unbalanced source voltage, low continuous current, higher frequency harmonic distortion, phase angle imbalance, etc. To solve these problems, a series of connected switching inverter modules technique is proposed. It is not only a traditional inverter system, but it also works as a low-frequency ripple current inverter with lower switch losses. A new topology of phase synchronous inverter (PSI) is designed using a PLL current source controller. The input voltage source of the PSI is a high DC voltage from an electrostatic generator (ESG). The modified ESG is capable of generating the HVDC and a continuous moderate amount of current. The proposed switching topology of the inverter is able to control the microgrid power as well as reduce the dynamic and static switching loss. It also reduces the high-frequency harmonic distortion and improves the phase angle error. The output LCL lowpass filter scheme of the inverter is designed to reduce the total harmonic distortion of 1.62%. The PSI circuit is designed and simulated using MATLAB software. In the developed system, the input voltage of 8 k , microgrid frequency of 50Hz, switching frequency of the carrier of 10 kHz, and modulation index of 0.85 are considered to be implemented. The proposed novel microgrid connected PSI switching module design technique has significantly enhanced the power stability. The overall system efficiency improved by 95.52%.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Sumber-arus terkawal berdasarkan teknik PLL (fasa litar kunci) adalah satu kaedah cekap bagi sistem moden tenaga grid selaras 3Φ. Apabila litar songsang (inverter) digerak menggunakan penjana elektrostatik bersama tenaga angin, ia mengalami masalah seperti kehilangan tenaga statik dan dinamik suis hidup-mati, sumber voltan yang tidak seimbang, kurang arus terus, gangguan harmoni frekuensi tinggi, ketidak-seimbangan sudut fasa, dan sebagainya. Bagi menyelesaikan masalah ini, teknik modul suis bersiri dihubung bersama inverter telah dicadangkan. Ini bukan semata-mata teknik lama sistem inverter, tetapi ia juga berfungsi sebagai arus tidak tetap frekuensi-rendah dengan kurang kehilangan tenaga pada suis inverter. Topologi baru fasa inverter tetap (PSI) ini telah direka menggunakan kawalan sumber arus PLL. Sumber voltan masuk PSI ini telah digunakan daripada voltan DC tinggi penjana elektrostatik (ESG). ESG yang diubah suai ini dapat menghasilkan HVDC dan arus terus yang sederhana. Topologi suis inverter yang dicadang ini dapat mengawal kuasa mikrogrid serta mengurangkan kehilangan dinamik dan statik suis. Ia juga mengurangkan gangguan harmoni frekuensi tinggi dan memperbaiki ketidak-seimbangan sudut fasa. Skim tapisan signal keluar yang rendah pada LCL inverter ini direka bagi mengurangkan total gangguan harmoni sebanyak 1.62%. Litar PSI ini direka dan disimulasi menggunakan perisian MATLAB. Dalam sistem yang dibangunkan ini, 8 kVDCvoltan masuk, 50Hz frekuensi mikrogrid, 10 kHz frekuensi suis angkutan dan 0.85 indeks modulasi telah dipertimbangkan untuk kegunaan. Teknik baru modul suis PSI mikrogrid bersambung yang dicadangkan ini mempunyai kepentingan dalam menstabilkan kuasa dan memperbaiki kecekapan sistem keseluruhan sebanyak 95.52%.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press INTELLIGENT CONTROL SYSTEM OF A WHEELCHAIR FOR PEOPLE WITH QUADRIPLEGIA PARALYSIS 2019-06-01T19:27:41+08:00 hayder Fadhil Saif Hussam Yasseen Sadoon <p>&nbsp;Our system proposes a wheelchair controlled by head gestures for people with quadriplegia paralysis (QP) or for those suffering from amputation of their hands and legs during the war in Iraq. The wheelchair design has an intelligent control that works with the movement of a patient‘s head in order to enable the patient to drive the wheelchair in the desired direction. The system consists of two main parts. The first is the transmitter in which sensing signals are transmitted to the second part and it