IIUM Engineering Journal https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal, published biannually (<strong>January </strong><em>and </em><strong>July</strong>), is a <em><strong>double-blind peer-reviewed</strong></em> open-access journal of the Kulliyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).</p> <p><strong>January 2022</strong> issue is already in the <strong>Scopus</strong> database. <strong><a title="IIUMEJ Scopus" href="https://www.scopus.com/results/results.uri?sort=cp-f&amp;src=s&amp;st1=IIUM+Engineering+Journal&amp;nlo=&amp;nlr=&amp;nls=&amp;sid=a0be40258badf5dd35fc1e6a466b12cb&amp;sot=b&amp;sdt=cl&amp;cluster=scopubyr%2c%222022%22%2ct&amp;sl=34&amp;s=SRCTITLE%28IIUM+Engineering+Journal%29&amp;origin=resultslist&amp;zone=leftSideBar&amp;editSaveSearch=&amp;txGid=26402634b7147d3471bd39459a80962b" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Click here</a> </strong></p> <div style="border: 2px solid #C0C0C0; padding: 3px;"><span style="color: #ff0000;"><em><strong>The list of accepted articles with paid APC can be viewed in the "FUTURE" menu. </strong></em></span></div> <div style="border: 2px solid #C0C0C0; padding: 3px;"><span style="color: #ff0000;"><em><strong>Recently we have received many emails to verify the acceptance letter. It is the author's responsibility to check the authenticity if the author did not submit any article through this site and email transmits from the iium.edu.my domain. </strong></em></span></div> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal publishes original research findings as regular papers, review papers (by invitation). The Journal provides a platform for Engineers, Researchers, Academicians, and Practitioners who are highly motivated in contributing to the Engineering disciplines and Applied Sciences. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the developing world's specific challenges and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.<strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Subject areas suitable for publication are as follows:</strong> </p> <ul> <li class="show">Chemical and Biotechnology Engineering</li> <li class="show">Civil and Environmental Engineering</li> <li class="show">Computer Science and Information Technology</li> <li class="show">Electrical, Computer, and Communications Engineering</li> <li class="show">Engineering Mathematics and Applied Science</li> <li class="show">Materials and Manufacturing Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechatronics and Automation Engineering</li> </ul> <p>Contributions from other areas of Engineering and Applied Science are welcome.</p> <p>A manuscript undergoes a double-blind review process. </p> <p><strong><strong>IIUM Engineering Journal Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statements</strong>:</strong></p> <p>IIUMEJ is committed to meeting and upholding standards of ethical behaviour at all stages of the publication process. A summary of our expectations of editors, peer-reviewers, and authors is stated here [<a title="Editorial Policies" href="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/ethics">link</a>].</p> </div> IIUM Press, IIUM, Malaysia en-US IIUM Engineering Journal 1511-788X A Fuzzy System for Evaluating Trustworthiness of Users in a Social Network https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1697 <p>In recent years, the emergence of various web-based social networks has led to the growth of social network users. These networks have become popular as a medium for disseminating information and communication. Governments and organizations also use social networks as a platform for better services. However, acting in such networks depends on the level of trust that members have with each other. The combination of personality attributes of a person can create a mental impression of the amount of trust that a person has. This amount of trust can affect the person's future interactions. Therefore, trust is an essential and important matter in these networks, especially when someone interacts with someone else on a web-based social network. We discuss this issue in this paper and provide a method for evaluating it. Measuring the accuracy is not easy for the users who are interacting with the social network. Here, the interactions are virtual. In this paper, we have used fuzzy logic to apply ambiguous data and to evaluate trustworthiness by taking into account the various personality attributes of users such as reliability, availability, interest, patience, and adaptability. As we used these attributes as input to the fuzzy system and based on the relevant fuzzy rules, we evaluated the trustworthiness of users in social networks. The proposed fuzzy system is extendable, because in this system, trust can be defined as a set of one or more personality attributes. Epinions social network dataset is also used to simulate and validate the proposed approach. In the proposed method, the MAE value is less than 0.015 and F-Score value more than 0.86. Based on the results, the presented fuzzy system shows an acceptable accuracy for evaluating the trustworthiness of users.