IIUM Engineering Journal https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal, published biannually (<strong>January</strong> <em> and </em><strong>July</strong>) (<em><strong>2020 ealier</strong></em> <em>June and December issues</em>), is a <em><strong>double blind peer-reviewed</strong></em> open-access journal of the Kulliyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).</p> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal publishes original research findings as regular papers, review papers (by invitation). The Journal provides a platform for Engineers, Researchers, Academicians, and Practitioners who are highly motivated in contributing to the Engineering disciplines, and Applied Sciences. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the specific challenges of the developing world, and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.<strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Subject areas suitable for publication are as follows:</strong> </p> <ul> <li class="show">Chemical and Biotechnology Engineering</li> <li class="show">Civil and Environmental Engineering</li> <li class="show">Computer Science and Information Technology</li> <li class="show">Electrical, Computer, and Communications Engineering</li> <li class="show">Engineering Mathematics and Applied Science</li> <li class="show">Materials and Manufacturing Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechatronics and Automation Engineering</li> </ul> <p>Contributions from other areas of Engineering and Applied Science are welcome.</p> <p>A manuscript undergoes a double-blind review process. </p> <p><strong><strong>IIUM Engineering Journal Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statements</strong>:</strong></p> <p>IIUM EJ is committed to meet and uphold standards of ethical behaviour at all stages of the publication process. A summary of our expectation of editors, peer-reviewers, and authors is stated here [<a title="Editorial Policies" href="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/ethics">link</a>].</p> </div> IIUM Press, IIUM, Malaysia en-US IIUM Engineering Journal 1511-788X <p>The IIUM Engineering journal follows the open access policy.</p> THE EFFECTS OF CERIUM PROMOTER ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COBALT-BASED CATALYSTS IN FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS FOR LIQUID FUEL PRODUCTION https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1150 <p>An intensive work of Fischer<strong>-</strong>Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on a cobalt-based catalyst supported with cerium as a promoter was presented. The influence of space velocity and inlet gas feed ratio on FTS reaction performance was studied for the synthesized catalysts. Incipient wetness impregnation method was utilized to synthesis both unpromoted (25%Co/?-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) and cerium promoted (1%Ce-25%Co/?-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) catalysts. The proposed catalysts were examined by N<sub>2</sub> adsorption and temperature-programed reduction (TPR). The performance of Ce-promoted and unpromoted cobalt-based catalysts in FTS was assessed in terms of activity and selectivity to desired products (C<sub>5</sub><strong><sub>+</sub></strong>). The obtained results revealed that the addition of cerium by impregnation notably favours the reducibility of cobalt oxides by reducing the reduction temperature. In addition, the promoted catalysts exhibited higher activity and selectivity toward desired products at low space velocity and high inlet gas feed ratio as compared with the unpromoted catalysts. In conclusion, a cerium based cobalt catalyst considered as a suitable candidate to be used in gas to the liquid conversion process.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian intensif sintesis Fischer<strong>-</strong>Tropsch (FTS) adalah tentang pemangkin berasas kobalt bersama penggalak cerium. Pengaruh tindak balas FTS pada halaju ruang dan nisbah suapan gas masuk dikaji menggunakan pemangkin yang disintesis. Kaedah impregnasi insipien basah telah digunakan bagi mensintesis pemangkin bukan penggalak (25%Co/?-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) dan penggalak cerium (1%Ce-25%Co/?-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>). Pemangkin ini diuji dengan penjerapan N<sub>2</sub> dan pengurangan suhu terprogram (TPR). Hasil tindak balas penggalak-Ce dan bukan penggalak berasas kobalt dalam FTS diperiksa dari segi aktiviti dan pemilihan hasil (C<sub>5+</sub>). Tindak balas menunjukkan dengan penambahan cerium melalui kaedah impregnasi dengan ketara mengurangkan kobalt oksida bersama pengurangan suhu. Di samping itu, pemangkin penggalak menunjukkan aktiviti dan pemilihan ke arah hasil pada halaju ruang dan nisbah suapan gas masuk yang tinggi berbanding dengan pemangkin bukan penggalak. Kesimpulan, pemangkin kobalt berasas cerium dianggap sesuai sebagai pemangkin sintesis bagi digunakan dalam proses penukaran gas ke cecair.</p> Ahmed Lateef Khalaf Firas Khaleel Al-Zuhairi Wafaa Abdul Kadhim Mohd Hasbi Ab Rahim Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 1 11 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1150 PARAMETER EFFECTS OF PH, DOSAGE AND CONTACT TIME ON BORON REMOVAL FROM SYNTHETIC SEA WATER USING MORINGA OLEIFERA SEEDS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1203 <p>Boron is one of the key elements required in flora, fauna, as well as human beings. However, human life and eco-systems could be seriously affected when exposed to excessive levels of boron, especially in seawater and groundwater. In this work <em>Moringa oleifera</em> was selected as a precursor adsorbent owing to its eco-friendliness characteristics and favourable removal efficiency of adsorbates. Besides, <em>M. oleifera</em> does not significantly affect the conductivity of water and pH value after the treatment. The main aim of this work was to investigate the potentiality of <em>M. oleifera</em> in the treatment of boron from contaminated saline water. The effect of adsorption parameters such as pH (7 - 9), adsorbent dose of 4000 – 8000 mg/L of solution and contact time of 60 – 180 min was thoroughly investigated. Face-centred Central Composite Design (FCCCD) was applied to optimize these parameters. Consequently, the highest percentage of removal (65%) was achieved at the pH of 8, 120 min of contact time and 6000 mg/L of adsorbent dosage. The adsorption studies stated that the adsorption fitted well with the Freundlich isotherm. Therefore, the outcome of this work revealed that boron could be significantly treated using a prepared adsorbent from <em>M. oleifera</em>.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Boron merupakan salah satu elemen yang diperlukan oleh flora, fauna, juga manusia. Walau bagaimanapun, hidup manusia dan ekosistem pasti terkesan apabila di dedahkan secara berlebihan, terutama pada air di lautan dan daratan. Kajian ini menggunakan <em>Moringa oleifera</em> sebagai penjerap kerana ia mempunyai ciri-ciri mesra dan berkesan membuang bahan terjerap dengan berkesan. Selain itu, <em>M. oleifera</em> tidak langsung memberi kesan kepada konduktiviti air dan nilai pH selepas perawatan. Tujuan utama kajian ini adalah mengkaji potensi <em>M. oleifera</em> dalam larutan rawatan air garam boron yang tercemar. Kesan parameter penjerapan seperti pH (7-9), dos penjerapan 4000 – 8000 mg/L larutan dan masa interaksi 60 – 180 minit di kaji dengan teliti. Kaedah Komposisi Tumpuan Tengah Muka (FCCCD) digunakan bagi mengoptimumkan parameter-parameter ini. Hasilnya, peratus tertinggi penyingkiran adalah sebanyak (65%) pada pH 8, 120 min masa interaksi dan 6000 mg/L dos penjerapan. Kesimpulannya, kajian penjerapan ini menyokong kuat teori isoterma Freundlich. Oleh itu, hasil kajian ini menunjukkan boron dapat dirawat dengan menggunakan larutan penjerapan daripada <em>M. oleifera</em>.</p> Mohammed Saedi Jami Nur Syahirah Zakaria Moussa Ahmed Nik Rashida Nik Abdul Ghani Mohammed Ngabura Mani Malam Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 12 24 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1203 NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF THREE HELOPHYTES IN CONSTRUCTED SURFACE FLOW WETLANDS FOR URBAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1207 <p>Nutrient absorption is a function, among others, aimed at macrophytes for wastewater treatment. In this work, <em>Typha angustifolia</em>, <em>Phragmites australis,</em> and <em>Sparganium erectum</em> were multi-annually compared in secondary and tertiary treatment of urban wastewater under Mediterranean climate. <em>Phragmites</em> shows higher growth in height and density during the vegetative period of 1.83-2.09 cm.d<sup>-1</sup> and 29-49 times the planting density, respectively. Aerial biomass records 52.2-54.3, 38.1-41.0, and 19.4 t dw.ha<sup>-1</sup> in <em>Phragmites</em>, <em>Typha</em>, and <em>Sparganium</em> in the same order. The underground biomass fluctuates depending on the rooting vigour from 1.45 t dw.ha<sup>-1</sup> for <em>Sparganium </em>to 44.49 t dw.ha<sup>-1</sup> for <em>Phragmites</em> in tertiary treatment. Nitrogen and phosphorus aerial mineralomasses are more important in <em>Phragmites</em> (787 kg N.ha<sup>-1</sup>) and <em>Typha</em> (107 kg P.ha<sup>-1</sup>) in secondary treatment. <em>Phragmites</em> is, by far, the most cumulative of N and P in its underground part. The N and P retention by the vegetated mesocosms apparently has overall relationship with N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> and P-PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>. Compared to mesocosm input, <em>Phragmites</em> assimilates one’s maximum of 6.39% N in its aerial tissues and 7.86% P in the underground ones, whereas <em>Typha</em> records maxima of 14.8% N and 33.6% P in its aerial part with respect to corresponding mesocosm removal.