consists of a 3-axes accelerometer (ADXL-345), a 433 MHz RF wireless receiver transmitter module, and Arduino UNO. The ADXL-345 sensor is placed in front of a hat that the patient wears. The system detects the direction of the patient's head movement then sends appropriate instructions to the wheelchair’s control part (receiving part). The receiving part is the wheelchair control system that consists of a 433 MHz RF wireless receiver transmitter module and an Arduino UNO. The Arduino processes the signals coming from the first part and moves the wheelchair accordingly in the desired direction. The research also provides an obstacle avoidance system with a range of 50 cm that prevents the wheelchair from colliding with objects. The head movement angles have been selected to be 40, 35 degree for vertical and horizontal movement respectively so that the QP patient feels comfortable to tilt his head in all directions and control the wheelchair easily. The system provides a very effective performance and accuracy.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Sistem ini bergantung kepada kerusi roda yang dikawal menggunakan isyarat kepala untuk mereka yang lumpuh kuadriplegia (QP) ataupun mereka yang dipotong tangan dan kaki semasa perang di Iraq. Ia merupakan reka bentuk pintar pada kerusi roda dan pesakit boleh mengawal pergerakan mereka dengan isyarat pada kepala. Sistem ini terdiri daripada dua bahagian utama iaitu yang pertama merupakan pemancar yang menghantar isyarat gerakan ke bahagian kedua dan ianya terdiri daripada 3 axis accelerometer (ADXL-345), modul penerima isyarat pemancar tanpa wayar 433 MHz RF dan Arduino UNO. Sensor ADXL-345 ini diletakkan di bahagian depan topi yang dipakai oleh pesakit. Sistem ini mengesan arah gerakan kepala pesakit dan kemudiannya arahan dihantar ke bahagian pengendali kerusi roda (bahagian penerimaan isyarat). Bahagian ini merupakan sistem pengendalian kerusi roda yang terdiri daripada modul pemancar penerimaan tanpa wayar 433 MHz RF dan Arduino UNO. Arduino memproses isyarat yang datang dari bahagian pertama bagi menggerakkan kerusi roda ke arah yang dikehendaki. Kajian ini turut menyediakan sistem mengelak halangan pada jarak 50 cm bagi menjauhi kerusi roda daripada melanggar objek. Sudut gerakan kepala telah dipilih pada 40, 35 darjah bagi gerakan menegak dan mendatar masing-masing, supaya pesakit QP merasa selesa bagi mengerakkan kepalanya ke semua arah dan mengawal kerusi roda dengan mudah. Sistem ini juga sangat cekap dan tepat dalam mengawal arah.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press Adsorptive removal of Pb (II) using exfoliated graphite adsorbent:influence of experimental conditions and magnetic CoFe2O4 decoration 2019-06-02T10:59:31+08:00 Thi Thuong Nguyen Thi Ngoc Thu Nguyen Long Giang Bach Duy Trinh Nguyen Thi Phuong Quynh Bui <p>The worm-like exfoliated graphite (EG) based adsorbents prepared from low-cost natural graphite flakes via facile synthesis processes have been found to be efficient adsorbents when it comes to removing Pb (II) from aqueous solution. EG was fabricated by chemical intercalation and microwave assisted exfoliation. Furthermore, the magnetic exfoliated graphite (MEG) was developed by incorporating CoFe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> particles into the EG layers using the citric acid based sol-gel technique. Adsorption behaviour of Pb (II) on the as-prepared adsorbents was investigated by taking several experimental conditions into consideration such as contact time, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, and pH value. The results with initial neutral pH indicated that the adsorption isotherms for Pb (II) on the EG and MEG were well consistent with the Langmuir isotherm model revealing the maximum adsorption capacity of 106 mg/g and 68 mg/g for EG and MEG, respectively. The adsorption kinetics of Pb (II) was found to adhere to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The