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong>Penyerapan nutrien adalah satu fungsi, antara lain, bertujuan untuk makrofit merawat sisa air. Kajian ini menggunakan<em>Typha angustifolia, Phragmites australis</em> dan <em>Sparganium erectum</em>bagi membandingkan pelbagai-jenis rawatan sekunder dan tertiar sisa air bandar pada iklim Mediterranean. <em>Phragmites</em> menunjukkan pertumbuhan tertinggi dalam ketinggian dan ketumpatandalam tempoh vegetatif iaitu 1.83-2.09 cm.d<sup>-1</sup>dan 29-49 kaliketumpatan penanaman, masing-masing. Rekod biojisim udara mencatatkan 52.2-54.3, 38.1-41.0, dan 19.4 t dw.ha<sup>-1</sup> dalam <em>Phragmites,Typha</em>, dan <em>Sparganium </em>pada susunan sama. Biojisim bawah tanah berubah-ubah bergantung kepada kekuatanakar dari 1.45 t dw.ha<sup>-1</sup> untuk <em>Sparganium</em> hingga 44.49 t dw.ha<sup>-1</sup> untuk <em>Phragmites</em> dalam rawatan tertiar. Nitrogen dan Fosforus Mineralomassa udara adalah lebih penting untuk<em>Phragmites </em>(787 kg N.ha<sup>-1</sup>) dan <em>Typha</em> (107 kg P.ha<sup>-1</sup>) dalam rawatan sekunder. <em>Phragmites</em>, setakat ini, paling kumulatif bagi N dan P pada bahagian bawah tanah. Pembendungan N dan P oleh mesokisme tumbuh-tumbuhan secara nyata berkaitan dengan N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> dan P-PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>. Berbanding input mesokisme,<em>Phragmites</em> mengasimilasi maksimum pada N 6.39% tisu udara dan P 7.86% bahagian bawah tanah, manakala <em>Typha</em> mencatatkan maksima N 14.8% dan P 33.6% pada bahagian udara dengan penyingkiran mesokisme sepadan.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penyerapan nutrien adalah satu fungsi, antara lain, bertujuan untuk makrofit merawat sisa air. Kajian ini menggunakan <em>Typha angustifolia, Phragmites australis</em> dan <em>Sparganium erectum</em> bagi membandingkan pelbagai-jenis rawatan sekunder dan tertiar sisa air bandar pada iklim Mediterranean. <em>Phragmites</em> menunjukkan pertumbuhan tertinggi dalam ketinggian dan ketumpatan dalam tempoh vegetatif iaitu 1.83-2.09 cm.d<sup>-1</sup> dan 29-49 kali ketumpatan penanaman, masing-masing. Rekod biojisim udara mencatatkan 52.2-54.3, 38.1-41.0, dan 19.4 t dw.ha<sup>-1</sup> dalam <em>Phragmites,</em> <em>Typha</em>, dan <em>Sparganium </em>pada susunan sama. Biojisim bawah tanah berubah-ubah bergantung kepada kekuatan akar dari 1.45 t dw.ha<sup>-1</sup> untuk <em>Sparganium</em> hingga 44.49 t dw.ha<sup>-1</sup> untuk <em>Phragmites</em> dalam rawatan tertiar. Nitrogen dan Fosforus Mineralomassa udara adalah lebih penting untuk <em>Phragmites </em>(787 kg N.ha<sup>-1</sup>) dan <em>Typha</em> (107 kg P.ha<sup>-1</sup>) dalam rawatan sekunder. <em>Phragmites</em>, setakat ini, paling kumulatif bagi N dan P pada bahagian bawah tanah. Pembendungan N dan P oleh mesokisme tumbuh-tumbuhan secara nyata berkaitan dengan N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> dan P-PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>. Berbanding input mesokisme, <em>Phragmites</em> mengasimilasi maksimum pada N 6.39% tisu udara dan P 7.86% bahagian bawah tanah, manakala <em>Typha</em> mencatatkan maksima N 14.8% dan P 33.6% pada bahagian udara dengan penyingkiran mesokisme sepadan.</p> A. Ennabili M. Radoux Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 25 40 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1207 ANALYSIS AND CORRELATIONS OF DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS RELEVANT TO ORIFICES’ CAVITATING FLOW https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1306 <p>The aim of this work was to establish a general design basis for pilot-scale units to treat textile dyeing wastewater containing recalcitrant organic chemicals by hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) using orifices of various geometries. Relevant tabulated data available in the literature were analyzed and correlated to obtain universal relationships to this end. In spite of extensive effort, most of the obtained correlations were system-specific, which still can be used for design using their respective orifice geometries as demonstrated. However, one salient general relationship links the pipe’s dimensionless loss coefficient (K<sub>LP</sub>) to the pipe’s Reynolds number (Re<sub>P</sub>), encompassing all data under consideration, which may serve as an additional design option to optimize such units. The implication of this relationship is a lower upstream pressure (P<sub>1</sub>) value with an increase in pipe diameter while using the same specified orifice and achieving the same desired cavitation number (C<sub>v</sub>). The ratio of P<sub>1</sub> value in the larger pipe to its value in the smaller pipe is a function of the smaller pipe diameter (D<sub>S</sub>) to the larger pipe diameter (D<sub>L</sub>) ratio: (P<sub>1</sub> in D<sub>L</sub>) / (P<sub>1 </sub>in D<sub>S</sub>) = (D<sub>S</sub> /D<sub>L</sub>)<sup>2.33</sup>. A lower P<sub>1</sub> value will increase the cavitation yield by decreasing the expended energy, especially if the required number of passes is large. Additionally, the variation of the orifices’ hole loss coefficient (K<sub>Lh</sub>) with the ratio of the holes area to the pipe cross-sectional area (A<sub>h</sub>/A<sub>p</sub>) for cavitating flow is compared with that for non-cavitating/incipient cavitation flow reported in the literature.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Tujuan kajian ini diadakan bagi mereka bentuk dasar umum unit skala-pandu bagi merawat pewarnaan air buangan tekstil yang mengandungi kimia organik rekalsitran daripada peronggaan hidrodinamik (HC) menggunakan orifis pelbagai geometri. Data berjadual berkaitan yang ada dalam kajian lepas dianalisa dan dikaitkan bagi mendapatkan kaitan universal hingga akhir. Walaupun pelbagai usaha telah dijalankan, banyak kaitan didapati mengguna pakai sistem-tertentu, di mana boleh digunakan bagi mereka cipta menggunakan geometri orifis yang ditunjukkan. Walau bagaimanapun, bagi menghubung kait pekali langsung tanpa dimensi (K<sub>LP</sub>) kepada paip nombor Reynolds (Re<sub>P</sub>), meliputi semua data di bawah pertimbangan, di mana membantu pilihan rekaan tambahan bagi mengoptimum unit tersebut. Implikasi hubungan ini adalah nilai tekanan hulu sungai bawah (P<sub>1</sub>) dengan penambahan diameter paip dengan menggunakan orifis sama yang sebenar dan mendapati nombor peronggaan yang sama diingini (C<sub>v</sub>). Nisbah nilai P<sub>1</sub> dalam paip besar kepada nilai paip kecil adalah berkadaran pada nisbah diameter paip kecil (D<sub>S</sub>) kepada diameter paip besar (D<sub>L</sub>): </p> <p>(P<sub>1</sub> dalam D<sub>L</sub>) / (P<sub>1 </sub>in D<sub>S</sub>) = (D<sub>S</sub> /D<sub>L</sub>)<sup>2.33</sup>.</p> ABDUL-FATTAH ALI Mohanad M-Ridha Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 41 54 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1306 BIODELIGNIFICATION OF LEMON PEELS USING Aspergillus sp. TO IMPROVE YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF EXTXRACTED LEMON OIL https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1320 <p><strong> </strong>Lemon oil obtained from lemon peels has a high market value. However, the presence of lignocellulose composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, can inhibit the extraction process. This study aimed to determine the effect of biodelignification on lemon peels using <em>Aspergillus sp. </em>towards lignin content, yield, chemical composition, and productivity of lemon oil. A solid-state fermentation was carried out under controlled relative humidity of 99% and a light intensity of ~0 W/cm<sup>2</sup> for 0, 3, 6, and 9 days. The number of spores used was in the range of 0.3-5 x 10<sup>5</sup> spores/gram substrate with a ratio of spore solution and substrate of 1:1. Extraction was performed using a steam distillation method at 97-98°C for 6 hours. The results showed that the lignin content decreased with an increased fermentation time: 8.01%, 6.97-7.28%, 5.83-7.28%, and 4.35-5.44% dry weight for day 0, 3, 6, and 9, respectively. Lemon oil yield increased as the period of fermentation increased up to 0.27%, 0.29-0.31%, 0,30-0.46%%, and 0.67-0.79% for day-0, 3, 6, and 9, respectively. A major component of lemon oil is d-limonene. The d-limonene content reached 72,54% for day-0, 73-99% for day-3, 75,09-84.59% for day-6, and 88,03-99% for day-9.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Minyak lemon yang terhasil dari kupasan lemon mempunyai nilai tinggi dalam pasaran. Walau bagaimanapun, kehadiran lignoselulosa yang terdiri daripada selulosa, hemiselulosa dan lignin, boleh merencatkan proses pengekstrakan. Kajian ini bertujuan memperolehi kesan biodelignifikasi pada kulit lemon menggunakan <em>Aspergillus sp.</em> terhadap kandungan lignin, hasil, komposisi kimia, dan penghasilan minyak lemon. Penapaian keadaan-pepejal dijalankan di bawah 99% kawalan kelembapan relatif dan keamatan cahaya ~0 W/cm<sup>2</sup> bagi 0, 3, 6 dan 9 hari. Bilangan spora yang digunakan adalah dalam lingkungan substrat 0.3-5 x 10<sup>5</sup> spora/gram dengan nisbah larutan spora kepada substrat adalah 1:1. Pengekstrakan dijalankan menggunakan kaedah penyulingan stim pada suhu 97-98°C selama 6 jam. Keputusan menunjukkan kandungan lignin berkurangan dengan pertambahan masa penapaian: 8.01%, 6.97-7.28%, 5.83-7.28%, dan 4.35-5.44% berat kering pada hari 0, 3, 6, dan 9, masing-masing. Hasil minyak lemon bertambah dengan pertambahan masa penapaian sehingga 0.27%, 0.29-0.31%, 0,30-0.46%%, dan 0.67-0.79% pada hari 0, 3, 6, dan 9, masing-masing. Komponen major minyak lemon adalah d-limonina. Kandungan d-limonina mencapai 72,54% pada hari-0, 73-99% pada hari-3, 75,09-84.59% pada hari-6, dan 88,03-99% pada hari-9.</p> Muhammad Yusuf Abduh Enjelina Nababan Firdanta Ginting Jenny Juliati Husna Nugrahapraja Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 55 66 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1320 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF GROWTH CONDITIONS OF NEWLY ISOLATE BACILLUS SP. PRODUCING L-ASPARAGINASE https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1351 <p>The concentrations of nutrient elements together with several physical parameters were screened to find out the significant factors for the production of L-asparaginase from newly isolated strain, <em>Bacillus</em> sp. from Sg Klah, Hot Spring, Perak. Then, the significant factors were optimized for enhancing L-asparaginase production from the bacterium strain. Two statistical designs, Two Level Factorial Design and Face Centered Composite Design (FCCD), Design expert @version 8.0 were employed in screening and optimization of the process variables, respectively. The results for all experiment runs were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Peptone (nitrogen source) concentration and temperature were found as significant factors, positively influenced the production of L-asparaginase. The two factors were then optimized to increase the desired enzyme production. The optimum peptone concentration and the temperature were found at 1.4 g/L and 30ºC, respectively. The L-asparaginase production under optimized conditions increased from 0.15±0.023 U/mL to 0.19 ± 0.03 U/mL. The kinetic studies showed that the biomass production dropped after 24 hours while L-asparaginase activity is active and positively increased until the fermentation period ended.