chemical interaction between π electrons on graphite sheets and Pb (II) ions was suggested to play an essential role in the adsorption mechanism. The introduction of magnetic CoFe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> to the EG was found to induce the shift of optimal pH value to a more basic condition. The characterization of the adsorbents was performed using relevant analysis techniques such as Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X–ray powder diffraction (XRD), vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM), and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). The results of this work suggest a high possibility for application of the as-prepared modified graphite to remove hazardous substances in practical wastewater treatment systems.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> &nbsp;Penyerap Pengelupas Grafit (EG) yang berupa seperti cacing dihasilkan dari grafit semulajadi yang murah melalui proses sintesis serpihan, ia juga merupakan penyerap yang bagus dalam mengasingkan Pb (II) daripada larutan akues. EG direka dengan tindak balas interkalasi kimia dan pengelupasan melalui gelombang mikro. Tambahan, pengelupas grafit magnet (MEG) telah dihasilkan dengan memasukkan zarah CoFe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> ke dalam lapisan EG menggunakan teknik sol-gel yang berasaskan asid sitrik. Tindak balas penyerapan Pb (II) pada penyerap yang disiapkan ini, dikaji dengan mengambil kira beberapa keadaan eksperimen seperti waktu disentuh, konsentrasi awal, dos penyerap dan nilai pH. &nbsp;Hasil keputusan pH neutral awal menunjukkan bahawa isoterm penyerapan bagi Pb (II) pada EG dan MEG adalah konsisten dengan model isoterm Langmuir. Ini menunjukkan kapasiti penyerapan maksimum 106 mg/g dan 68 mg/g bagi EG dan MEG, masing-masing. Penyerapan kinetik Pb (II) didapati mematuhi model kinetik pesudo-order-kedua. Interaksi kimia antara elektron π pada helaian grafit dan ion Pb (II) memainkan peranan penting dalam mekanisme penyerapan. Pengenalan magnet CoFe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> kepada EG didapati telah mengubah nilai pH optimum kepada keadaan asal. Pengelasan penyerapan dilakukan menggunakan teknik analisis yang relevan seperti Mikroskop Elektron Pengimbasan (SEM), Difraksi Serbuk sinar-X (XRD), Magnetometer Sampel-Getaran (VSM) dan Inframerah Perubahan-Fourier (FTIR). Hasil kerja ini mencadangkan kemungkinan besar bagi penggunaan grafit ubah suai yang disediakan bagi membuang bahan berbahaya dalam sistem rawatan air sisa praktikal.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press Grease Quality Issues on Middle Voltage Switchgear: Corrosivity, Resistivity, Safety and Ageing 2019-06-02T10:59:39+08:00 Mohd Sabri Mahmud Sanuri Ishak Mohd Najib Razali Mohd Aizudin Abdul Aziz Musfafikri Musa <p>Grease products recommended by OEM for conventional 11kV switchgears are generally trusted. Some disadvantages might however exist among them or their supply could be insufficient and lead to use of non-OEM-recommended grease. This paper reports analysis methods to evaluate both types of grease that were recently used in the switchgears at local electrical distribution stations owned by Tenaga Nasional Berhad. Hardened, greenish and severely irritating greases probably caused by incompatible compounding, electrochemical reaction, and hazardous components, respectively, were among common problems faced by workers. Eight physical tests and four chemical tests were conducted on 10 grease samples using thermogravimetry, switchgear rig, gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy besides other equipment and standard methods. Grease stability, oil bleeding, flammability of grease droplet and dropping point were among the characteristics determined in the analyses. The results reveal copper corrosion, chemical change, instable and inconsistent grease, and toxics in grease, which surprisingly included the OEM-recommended one.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Produk gris yang disyorkan oleh Pengeluar Peralatan Asal (OEM) bagi gear-suis konvensional 11 kV secara umumnya dipercayai ramai. Kemungkinan terdapat kekurangan pada produk-produk tersebut ataupun bekalan gris mereka yang tidak mencukupi telah mendorong kepada penggunaan gris yang tidak disyorkan oleh OEM. Kaedah analisis kajian ini melaporkan tentang kedua-dua jenis gris yang kebelakangan ini digunakan oleh Tenaga Nasional Berhad pada gear-suis di stesen pencawang elektrik. Gris mengeras, berlumut dan menjengkelkan mungkin disebabkan oleh sebatian bahan yang tidak sesuai, tindak balas elektrokimia dan komponen yang tidak selamat, masing-masing adalah antara masalah yang dihadapi oleh para pekerja. Lapan ujian fizikal dan empat ujian kimia telah dijalankan pada 10 sampel gris menggunakan termogravimetri, pemakai gear-suis, kromatografi gas dan spektroskopi inframerah selain alatan lain dan kaedah-kaedah piawai. Antara ciri-ciri yang dikaji dalam analisis ini adalah kestabilan gris, sifat lelehan minyak, sifat mudah terbakar titisan gris dan takat rendah gris. Hasil kajian mendapati gris ini menyebabkan tembaga terhakis, sifat kimia berubah, sifat gris yang tidak stabil dan mudah berubah, dan juga beracun memberi kejutan kerana pihak OEM tetap mengesyorkan gris jenis ini.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press A RANS K-ω SIMULATION OF 2D TURBULENT NATURAL CONVECTION IN AN ENCLOSURE WITH HEATING SOURCES 2019-06-02T10:59:46+08:00 mehdi ahmadi Seyed Ali Agha Mirjalily Seyed Amir Abbas Oloomi <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> This study is conducted to investigate turbulent natural convection flow in an enclosure with thermal sources using the low-Reynolds number (LRN) <em>k-ω</em> model. This enclosure has a cold source with temperature T<sub>c </sub>and a hot source with temperature T<sub>h</sub> as thermal sources, other walls of the enclosure are adiabatic. The aim of this study is to predict the effect of change in Rayleigh number, repositioning of cold and hot sources, and thermal sources aspect ratio on the flow field, temperature, and rate of heat transfer. To achieve this aim, the equations of continuity, momentum, energy, turbulent kinetic energy, and kinetic energy dissipation are employed in the case of 2D turbulence with constant thermo-physical properties except the density in the buoyancy term (Boussinesq approximation). To numerically solve these equations, the finite volume method and SIMPLE algorithm are used. According to the modeling results, the most optimal temperature distribution in the enclosure is seen when the hot source is below the cold source. With decreasing distance between hot and cold sources, heat transfer rate increases. The maximal heat transfer rate is derived via study of the heating sources aspect ratio. In constant positions of cold and hot sources on a wall, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing Rayleigh number (Ra=10<sup>9</sup>-10<sup>11</sup>).</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTAK:</em></strong> Kajian ini dijalankan bagi mengkaji perubahan semula jadi aliran perolakan dalam tempat tertutup dengan sumber haba menggunakan model<em> k-ω</em> nombor Reynolds-rendah (LRN). Bekas tertutup ini mempunyai dua sumber haba iaitu sumber sejuk dengan suhu T<sub>c </sub>dan sumber panas dengan suhu T<sub>h</sub>, manakala dinding lain bekas ini adalah adiabatik. Tujuan kajian ini adalah bagi mengesan perubahan nombor Rayleigh, mengubah sumber sejuk dan panas dan nisbah sumber haba kepada kawasan aliran, suhu dan halaju perubahan haba. Bagi mencapai tujuan tersebut, persamaan sambungan, momentum, tenaga, tenaga kinetik perolakan, dan pengurangan tenaga kinetik telah dilaksanakan dalam kes perolakan 2D dengan sifat fizikal-haba berterusan (malar) kecuali isipadu terma