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kepekatan unsur-unsur nutrien bersama-sama dengan beberapa parameter fizikal telah diteliti untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor penting untuk pengeluaran L-asparaginase dari spesis baru diasingkan, <em>bacillus</em> sp. dari kolam air panas tempatan. Kemudian, faktor penting dioptimumkan untuk meningkatkan pengeluaran L-asparaginase daripada bakteria tersebut. <em>Two Level Factorial Design</em> dan <em>Face Centered Composite Design</em> (FCCD), Design expert @version 8.0 telah digunakan dalam penyaringan dan pengoptimuman pembolehubah proses dalam kajian ini. Keputusan untuk semua eksperimen dianalisis dengan analisis varians (ANOVA). Kepekatan dan suhu peptone (sumber nitrogen) didapati sebagai faktor penting, secara positif mempengaruhi pengeluaran L-asparaginase. Kedua-dua faktor ini dioptimumkan untuk meningkatkan pengeluaran enzim yang dikehendaki. Kepekatan peptone dan suhu optimum didapati masing-masing pada 1.4 g / L dan 30ºC. Pengeluaran L-asparaginase di bawah keadaan yang dioptimumkan meningkat dari 0.15 ± 0.023 U / mL kepada 0.19 ± 0.03 U/mL. Kajian kinetik menunjukkan bahawa pengeluaran biojisim menurun selepas 24 jam manakala aktiviti L-asparaginase aktif dan meningkat secara positif sehingga tempoh penapaian berakhir. </p> Dzun Noraini Jimat Intan Baizura Firda Mohamed Azlin Suhaida Azmi Azura Amid Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 67 79 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1351 IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM USING THE GENETIC ALGORITHM TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMUM LOCATION AND FACTS DEVICES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1273 <p><strong> </strong>As the world's energy consumption increases, the expansion of the energy system becomes increasingly important. However, the creation of new transmission lines requires excessive costs and time if the same transmission capacity is to be added to the existing network. Today's electrical networks are faced with high risks of voltage instability and real power losses. This development tends to occur due to the lack of reactive control power (RPL) in heavily stressed operating conditions caused by increased demand for loads and the rapid development of power systems worldwide. This paper has adopted the setting of FACTS (flexible AC transmission system) devices as additional control parameters for reducing transmission losses in power system static types of two FACTS devices consisting of SVC (static VAR compensators) while the TCSC (thermistor controlled series compensator) is included in the issue formulation. During this paper, the proposed algorithm was to determine the optimal placement of power network devices by genetic algorithm to manage reactive power, reduce losses, increase the transmission capacity and power lines, and help simulate the IEEE 24 bus control system and also the position of FACTS devices.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Apabila penggunaan tenaga dunia semakin meningkat, penambahan sistem tenaga sangat penting. Walau bagaimanapun, penciptaan talian penghantaran terkini memerlukan kos yang berlebihan dan had masa jika kapasiti penghantaran yang sama digunakan dengan lebih tinggi. Dalam rangkaian elektrik hari ini, unit ini berhadapan dengan risiko ketidakstabilan voltan dan putus bekalan tenaga. Penambahan sistem tenaga ini cenderung berlaku disebabkan kekurangan kuasa kawalan reaktif (RPL) dalam keadaan beban operasi yang besar disebabkan oleh peningkatan beban permintaan dan perkembangan pesat sistem kuasa di seluruh dunia. Kertas ini telah mengguna pakai peranti FACTS (sistem penghantaran AC fleksibel) sebagai parameter kawalan tambahan bagi mengurangkan kehilangan penghantaran dalam sistem kuasa statik dua peranti FACTS yang terdiri daripada SVC (pemampas VAR statik) manakala TCSC (pemampas siri termistor kawalan) adalah termasuk dalam perumusan isu. Dalam kertas kerja ini, algoritma yang dicadangkan adalah penempatan optimum peranti rangkaian kuasa oleh algoritma genetik bagi mengurus kuasa reaktif juga mengurangkan kerugian dan meningkatkan kapasiti penghantaran dan kabel elektrik dan membantu menyerupai sistem kawalan bas IEEE 24 dan juga kedudukan peranti FACTS di mana ia terbukti berkesan.</p> Husam Hasan Mohammed Hiba Zuhair Abdul Kareem Wafaa Mohammed Ridha Ridha Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 133 142 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1273 BORDER SURVEILLANCE USING FACE RECOGNITION, MOBILE OTP AND EMAIL https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1322 <p>Expanding strains over Indian borders with illegal crossings and examining past assaults on the nation, it is clear that in a large portion of the cases, security powers are uninformed of the movement of these interlopers. For this reason, a framework is needed to manage the border issue that would be equipped for working in sloping landscapes where there is no power. This paper manages identification and situating of interlopers crossing the border utilizing PIR sensors and cameras. In the event of any undesirable crossing in the area, the sensor quickly detects it and the camera will stream pictures to the base station (BS). Relying upon the guidance originating from the BS, the sensor will either activate the camera for further streaming or turn it off. The objective of this paper is to give a framework that will help the Border Security Force (BSF) in controlling all sorts of illicit activities near the outskirt in a superior and precise manner.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Merentas isu sempadan India dengan kegiatan pencerobohan sempadan dan dengan mengambil kira kutukan lepas terhadap bangsa kami, adalah jelas dalam banyak-banyak kes ini pegawai keselamatan tidak diberitahu tentang bahagian yang dicerobohi. Dalam keadaan ini, kita memerlukan rangka kerja bagi mengurus masalah sempadan di mana kelengkapan perlu dipasang di tebing landskap yang tidak mempunyai sumber tenaga. Kajian ini mengurus identiti pengenalan dan kedudukan kegiatan haram yang berleluasa di sempadan dengan mengguna pakai pengesan PIR dan kamera. Apabila terdapat perubahan pergerakan yang tidak diingini di sempadan, PIR akan mengesan pergerakan dengan cepat dan kamera akan menggaris arus gambar-gambar ke stesen utama (BS) dan bergantung kepada panduan pengkalan di BS, pengesan akan membuat kamera lebih bergaris arus atau berhenti merekod. Kajian ini pentng bagi menunjukkan rangka yang membantu Penguatkuasaan Keselamatan Sempadan (BSF) dalam mengawal semua kegiatan haram berhampiran sempadan dengan bermutu dan tepat.</p> DEEPALI GUPTA NARESH KUMAR Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 143 152 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1322 WORD SEGMENTATION OF OUTPUT RESPONSE FOR SIGN LANGUAGE DEVICES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1408 <p>Segmentation is an important aspect of translating finger spelling of sign language into Latin alphabets. Although the sign language devices that are currently available can translate the finger spelling into alphabets, there is a limitation where the output is stored in a long continuous string without spaces between words. The system proposed in this work is meant to be used together with a text-generating glove device. The system used text input string and the string is then fed into the system, one character at a time, and then it is segmented into words that is semantically correct. The proposed text segmentation method in this work is by using the dynamic programming and back-off algorithm, together with the probability score using word matching with an English language text corpus. Based on the results, the system is able to properly segment words with acceptable accuracy.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong></p> <p>Segmentasi adalah aspek penting dalam menterjemahkan ejaan bahasa isyarat ke dalam huruf Latin. Walaupun terdapat peranti bahasa isyarat yang menterjemahkan ejaan jari menjadi huruf, namun begitu, huruf-huruf yang dihasilkan disimpan dalam rentetan berterusan yang panjang tanpa jarak antara setiap perkataan. Sistem yang dicadangkan di dalam jurnal ini akan diselaraskan bersama dengan sarung tangan bahasa isyarat yang boleh menghasilkan teks. Sistem ini akan mengambil rentetan input teks di mana huruf akan dimasukkan satu persatu dan huruf-huruf itu akan disegmentasikan menjadi perkataan yang betul secara semantik. Kaedah pembahagian yang dicadangkan ialah segmentasi yang menggunakan pengaturcaraan dinamik dan kaedah kebarangkalian untuk mengsegmentasikan huruf-huruf tersebut berdasarkan padanan perkataan dengan pengkalan data di dalam Bahasa Inggeris. Berdasarkan hasil yang telah diperolehi, sistem ini berjaya mengsegmentasikan huruf-huruf tersebut dengan berkesan dan tepat.</p> Nor Farahidah Za'bah Ahmad Amierul Ashraf Muhammad Nazmi Amelia Wong Azman Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 153 163 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1408 FORMALIZATION OF THE COTTON DRYING PROCESS BASED ON HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER EQUATIONS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1456 <p>The paper deals with the construction of a mathematical model of the cotton drying process, taking into account the thermal and mass transfer properties of raw cotton components. To determine changes in the temperature of the fibre and raw cotton seeds, the application of Fourier's law is proposed. The mathematical dependence of the change on the humidity of the cotton fibre and seeds along the length of the drum is determined. The rational value of the heat agent consumption in the process of drying raw cotton is also determined. Research methods are based on the provisions of modern trends in management theory and identification. Mathematical models are constructed using analytical methods and equations that describe the physical properties of an object. Methods for constructing a mathematical model usually rely on experimental methods, in particular, the method of acceleration curves, and as a result, the mathematical description becomes a priori inaccurate. It is shown that the mathematical model used is quite adequate for the dynamics of a real object, fully describes it, and characterizes it over the entire range of changes. The analysis of the developed mathematical model based on simulation showed the adequacy of the obtained mathematical dependence of the temperature regime of the cotton drying process with the consumption of heat agent.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Kajian ini membincangkan tentang penciptaan model matematik bagi proses pengeringan kapas, dengan mengambil kira terma dan sifat-sifat pindah jisim komponen kapas mentah. Bagi mendapatkan perubahan suhu fabrik dan biji benih kapas mentah, penggunaan hukum Fourier telah dicadangkan. Kebergantungan matematik pada perubahan kelembapan fabrik kapas dan biji benih sepanjang drum telah diperolehi. Nilai bersesuaian menggunakan ejen haba dalam proses pengeringan kapas kering mentah didapati. Kaedah kajian berdasarkan tren moden dalam teori pengurusan dan pengenalpastian. Model matematik dibina dengan menggunakan kaedah analisis dan persamaan yang menerangkan ciri-ciri fizikal pada objek. Kaedah bagi membina model matematik selalunya bergantung pada kaedah eksperimen, khususnya, kaedah pecutan melengkung, dan hasilnya, penyataan penaakulan matematik menjadi tidak tepat. Model matematik yang digunakan adalah cukup bagi objek dinamik sebenar, dengan penerangan penuh dan perincian ke atas keseluruhan perubahan. Analisis model matematik yang terhasil berdasarkan simulasi, dilihat cukup kebergantungan matematik terhasil melalui proses pengeringan kapas pada aturan suhu dengan ejen haba.</p> Sayyora Yunusnova, Toshkenboyevna Davron Holmatov, Abdalimovich Muhiddin Atajonov, Odiljonovich Ulugjon Huzanazarov Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 256 265 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1456 Editorial https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1508 <p> </p> <!-- [if !mso]> <style> v\:* { behavior: url(#default#VML) } o\:* { behavior: url(#default#VML) } .shape { behavior: url(#default#VML) } </style> <![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]> <xml><o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1027"></o:shapedefaults> </xml><![endif]--> <div class="WordSection1"> <h2 style="margin: .25in 0in .0001pt 0in;"><span lang="EN-US">CHIEF EDITOR</span></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ahmad Faris Ismail, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0in .0001pt 0in;"><span lang="EN-US">EXECUTIVE EDITOR</span></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">AHM Zahirul Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0in .0001pt 0in;"><span lang="EN-US">ASSOCIATE EDITOR</span></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Nor Farahidah Za’bah, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin-left: 0in; line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-US">LANGUAGE EDITOR</span></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .1pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Lynn Mason, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 6.0pt 0in .0001pt 0in;"><span lang="EN-US">COPY EDITOR</span></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US"> Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="line-height: 10.75pt; margin: 12.0pt 0in 6.0pt 0in;"><span lang="EN-US">EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS</span></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><a name="OLE_LINK2"></a><span lang="EN-US">Abdullah Al-Mamun, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Abdumalik Rakhimov, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ali Sophian, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Amir Akramin Shafie, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Anis Nurashikin Nordin, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US"> Erry Yulian Triblas Adesta, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Erwin Sulaeman, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hazleen Anuar, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Konstantin Khanin, University of Toronto, Canada</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ma'an Al-Khatib, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Md Zahangir Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Meftah Hrairi, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mohamed B. Trabia, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mohammad S. Alam, Texas A&amp;M University-Kingsville, United States </span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mustafizur Rahman, National University Singapore, Singapore</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ossama Abdulkhalik, Michigan Technological University, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: .55pt; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US"> Razi Nalim, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Rosminazuin AB. Rahim, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Waqar Asrar, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 171.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 171.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <h2 style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><span lang="EN-US">AIMS &amp; SCOPE OF IIUMENGINEERING JOURNAL</span></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: 5.6pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US">The <strong>IIUM Engineering Journal</strong>, published biannually, is a carefully refereed international publication of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). Contributions of high technical merit within the <span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">span </span>of engineering disciplines; covering the main <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">areas </span>of engineering: Electrical and <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;"> Computer </span>Engineering; Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Automation <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and</span> Mechatronics Engineering; Material and Chemical Engineering; Environmental <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and</span> Civil Engineering; Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Engineering Mathematics and Physics; and Computer Science and Information Technology are considered for publication in this journal. Contributions from <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">other areas </span>of Engineering <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;"> and </span>Applied Science are also welcomed. The <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">IIUM </span>Engineering Journal publishes contributions under <em>Regular papers and Invited review papers</em>. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the specific challenges of the developing world, and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: 5.6pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.55pt 0in .0001pt 0in;"><span lang="EN-US">REFEREES’ NETWORK</span></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: 5.9pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: -.05pt; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US">All papers submitted to IIUM Engineering Journal will be subjected to a rigorous reviewing process through a worldwide network of specialized and competent referees. Each accepted paper should have at least two positive referees’ assessments.</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0in .0001pt 0in;"><span lang="EN-US">SUBMISSION OF A MANUSCRIPT</span></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.7pt;"><span lang="EN-US">A manuscript should be submitted online to the IIUM-Engineering Journal website at </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-right: 6.05pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 9.5pt; line-height: 98%;">http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal. </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 9.5pt; line-height: 98%;">Further correspondence on the status of the paper could be done through the journal website.</span></p> </div> <h1 style="margin-left: 27.0pt;"><span lang="EN-US">INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE</span></h1> <p class="MsoBodyText"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14.0pt;"> </span></strong></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">A. Anwar, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Abdul Latif Bin Ahmad, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Farzad Ismail, USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hany Ammar, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Idris Mohammed Bugaje, Nigeria</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">K.B. Ramachandran, India</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Kunzu Abdella, Canada</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Luis Le Moyne, ISAT, University of Burgundy, France</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">M Mujtaba, United Kingdom</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mohamed AI-Rubei, Ireland</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mohamed B Trabia, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Syed Kamrul Islam, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Tibor Czigany, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Yiu-Wing Mai, The University of Sydney, Australia.</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14.0pt;"> </span></strong></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: center; margin: .05pt 5.05pt .0001pt 0in;" align="center"><span lang="EN-US">Published by:</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: center; margin: .05pt 5.05pt .0001pt 0in;" align="center"><span lang="EN-US"><strong><img src="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/../pub/ejournal/public/site/images/zahirul/Press_logo.jpg" /></strong></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: center; margin: .05pt 5.05pt .0001pt 0in;" align="center"><span lang="EN-US">IIUM Press,</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: center; margin: .05pt 5.05pt .0001pt 0in;" align="center"><span lang="EN-US">International Islamic University Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: center; text-indent: 7.65pt; line-height: 102%; margin: .55pt 5.05pt .0001pt 0in;" align="center"><span lang="EN-US">Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia </span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: center; text-indent: 7.65pt; line-height: 102%; margin: .55pt 5.05pt .0001pt 0in;" align="center"><span lang="EN-US">Phone (+603) 6421-5014, Fax: (+603) 6421-6298 </span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: center; text-indent: 7.65pt; line-height: 102%; margin: .55pt 5.05pt .0001pt 0in;" align="center"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 113%; margin: 0in 5.85pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Whilst every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisement herein are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher and the editorial committee accept no liability whatsoever for the consequence of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement.</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 113%; margin: 0in 5.85pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 113%; margin: 0in 5.85pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;" align="center"><strong> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 13.0pt;">IIUM Engineering Journal</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;" align="center"><strong> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 9.0pt;">ISSN: 1511-788X E-ISSN: 2289-7860</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> AHM Zahirul Alam Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1508 SPACE MAPPING OF HIP AND WRISTS MOTIONS FOR DIFFERENT TRANSFER DISTANCES IN MANUAL MATERIAL HANDLING TASK https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1197 <p>Manual material transfer tasks are common in occupational settings. Repetitive lifting tasks usually involve twisting and bending which are associated with occupational lower back injuries. One of the approaches to reduce bending and twisting is to separate the distance between lifting origin and destination, which will encourage lifters to step and turn entire bodies. However, adding lifting distances is likely to affect space usages and requirements. A study was conducted to investigate how the transfer distances influence space usage during the lifting task. Raw data of hip and hand wrists motion of 26 male subjects during transfer in 4 different distances were captured using X-Sens motion capture system. MVN Studio software was used to process and extract positional data. Tabulated space mapping revealed limited hip movement and semicircular shaped hand motions for short transfer distances. The pattern changes into a more stretched-curve shape as the distance increases. Overall, it was observed that shorter transfer distance caused participants to adopt more twisting and less bending postures, while further transfer distances resulted in more bending and less twisting. This study may provide industrial practitioners with information to design a space requirement for manual material transfer tasks.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kerja-kerja pemindahan barang secara manual adalah biasa dalam persekitaran kerja. Kerja-kerja mengangkat barang yang kebiasaannya melibatkan badan membengkok dan berpusing boleh menyebabkan kecederaan tulang belakang. Salah satu cara bagi mengurangkan risiko ini adalah dengan memisahkan jarak antara tempat asal dan tempat tuju pemindahan barang. Pemindah barang digalakkan untuk melangkah dan memusingkan seluruh badan. Namun, cara ini menyebabkan penggunaan ruang yang banyak. Satu kajian telah dijalankan bagi mengkaji bagaimana jarak pemindahan barang mempengaruhi penggunaan ruang ketika kerja-kerja pemindahan. Data asal pergerakan pinggul dan pergelangan tangan daripada 26 subjek lelaki ketika pemindahan barang pada 4 jarak berbeza diperolehi menggunakan sistem rakaman gerakan X-Sens. Perisian MVN Studio digunakan bagi memproses dan mengekstrak data ini. Ruang pemetaan berjadual mendedahkan pergerakan pinggul yang terhad dan pergerakan tangan berbentuk separa bulat pada jarak pemindahan terdekat. Corak ini berubah kepada bentuk lengkung memanjang apabila jarak bertambah. Keseluruhannya, jarak pindahan yang kurang menyebabkan para peserta lebih terdedah kepada postur memusingkan badan berbanding membengkok, sementara jarak yang jauh menyebabkan peserta lebih membengkok berbanding memusingkan badan. Kajian ini memberikan maklumat untuk penggiat industri mereka cipta keperluan ruang bagi kerja-kerja pemindahan barang secara manual.</p> Radin Zaid Radin Umar Fatin Ayuni Mohd Azli Lee Muhammad Naqiuddin Khafiz Nadiah Ahmad Nazreen Abdullasim Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 164 176 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1197 CUTTING TOOL PERFORMANCE IN TURNING OF AL 7075-T651 ALUMINIUM ALLOY https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1227 <p> Recently, almost 70% of a commercial jetliner’s airframe is made of aluminium alloys. It is predicted that the application of aluminium alloy is to increase up to 65% by the year 2025. They are typically used because of their high strength to weight ratio. However, there are some drawbacks during machining aluminium alloy such as the adhesion wear and built-up edge (BUE) formation that can shorten tool life. As the tool wears, the machining performance, surface roughness, and cutting tool life are affected significantly. A lot of studies were conducted in order to minimize this critical issue. This project presents a study of the cutting tool performance of an uncoated carbide tool in dry turning operation on Al 7075-T651, in which the tool wear rate, volume of material removed, wear mechanism, and surface roughness were investigated. The machining tests were conducted on a CNC lathe machine to obtain the tool wear and surface roughness of the machined work piece. The average flank wear was measured using a digital microscope, whereas the wear mechanism was observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The average surface roughness (Ra) was measured using a surface roughness tester. The cutting time for this experiment was fixed at 40 minutes and all the results were analysed within this time range to evaluate the tool performance in the turning of Al 7075-T651. The results revealed that the tool performs better at low cutting speed, 250 m/min, by reducing the tool wear rate by 33%. The cutting speed of 250 m/min also contributed to 71% higher volume of material removed during the machining tests. The dominant type of wear found was flank wear, while the main principal of wear mechanism is adhesion. At higher cutting speed, the surface roughness was improved. Based on the results, it can be concluded that high cutting tool performance is achieved when low tool wear growth rate, high volume of material removal, and low surface roughness during turning operation are obtained.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kebelakangan ini, hampir 70% kerangka pesawat udara komersil diperbuat daripada aloi aluminium. Penggunaan aloi aluminum ini dijangka meningkat sehingga 65% pada tahun 2025. Ia biasa digunakan kerana nisbah kekuatan kepada berat yang tinggi. Walau bagaimanapun, terdapat beberapa kekurangan semasa pemesinan aloi aluminum ini iaitu pemakaian pelekat dan pembentukan binaan tepi (BUE) yang mengurangkan jangka hayat mata alat. Apabila mata alat menjadi haus, prestasi mesin, kekasaran permukaan, dan jangka hayat mata alat pemotong terjejas dengan ketara. Banyak kajian telah dijalankan bagi mengurangkan isu kritikal ini. Projek ini mengkaji prestasi mata alat pemotong karbida tidak bersalut dalam operasi mesin larik kering pada Al 7075-T651, di mana kadar haus mata alat, kuantiti bahan yang dibuang, mekanisme haus dan kekasaran permukaan telah diselidiki. Ujian pemesinan dijalankan pada mesin CNC mesin larik bagi mendapatkan kadar haus mata alat dan kekasaran permukaan material yang dimesin. Purata haus pengapit mata alat diukur dengan menggunakan mikroskop digital, manakala mekanisme haus dipantau menggunakan Mikroskop Elektronik Pengimbas (SEM). Purata kekasaran permukaan (Ra) diukur menggunakan alat penguji kekasaran permukaan. Tempoh masa pemotongan bagi eksperimen ini telah ditetapkan pada 40 minit dan semua keputusan telah dianalisa dalam tempoh masa ini bagi menilai prestasi mata alat dalam melarik Al 7075-T651. Hasil menunjukkan prestasi mata alat lebih baik pada kelajuan pemotongan rendah, 250 m/min dengan mengurangkan kadar haus mata alat sehingga 33%. Kelajuan pemotongan 250 m/min juga menyumbang kepada 71% peningkatan ke atas jumlah bahan yang dibuang semasa ujian pemesinan. Jenis haus yang dominan telah ditemui pada pengapit mata alat, manakala mekanisme haus yang utama adalah lekatan. Pada kelajuan pemotongan yang tinggi, kekasaran permukaan didapati lebih baik. Berdasarkan keputusan, dapat disimpulkan bahawa prestasi mata alat pemotong yang bagus dapat dicapai apabila kadar haus mata alat adalah rendah, jumlah penyingkiran bahan yang tinggi dan kekasaran permukaan yang rendah semasa operasi pelarikan dijalankan.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kebelakangan ini, hampir 70% kerangka pesawat udara komersil diperbuat daripada aloi aluminium. Penggunaan aloi aluminum ini dijangka meningkat sehingga 65% pada tahun 2025. Ia biasa digunakan kerana nisbah kekuatan kepada berat yang tinggi. Walau bagaimanapun, terdapat beberapa kekurangan semasa pemesinan aloi aluminum ini iaitu pemakaian pelekat dan pembentukan binaan tepi (BUE) yang mengurangkan jangka hayat mata alat. Apabila mata alat menjadi haus, prestasi mesin, kekasaran permukaan, dan jangka hayat mata alat pemotong terjejas dengan ketara. Banyak kajian telah dijalankan bagi mengurangkan isu kritikal ini. Projek ini mengkaji prestasi mata alat pemotong karbida tidak bersalut dalam operasi mesin larik kering pada Al 7075-T651, di mana kadar haus mata alat, kuantiti bahan yang dibuang, mekanisme haus dan kekasaran permukaan telah diselidiki. Ujian pemesinan dijalankan pada mesin CNC mesin larik bagi mendapatkan kadar haus mata alat dan kekasaran permukaan material yang dimesin. Purata haus pengapit mata alat diukur dengan menggunakan mikroskop digital, manakala mekanisme haus dipantau menggunakan Mikroskop Elektronik Pengimbas (SEM). Purata kekasaran permukaan (Ra) diukur menggunakan alat penguji kekasaran permukaan. Tempoh masa pemotongan bagi eksperimen ini telah ditetapkan pada 40 minit dan semua keputusan telah dianalisa dalam tempoh masa ini bagi menilai prestasi mata alat dalam melarik Al 7075-T651. Hasil menunjukkan prestasi mata alat lebih baik pada kelajuan pemotongan rendah, 250 m/min dengan mengurangkan kadar haus mata alat sehingga 33%. Kelajuan pemotongan 250 m/min juga menyumbang kepada 71% peningkatan ke atas jumlah bahan yang dibuang semasa ujian pemesinan. Jenis haus yang dominan telah ditemui pada pengapit mata alat, manakala mekanisme haus yang utama adalah lekatan. Pada kelajuan pemotongan yang tinggi, kekasaran permukaan didapati lebih baik. Berdasarkan keputusan, dapat disimpulkan bahawa prestasi mata alat pemotong yang bagus dapat dicapai apabila kadar haus mata alat adalah rendah, jumlah penyingkiran bahan yang tinggi dan kekasaran permukaan yang rendah semasa operasi pelarikan dijalankan.