keapungan (anggaran Boussinesq). Bagi menyelesaikan persamaan ini secara berangka, kaedah isipadu terhad dan algorithma MUDAH telah digunakan. Berdasarkan keputusan model, suhu distribusi optimal dalam bekas tertutup dilihat apabila sumber panas adalah kurang daripada sumber sejuk. Dengan pengurangan jarak antara sumber panas dan sejuk, kadar pertukaran haba meningkat. Kadar pertukaran haba maksima telah diperoleh melalui kajian nisbah&nbsp; aspek sumber pemanasan. Kadar pertukaran haba bertambah dengan bertambahnya nombor Rayleigh&nbsp; (Ra=10<sup>9</sup>-10<sup>11</sup>), pada posisi tetap sumber sejuk dan panas pada dinding bekas.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press MAGNETICALLY INDUCED PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTER VIA HYBRID KINETIC MOTION 2019-06-02T10:59:34+08:00 Huda Azam Noor Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif Aliza Aini Md Ralib <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> Piezoelectric energy harvesting is a possible breakthrough to reduce the global issue of electronic waste as they can efficiently convert the ambient vibration to the electrical energy without any additional power. This work presents the design and development of a piezoelectric energy harvester that is capable of transforming vibration from ambient sources into electricity. It focuses on a magnetically plucked piezoelectric beam as an alternative to the mechanically induced harvesters, as the latter are subjected to wear and tear. A prototype comprising of a 40 mm PZT-5H piezoelectric beam with a permanent magnet mounted at one end of the beam, as well as a series of permanent magnets of same types attached on an eccentric rotor was developed along with a National Instruments® data acquisition device. Mean output voltages of 2.98 V, 1.76 V and 0.34 V were recorded when the eccentric rotors were slowly rotated at 8.4 rad/s with increasing distances of 5 mm, 7.5 mm and 10 mm respectively, between the magnets on the rotor and the beam. These results have proven that voltage could also be generated by magnetically plucking the piezoelectric beam, and by reducing the distance between magnets, the amount of voltage generated will be higher. The outcome of this work signifies the possibility for implementation of energy harvesters that are capable of powering electronic devices from hybrid kinetic motion, with a reduced risk of equipment fatigue.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penjanaan tenaga melalui piezoelektrik adalah satu penemuan terbesar dalam mengurangkan isu global pengurusan sisa elektronik. Ini kerana ia berupaya mengubah getaran persekitaran kepada tenaga elektrik tanpa sebarang tambahan tenaga. Kajian ini berkenaan reka bentuk dan pembangunan penjana tenaga piezoelektrik yang mampu mengubah getaran persekitaran kepada elektrik. Fokus kajian adalah pada penjanaan tenaga secara magnetik dari bilah piezoelektrik sebagai alternatif kepada penjanaan mekanikal, kerana penjanaan tenaga secara mekanikal berisiko tinggi kepada kerosakan alat dalam jangkamasa panjang. Prototaip piezoelektrik PZT-5H yang berukuran 40 mm ini telah dilengkapi magnet kekal pada hujung bilah, serta satu siri magnet kekal jenis sama turut dipasang pada pemutar eksentrik bersama peranti pengambilan data National Instruments®. Secara purata, sebanyak 2.98 V, 1.76 V dan 0.34 V voltan output telah direkodkan ketika pemutar eksentrik berputar perlahan pada 8.4 rad/s dengan jarak tambahan antara magnet pemutar dan bilah piezoelektrik bersamaan 5 mm, 7.5 mm dan 10 mm, masing-masing. Keputusan menunjukkan tenaga dapat dihasilkan dengan cara pemacuan piezoelektrik secara magnetik, dan tenaga yang terhasil akan bertambah dengan pengurangan jarak antara magnet. Hasil kerja menunjukkan tenaga dapat dihasilkan daripada gerakan kinetik hibrid, dengan risiko rendah pada kerosakan alat.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 IIUM Press