</p> Natasha A. Raof Nur Sofwati Daud @Ab Aziz Abdul Rahman A. Ghani Aishah Najiah Dahnel Suhaily Mokhtar Nor Khairusshima Muhamad Khairussaleh Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 177 185 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1227 INVESTIGATION ON INFLUENCE OF ANIONIC SURFACTANT FOR HOMOGENISATION OF MWCNT IN ALUMINIUM 6065 MATRIX https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1317 <p>In the proposed work, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is used as a surfactant for carbon nanotubes, to fabricate multi walled carbon nanotube-aluminium metal matrix composites (MMCs). This paper presents the comparison study of SDS coated and non-coated multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) mixed with Al6065 by stir casting technique. The presence of low molecular weight surfactant treated with MWCNT was investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. About 1 wt. % of MWCNT is used as a filler metal in Aluminium and the dispersion characteristics of SDS coated and non-coated Carbon Nanotubes in the composite is examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The comparison study of SEM analysis showed thatthe MWCNT coated with SDS has good dispersion stability and considerable reduction in agglomeration to obtain agglomeration free composites. The mechanical properties and wear characteristics of the MWCNT-Aluminium matrix were studied as per the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The results of SDS coated MWCNT exhibits exceptional properties with increase in the tensile strength, compressive strength, hardness, and wear characteristics of the reinforced metal matrix.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong>Natriumdodesilsulfat (SDS) digunakan sebagai surfaktan pada karbon nanotiub, bagi menghasilkan multi dinding karbon nanotiub-komposit matriks logam aluminium (MMCs). Perbandingan dibuat dalam kajian ini dengan membandingkan salutan SDS dengan bukan-salutan multi dinding karbon nanotiub (MWCNT) yang bercampur A16065 melalui teknik kacauan acuan. Kahadiran berat surfaktan molekul ringan terawat dengan MWCNT dikaji mengguna pakai analisis spektroskopi Penjelmaan Fourier Inframerah (FTIR). Kira-kira 1 wt.% MWCNT digunakan sebagai pengisi besi dalam Aluminum dan ciri-ciri penyebaran salutan SDS dan bukan-salutan karbon nanotiub dalam komposit diteliti menggunakan pengimbas mikroskop elektron (SEM). Perbandingan analisis SEM menunjukkan, salutan MWCNT dengan SDS mempunyai kestabilan penyebaran dan berkurang dengan banyak dalam pengaglomeratan bagi mendapatkan komposit bebas pengaglomeratan. Ciri-ciri mekanikal dan haus matrik Aluminium-MWCNT dikaji berdasarkan piawai Persatuan Pengujian Bahan Amerika (ASTM). Keputusan MWCNT salutan SDS mempunyai ciri-ciri luar biasa dengan kenaikan kekuatan tegangan, kekuatan mampatan, kekerasan, dan ciri-ciri haus pada kekuatan matrik logamn.</p> Savina J P Puttaswamy Bommanahalli Venkatagiriyappa Raghavendra Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 186 196 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1317 EFFECT OF SPINNING PARAMETERS ON PLA/PPC/CURCUMIN MICROFIBER DIAMETER: AN INVESTIGATION VIA RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1336 <p>The initial phase of this study was to investigate the effect of polypropylene carbonate (PPC) additions in polylactic acid (PLA)/curcumin (Cur) blends. It was observed that the presence of curcumin particulates behaved as a reinforcement filler for PPC additions up to 30 wt%. A specific composition was then invested to find the correlation between the fiber diameter and melt-spinning process parameters using central composite design (CCD), a subset of response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that the spinning temperature had a greater effect than the spinning speed on the diameter of PLA/PPC/curcumin fiber. The response model indicated a good correlation between experimental and predicted values since the ANOVA analysis demonstrated high <em>F</em>-value of model adequacy at 10.34, non-significant lack of fit, precision adequacy of 9.94 and R<sup>2 </sup>value of 0.80. Therefore, this model can be used in a future study to establish the processing parameters for controlled fiber production.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Fasa awal kajian ini adalah bagi mengkaji kesan penambahan karbonat polipropilin ke dalam campuran asid prolaktik (PLA)/kurkumin (Cur). Didapati kehadiran zarah-zarah kurkumin bertindak sebagai pengisi bantuan pada penambahan PPC sehingga 30 wt%. Komposisi tertentu kemudian dikaji bagi mencari kaitan diameter fiber dan parameter proses putaran-cair menggunakan rekaan komposit utama (CCD), dan subset metodologi gerak-balas permukaan (RSM). Keputusan menunjukkan suhu putaran berpengaruh besar berbanding kelajuan putaran pada diameter fiber PLA/PPC/kurkumin. Model yang bertindak balas ini menunjukkan kaitan yang baik antara eksperimen dan nilai yang dijangka kerana analisis ANOVA menunjukkan nilai-<em>F</em> yang tinggi pada 10.34 kecukupan model, tidak-ketara kurang padanan, kecukupan ketepatan pada 9.94 dan nilai R<sup>2</sup> sebanyak 0.80. Oleh itu, model ini boleh digunakan pada kajian akan datang bagi menghasilkan parameter proses pengeluaran fiber kawalan.</p> Sharifah Imihezri Syed Shaharuddin AMIRUL AKMAL FAUZAN MOHAMAD FARIS IZZUDIN MOHAMAD JAZI NUR ATIQAH MOHD. AKHIR MAIZATULNISA OTHMAN NOR KHAIRUSHIMA MUHAMAD KHAIRUSSALEH NORHASHIMAH SHAFFIAR ZAIMAH HASAN Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 197 211 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1336 DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM THROUGH SELECTIVE INHIBITION SINTERING (SIS) PROCESS AND EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FABRICATED PARTS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1354 <p>Additive manufacturing (AM) is widely being used in today’s contemporary industry; however, products fabricated by the existing AM techniques are costly due to the high machine cost and low production rate. Therefore, the focus of this work is to design and fabricate a cost-effective and novel powder based selective inhibition sintering (SIS) system. Various subsystems of the machine such as the infrared heater assembly, inhibition deposition mechanism, build and feed tank assemblies, powder deposition, and the compaction system have been indigenously designed and fabricated. An electronic control system is also established through integrating sensors, linear and rotary actuators, belt and pulley mechanism, and temperature feedback control unit. The customized SIS system is developed by integrating the assembly of all the subsystems, and the electronic modules with an open-source platform to generate the necessary motion characteristics. Besides, an open source RepRap user interface firmware has been used to control the machine. Thermo-structural finite element analysis has been used to study the sintering behaviour of powder material. Inhibitor material selection and preparation have been carried out by performing an experimental investigation on the inhibition effects of various materials. The machine has been tested through fabricating parts from HDPE polymer powder. Finally, the performance of the produced parts has been evaluated by conducting an experimental investigation. The results of the investigation indicated that the fabricated parts have attained sufficient mechanical strength and, hence, the developed SIS system can be utilized to manufacture functional parts.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Industri pembuatan bahan tambahan (AM) banyak digunakan dalam industri kontemporari semasa; walau bagaimanapun, produk yang terhasil daripada teknik sedia ada AM adalah mahal disebabkan harga mesin yang mahal dan kadar penghasilan yang rendah. Oleh itu, tujuan kajian ini adalah bagi mereka cipta serbuk baharu dengan harga berpatutan berdasarkan sistem pensinteran rencatan pilihan (SIS). Pelbagai mesin subsistem seperti pemasangan pemanas inframerah, mekanisme pemendapan rencatan, binaan dan pemasangan tangki suapan, deposisi serbuk, dan sistem pemadatan telah direka cipta secara alami dan dipasang siap. Sistem kawalan elektronik juga diadakan melalui integrasi sensor, lelurus dan penggerak putaran, jaluran dan mekanisme takal dan suhu unit kawalan suap balik. Sistem SIS yang dibuat mengikut pesanan ini dihasilkan dengan mengintegrasi pemasangan kesemua subsistem, dan modul elektronik melalui platfom sumber terbuka bagi menghasilkan ciri-ciri pergerakan bersesuaian. Selain itu, sumber terbuka RepRap perisian tegar antara muka telah digunakan bagi mengawal mesin. Analisis unsur terhingga struktur-terma digunakan bagi mempelajari perihal pensinteran bahan serbuk. Pilihan bahan perencat dan persediaan telah dijalankan dengan menjalankan siasatan eksperimen pada kesan perencat pelbagai bahan. Mesin diuji melalui pemasangan bahagian daripada HDPE serbuk polimer. Akhirnya, bahagian yang terhasil diuji melalui ujian eksperimen. Hasil kajian menunjukkan pemasangan bahagian telah mencapai kekuatan mekanikal mencukupi, dengan itu sistem SIS yang dibina boleh digunakan bagi mengilang bahagian berkaitan.</p> Mesfin Sisay Mengesha E. Balasubramanian P. Arunkumar M. Silambarasan D. Rajamani Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 212 229 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1354 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATIONS OF LATEX/FILLER NANOCOMPOSITES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1388 <p>Latex compounding which incorporates various types of clays as filler to the rubber can significantly give reinforcement in the rubber matrix when rubber/clay nanocomposites are formed, but the filler agglomerates. Thus, study was conducted by using Kaolin clay as the filler in the rubber nanocomposites with silane coupling agent to functionalize the surface of the filler. This study was done in order to investigate the mechanical properties of various functionalized Kaolin in latex nanocomposites, to prepare various ratios of Kaolin to rubber, and to characterize mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the Kaolin in latex nanocomposites. To achieve these, six types of silane coupling agents was used for Kaolin filler surface functionalization purpose during the filler’s incorporation in latex compounding. The optimized coupling agent, USi-7301 (?-chloropropyltrimetoxysilane) – with tensile strength value of 32.77 MPa, elongation at break value of 632.589 % and force at break value of 6.737 N – was used to further functionalize Kaolin filler in different ratios so as to achieve the optimum mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the filler in the polymer matrix. Universal tensile machine was used to analyze the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites, while the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were used to observe the morphological and thermal properties of the nanocomposites, respectively. The results showed that reducing the Total Solids Content (TSC) of Kaolin filler to 26 % somehow showed the optimized properties of the nanocomposites, giving 34.00 MPa tensile strength, 576.494 % elongation at break and 6.564 N force at break. Rough surface morphology was observed under SEM suggesting the occurrence of phase separation between the hydrophilic filler and the hydrophobic rubber matrix. In the DSC plot, sample with USi-7301 and with functionalized Kaolin filler 26 % TSC showed glass transition temperature shifted to lower region compared to normal nitrile rubber. The reinforcement of nanocomposites formed will not only enhance the properties of the nanocomposites, but is also economically feasible thus brings advantages to the industry.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Penyebatian lateks yang menggabungkan pelbagai jenis tanah liat sebagai pengisi dalam getah dapat memberi pengukuhan dalam matriks getah dengan ketara apabila nanokomposit getah / tanah liat terbentuk, tetapi pengisi mengagregat. Oleh itu, kajian dijalankan dengan menggunakan tanah liat Kaolin sebagai pengisi dalam nanokomposit getah dengan ejen gandingan silan untuk menambah-fungsi permukaan pengisi tersebut. Kajian ini dilakukan untuk mengenalpasti sifat mekanik pelbagai Kaolin (yang berfungsi) dalam nanokomposit lateks, untuk menyediakan pelbagai nisbah Kaolin terhadap getah, dan untuk mencirikan sifat mekanik, haba dan morfologi Kaolin dalam nanokomposit lateks. Untuk mencapainya, enam jenis ejen gandingan silan digunakan untuk tujuan menambah-fungsi permukaan pengisi Kaolin semasa penggabungan pengisi dalam penyebatian lateks. Ejen gandingan silan yang paling optimum, USi-7301 (?-silan kloropropiltrimetoksi) - dengan nilai kekuatan tegangan 32.77 MPa, nilai pemanjangan ketika pemutusan 632.589% dan kekuatan daya ketika pemutusan 6.737 N - digunakan dengan lebih lanjut untuk menambah-fungsi pengisi Kaolin dalam nisbah yang berbeza untuk lebih mencapai sifat mekanikal, haba dan morfologi optimum pengisi dalam matriks polimer lateks. Mesin tegangan universal digunakan untuk menganalisis sifat mekanik nanokomposit, sementara Mikroskopi Elektron Pengimbasan (SEM) dan Kalorimetri Pengimbasan Berbeza (DSC) digunakan untuk menganalisa sifat morfologi dan haba nanokomposit tersebut. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa pengurangan Jumlah Kandungan Pepejal (TSC) pengisi Kaolin kepada 26% menunjukkan sifat optimum nanokomposit, dengan kekuatan tegangan 34.00 MPa, pemanjangan ketika pemutusan sebanyak 576.494% dan daya ketika pemutusan sebanyak 6.564 N. Morfologi permukaan kasar diperhatikan di bawah SEM dan ia menunjukkan berlakunya pemisahan fasa antara pengisi hidrofilik dan matriks getah hidrofobik. Dalam plot DSC, sampel dengan USi-7301 dan dengan pengisi Kaolin yang difungsikan dengan 26% TSC menunjukkan suhu peralihan kaca beralih ke kawasan yang lebih rendah berbanding getah nitril biasa. Pengukuhan nanokomposit yang terbentuk bukan sahaja akan meningkatkan sifat nanokomposit, tetapi juga dapat dilaksanakan secara ekonomi sehingga memberi banyak kelebihan kepada industri.</p> Mohamad Firdaus Omar NURIAH MOHAMAD Fathilah Ali Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 230 238 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1388 EFFECT OF CHITIN SOURCE AND CONTENT ON PROPERTIES OF CHITIN NANOWHISKERS FILLED POLYLACTIC ACID COMPOSITES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1469 <p>This study investigates the use of chitin nanowhiskers (CHW) from different chitin sources to develop CHW reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite. Chitin sources used in this study were commercial chitin (CC), fermented chitin (FC) and treated fermented chitin (TFC) whereby FC and TFC were obtained from fermentation of prawn waste. The chitin was then undergoes acid hydrolysis to produce commercial chitin nanowhiskers (CCHW), fermented chitin nanowhiskers (FCHW) and treated fermented chitin nanowhiskers (TFCHW). PLA was chosen due to several advantages such as biodegradability, good mechanical strength and in line with global pressure to improve environmental pollution aspects. Tensile strength for PLA/FCHW, PLA/TFCHW and PLA/CCHW increased with increasing filler content until it reached optimum value at 1 phr, 2 phr and 3 phr, respectively. Young’s modulus for the nanocomposites increased with increasing filler content but elongation at break decreased significantly with increasing filler content for all types of nanocomposites. TGA results indicated that PLA/CHW nanocomposites displayed better thermal stability as compared to pure PLA. The biodegradability and water absorption of nanocomposites increased with increasing filler content.The overall results confirm that PLA nanocomposites from FC are not inferior than PLA nanocomposites from CC and therefore has similar potential to be used in packaging applications.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini menyelidik penggunaan nanowisker kitin (CHW) dari sumber kitin yang berbeza untuk membangunkan komposit poli(asid laktik) (PLA) bertetulang CHW. Sumber-sumber kitin yang digunakan dalam kajian ini terdiri daripada kitin komersial (CC), kitin ditapai (FC) dan kitin ditapai yang dirawat (TFC) di mana FC dan TFC diperoleh daripada penapaian sisa udang. Kitin kemudiannya menjalani proses hidrolisis asid untuk menghasilkan nanowisker kitin komersial (CCHW), nanowisker kitin ditapai (FCHW) dan nanowisker kitin ditapai yang dirawat (TFCHW). PLA dipilih kerana kelebihannya misalnya kebolehan pereputan-bio, kekuatan mekanikal yang baik dan sesuai dengan tekanan global untuk memperbaiki aspek pencemaran alam sekitar. Kekuatanreganganuntuk PLA/FCHW, PLA/TFCHW dan PLA/CCHW meningkat dengan peningkatan kandungan pengisi sehingga mencapai nilai optimum masing-masing pada 1 phr, 2 phr dan 3 phr. Modulus Young bagi komposit nano meningkat dengan peningkatan kandungan pengisi tetapi ciri pemanjangan takat putus menurun dengan ketara dengan peningkatan kandungan pengisi bagi semua jenis komposit nano. Keputusan TGA menunjukkan bahawa komposit nano PLA/CHW memaparkan kestabilan terma yang lebih baik berbanding dengan PLA tulen. Kadar pereputan-bio dan penyerapan air komposit nano meningkat dengan peningkatan kandungan pengisi. Hasil keseluruhan mengesahkan bahawa komposit nano PLA daripada FC tidak lebih rendah daripada komposit nano PLA dari CC dan berpotensi serupa untuk digunakan dalam aplikasi pembungkusan.</p> Syazeven Effatin Azma Mohd Asri Zainoha Zakaria Azman Hassan Mohamad Haafiz Mohamad Kassim Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 239 255 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1469 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR SEWAGE RECLAMATION: A FOCUS ON THE DISINFECTION PROCESS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1245 <p>Selection of suitable disinfection technology is necessary with regards to wastewater reclamation goals. In this work, the performance of various disinfection technologies - single disinfection units and integrated disinfection systems - on local sewage was studied for non-potable reuse. Disinfection units used as stand-alone units include ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, chlorination, microfiltration (MF), and ultrafiltration (UF). The integrated disinfection system consists of UV or chlorination as the primary disinfection unit incorporated with either MF, UF, multi-media or granular activated carbon as pre-treatment. The performance of these disinfection units and integrated processes were evaluated based on the percentage of removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, phosphorus, Escherichia coli, and trihalomethane in bench-scale disinfection systems. The single unit of PES20kDa membrane and the integrated disinfection system of UF-Cl showed the most effective treatment among single disinfection units and integrated systems, respectively. The results showed that almost all disinfection units and integrated disinfection processes were useable for restricted and unrestricted area non-potable applications according to United State Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) water reuse guidelines and managed to fulfil Singapore grey water quality for recycling.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Pemilihan teknologi penyahjangkitan kuman yang sesuai adalah perlu selaras dengan matlamat pemulihgunaan air buangan. Kajian ini adalah tentang prestasi pelbagai teknologi penyahjangkitan kuman - unit tunggal penyahjangkitan kuman dan sistem penyahjangkitan kuman bersepadu pada air sisa kumbahan tempatan dikaji bagi penggunaan semula air minuman. Unit tunggal penyahjangkitan kuman yang digunakan mempunyai penyahjangkitan kuman ultraungu (UV), pengklorinan, mikro penurasan (MF), dan ultra penurasan (UF). Manakala, sistem penyahjangkitan kuman bersepadu terdiri daripada UV atau pengklorinan sebagai unit penyahjangkitan kuman utama yang digabungkan bersama samada dengan MF, UF, multi-media atau karbon teraktif berbutir sebagai proses pra-rawatan. Prestasi unit tunggal penyahjangkitan kuman dan proses-proses bersepadu dinilai berdasarkan pada peratus penyingkiran keperluan oksigen biokimia, permintaan oksigen kimia, jumlah pepejal terampai, nitrogen ammonia, nitrogen nitrat, fosforus, coli Escherichia, dan trihalometana dalam sistem penyahjangkitan kuman berskala-makmal. Unit tunggal penurasan ultra membran PES20kDa dan sistem penyahjangkitan kuman bersepadu UF-Cl menunjukkan masing-masing paling efektif dalam rawatan unit tunggal dan sistem penyahjangkitan kuman bersepadu. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa hampir semua unit tunggal penyahjangkitan kuman dan proses penyahjangkitan kuman bersepadu boleh diguna pakai bagi aplikasi terhad dan tidak terhad mengikut garis panduan penggunaan semula air sisa rawatan yang ditetapkan oleh Agensi Pelindungan Alam Sekitar Amerika Syarikat (US EPA) dan kualiti kitar semula air sisa Singapura.</p> Noorini Izzati Mohamad Mazuki Yeit Haan Teow Abdul Wahab Mohammad Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 80 99 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1245 INFLUENCE OF PALM OIL BIOMASS CLINKER AND EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBERS ON CONCRETE PROPERTIES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1285 <p>This study aims to evaluate the influence of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers on flexural strength performance of concrete in the presence of palm oil biomass clinker (POBC). This study considered various proportions of palm oil EFB fibers as 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% in concrete with fixed amount of POBC as 10%. It was investigated that there is substantial influence of palm oil EFB fibers on properties of concrete containing 10% POBC as sand replacement. The experimental findings of this study indicated that the workability of fresh mix concrete decreases as palm oil EFB fiber content increased. Besides that, hardened properties of concrete were found to be improved as the amount of palm oil EFB fibers increased in the concrete. It was noticed that flexural strength was improved with addition of 0.2% palm oil EFB fibers that act as reinforcement and deliver growth in flexural strength for concrete containing 10% of POBC. Hence, it was concluded that palm oil EFB fiber could be utilized as fiber reinforcement in concrete to improve flexural strength performance of the concrete.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini bertujuan mengkaji pengaruh gentian tandan kelapa sawit (EFB) terhadap kekuatan lentur pada konkrit dengan kehadiran klinker minyak kelapa sawit biomas (POBC). Kajian ini mengguna pakai pelbagai peratus serat EFB kelapa sawit dalam konkrit iaitu sebanyak 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, dan 0.6% dengan jumlah tetap POBC sebanyak 10%. Didapati bahawa gentian tandan kelapa sawit EFB yang mengandungi 10% POBC berpengaruh besar sebagai pengganti pasir dalam bahan konkrit. Penemuan eksperimen menunjukkan bahawa kebolehkerjaan campuran baru konkrit berkurangan apabila kandungan gentian EFB minyak sawit meningkat. Selain itu, sifat-sifat mengeras pada konkrit didapati bertambah baik apabila jumlah gentian EFB minyak sawit meningkat dalam konkrit. Di samping itu, kekuatan lenturan meningkat dengan penambahan sebanyak 0.2% serat EFB minyak kelapa sawit, berfungsi sebagai penguat dan penambah kekuatan lenturan pada konkrit yang mengandung 10% POBC. Oleh itu, serat EFB minyak kelapa sawit boleh digunakan sebagai penguat gentian dalam konkrit bagi meningkatkan kekuatan lenturan konkrit.</p> <p>This study aims to evaluate the influence of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers on flexural strength performance of concrete in the presence of palm oil biomass clinker (POBC). This study considered various proportions of palm oil EFB fibers as 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% in concrete with fixed amount of POBC as 10%. It was investigated that there is substantial influence of palm oil EFB fibers on properties of concrete containing 10% POBC as sand replacement. The experimental findings of this study indicated that the workability of fresh mix concrete decreases as palm oil EFB fiber content increased. Besides that, hardened properties of concrete were found to be improved as the amount of palm oil EFB fibers increased in the concrete. It was noticed that flexural strength was improved with addition of 0.2% palm oil EFB fibers that act as reinforcement and deliver growth in flexural strength for concrete containing 10% of POBC. Hence, it was concluded that palm oil EFB fiber could be utilized as fiber reinforcement in concrete to improve flexural strength performance of the concrete.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini bertujuan mengkaji pengaruh gentian tandan kelapa sawit (EFB) terhadap kekuatan lentur pada konkrit dengan kehadiran klinker minyak kelapa sawit biomas (POBC). Kajian ini mengguna pakai pelbagai peratus serat EFB kelapa sawit dalam konkrit iaitu sebanyak 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, dan 0.6% dengan jumlah tetap POBC sebanyak 10%. Didapati bahawa gentian tandan kelapa sawit EFB yang mengandungi 10% POBC berpengaruh besar sebagai pengganti pasir dalam bahan konkrit. Penemuan eksperimen menunjukkan bahawa kebolehkerjaan campuran baru konkrit berkurangan apabila kandungan gentian EFB minyak sawit meningkat. Selain itu, sifat-sifat mengeras pada konkrit didapati bertambah baik apabila jumlah gentian EFB minyak sawit meningkat dalam konkrit. Di samping itu, kekuatan lenturan meningkat dengan penambahan sebanyak 0.2% serat EFB minyak kelapa sawit, berfungsi sebagai penguat dan penambah kekuatan lenturan pada konkrit yang mengandung 10% POBC. Oleh itu, serat EFB minyak kelapa sawit boleh digunakan sebagai penguat gentian dalam konkrit bagi meningkatkan kekuatan lenturan konkrit.</p> Mohd Haziman Wan Ibrahim Sajjad Ali Mangi Sharifah Salwa Mohd Zuki Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya Dadang Supriyatno Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 100 110 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1285 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF REED LIGHTWEIGHT CLAY BRICKS AFTER DRYING PROCESS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1293 <p>The drying procedure is one of the basic stages in the brick making process, particularly when utilizing the extrusion framing technique. This stage decides the quality and amount of the brick samples. One of the characteristic waste vegetable materials is reed, whish is found in huge amounts in Iraq and numerous other nations. Five weight proportions of reed crumbs (5,10,15,20 and 25%) were utilized to produce lightweight clay bricks. Lab samples were shaped with dimensions of (25×38×76mm) using the vacuum extraction method. Brick properties were tested after drying to determine the values of longitudinal drying shrinkage, bulk density, and compression strength. In order to check the property of lightweight clay brick samples, the samples were burned in the furnace at a temperature of 1000°C with a burning rate of 2°C per minute. The significance of this research is to know the optimal proportions of the reed crumbs that prompts exact control of the drying procedure. This fine control brings about samples of lightweight bricks of the required dimensions and without cracks that influence their properties after drying and become more visible after burning. This knowledge will prompt the decrease of waste in raw materials and energy utilized in the manufacturing of a particular amount of lightweight bricks and, along these lines, reduce the expense of production.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Prosedur pengeringan merupakan salah satu peringkat asas dalam proses membuat bata, terutamanya apabila menggunakan teknik pembingkaian penyemperitan. Peringkat ini memutuskan kualiti dan jumlah sampel bata. Salah satu daripada bahan-bahan sayur-sayuran sisa buatan adalah buluh, ia didapati dalam jumlah besar di Iraq dan banyak negara yang berbeza. Sebanyak 5 buah berat serbuk reed (5,10,15,20 dan 25%) digunakan untuk menghasilkan bata tanah liat yang ringan. Model makmal dibentuk dengan dimensi (25 × 38 × 76mm) dengan menggunakan kaedah pengekstrakan vakum. Ciri-ciri bata telah diuji selepas pengeringan untuk menentukan nilai-nilai kepekatan pengeringan longitudinal, ketumpatan pukal dan kekuatan mampatan. Untuk memeriksa sampel tanah liat ringan tanahpropertyof, model-model tersebut dibakar dalam relau pada suhu 1000 ° C dengan kadar pembakaran 2°C seminit. Kepentingan kajian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perkadaran optimum serbuk reed yang menimbulkan kawalan tepat terhadap prosedur pengeringan. Kawalan halus ini membawa model-model bata yang ringan dari dimensi yang diperlukan dan tanpa retak yang mempengaruhi sifatnya selepas pengeringan dan menjadi lebih terlihat selepas terbakar. Pengetahuan ini akan mendorong penurunan sisa bahan mentah dan tenaga yang digunakan dalam pembuatan sejumlah bata ringan dan di sepanjang garisan ini mengurangkan perbelanjaan pengeluaran.</p> Ghazwan Abdulsamad Salman Algburi Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 111 124 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1293 INFLUENCE OF WIND WAVES ON THE FLOW IN FLOWING RESERVOIRS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1329 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> Methods are given for calculating the formation of wind waves in flowing reservoirs, taking into account oncoming and associated currents and the limitation of acceleration by the banks.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kaedah diberikan bagi mengira pembentukan gelombang angin dalam takungan aliran, dengan mengambil kira arus datang dan aliran berkaitan dan kekurangan pecutan pada tebing.</p> Sobir Eshev Alisher Khazratov Ashraf Rahimov Shahboz Latipov Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 125 132 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1329 CRACK INFLUENCE ON A PIPE WITH DOUBLE SLOPE UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE: NUMERICAL SIMULATION WITH XFEM https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1454 <p>This work analyses the effect of elliptical cracks on a pipe with double slope thickness transition, using the extended finite element method (XFEM), level sets were defined to describe the three-dimensional (3D) cracks. The Computation of the stress intensity factors (SIFs) of cracks is performed. The values of SIFs are compared between straight pipes and pipes with a double (single) slope thickness transition. The results show that the XFEM is an effective tool for modelling cracks in pipes. A pressurized pipe with double slope thickness transition is more sensitive to the defect in comparison with another type of pipe. Parameters of the transition zone have an effect on stress intensity factors, precisely, the parameters of the first thickness transition are more influential on the gravity of the defect compared to the second thickness transition.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini menganalisa kesan retakan elips pada paip dengan peralihan ketebalan cerun berganda, menggunakan kaedah elemen terhingga dipanjangkan (XFEM), set tahap ditentukan bagi menentukan keretakan tiga dimensi (3D). Pengiraan faktor intensiti tekanan (SIF) retakan dilakukan. Nilai SIF dibandingkan antara paip lurus dan paip peralihan ketebalan cerun berganda (tunggal). Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa XFEM adalah alat yang berkesan bagi memodel keretakan paip. Paip bertekanan mengikut peralihan ketebalan cerun berganda, lebih sensitif terhadap kecacatan berbanding paip lain. Parameter zon peralihan mempunyai pengaruh terhadap faktor intensiti tegangan, tepatnya, parameter peralihan ketebalan pertama lebih mempengaruhi pada graviti kecacatan berbanding dengan peralihan ketebalan kedua.</p> Houda Salmi Abdelilah Hachim Hanan El Bhilat Khalid El Had Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 21 2 266 283 10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1454