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Sejak beberapa tahun kebelakangan ini, kemunculan pelbagai rangkaian web sosial telah menyebabkan pertumbuhan pengguna rangkaian sosial. Rangkaian ini telah menjadi popular sebagai medium penularan informasi dan komunikasi. Kerajaan dan organisasi juga menggunakan rangkaian sosial sebagai platfom bagi menyediakan servis perkhidmatan terbaik. Namun, pemakaian rangkaian ini bergantung kepada kepercayaan pengguna antara sesama pengguna. Gabungan ciri-ciri personaliti terhadap seseorang menyebabkan terciptanya persepsi secara mental pada kepercayaan ke atas seseorang. Jumlah kepercayaan ini akan memberi kesan terhadap interaksi yang akan berlaku pada masa depan ke atas individu tersebut. Oleh itu, kepercayaan sangat penting dalam rangkaian ini, terutama apabila seseorang berinteraksi dengan mereka di jaringan sosial web. Isu ini dibincangkan dalam kajian ini dan kaedah evaluasi turut dihuraikan. Mengukur ketepatan pengguna dalam jaringan sosial tidak mudah. Di sini, interaksi berlaku secara maya. Kajian ini menggunakan logik kabur pada data tidak jelas dan bagi mengukur tahap kepercayaan, pelbagai ciri personaliti individu diukur, seperti kebolehpercayaan, kebolehdapatan, minat, kesabaran dan kebolehsesuian. Ciri-ciri tersebut digunakan sebagai input kepada sistem rawak dan berdasarkan peraturan rawak, tahap kebolehpercayaan pengguna diukur dalam rangkaian sosial. Sistem rawak yang dicadangkan ini boleh dilanjutkan, kerana dalam sistem ini kepercayaan boleh dimaksudkan sebagai satu set atau lebih ciri-ciri personaliti. Anggapan pada set data rangkaian sosial turut digunakan bagi simulasi dan pengesahan kaedah yang dicadangkan. Bagi kaedah yang dicadangkan ini, nilai MAE adalah kurang daripada 0.015 dan nilai skor-F lebih daripada 0.86. Berdasarkan dapatan kajian ini, sistem rawak yang dikaji ini menunjukkan ketepatan yang boleh diterima bagi mengukur tahap kebolehpercayaan pengguna.</p> MOHAMMAD MAHDI SHAFIEI HOSSEIN SHIRGAHI HOMAYUN MOTAMENI BEHNAM BARZEGAR Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 154 170 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.1697 SARIMA-LSTM Combination For COVID-19 Case Modeling https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2134 <p>The study of SARIMA method in combination with LSTM is interesting to do. This combination method can be convincing and significant because the data collected is numerical and saved based on time. In addition, the proposed method can anticipate datasets, either linear or non-linear. Based on several previous studies, the SARIMA method has the advantage of completing linear datasets while the LSTM method excels in achieving non-linear datasets. Also, both methods have been shown to have an accuracy value compared to some other methods. This study tried to combine the two through several stages of the first stage of applying the SARIMA method using fit datasets (linear data) then residual Dataset (non-linear data) analysed using the LSTM method. The result of the combination methods will be checked for the accuracy value. This research will be compared by using SARIMA and LSTM methods separately. The Dataset used as a trial is COVID-19 patient data in the United States. The results showed that the combination of SARIMA-LSTM method is better than either SARIMA or LSTM alone with RMSE of 0.33905765 and MAE of 0.29077017.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Gabungan kaedah kajian SARIMA dengan LSTM adalah menarik untuk dikaji. Gabungan kaedah ini meyakinkan dan penting kerana data yang dikumpulkan bersifat numerik dan disimpan berdasarkan waktu. Selain itu, kaedah yang diusulkan ini dapat menerima set data, samada berkadar langsung atau tidak langsung. Berdasarkan beberapa penelitian sebelumnya, kaedah SARIMA mempunyai faedah dalam melengkapi set data linear, sedangkan kaedah LSTM berguna dalam mencapai set data tidak-linear. Tambahan, kedua-dua kaedah ini terbukti memiliki nilai ketepatan lebih baik berbanding beberapa kaedah lain. Kajian ini cuba menggabungkan keduanya melalui beberapa tahap. Tahap pertama mengunakan kaedah SARIMA secara set data (data linear) kemudian baki set data (data tidak-linear) dianalisa menggunakan kaedah LSTM. Dapatan dari gabungan kedua-dua kaedah tersebut akan diperiksa nilai ketepatannya. Kajian ini akan dibandingkan melalui kaedah SARIMA dan LSTM secara berasingan. Set data yang digunakan adalah merupakan data pesakit COVID-19 dari Amerika Syarikat. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan gabungan kaedah SARIMA-LSTM memiliki nilai ketepatan yang lebih baik berbanding kaedah SARIMA secara berasingan, dan LSTM dengan RMSE adalah sebanyak 0.33905765 dan MAE sebanyak 0.29077017.</p> Imam Tahyudin Rizki Wahyudi Hidetaka Nambo Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 171 182 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2134 Forecasting of infection prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) using regression analysis https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2164 <p>Global warming may have a significant impact on human health because of the growth of the population of harmful bacteria such as <em>Helicobacter pylori</em> infection. It is crucial to predict the prevalence of a pathogen in a society in a faster and more cost-effective way in order to manage caused disease. In this research, we have done predictive analysis of <em>H. pylori</em> infection spread behavior with respect to weather parameters (e.g., humidity, dew point, temperature, pressure, and wind speed) of Istanbul based on a database from Istanbul Samatya Hospital. We developed a forecasting model to predict <em>H. pylori </em>infection prevalence. The goal is to develop a machine learning model to predict <em>H. pylori</em> (Hp) related infection diseases (e.g., gastric ulcer diseases, gastritis) based on climate variables. The dataset for this study covered years from 1999 to 2003 and contained a total of 7014 rows from the Samatya Hospital in Istanbul. The weather information related to those years and location, including humidity (H), dew point (D), temperature (T), pressure (P) and wind speed (W), were collected from the following website: https://www.wunderground.com. In this paper we analyzed the forecasting model, which was used to predict <em>H. pylori</em> infection prevalence, by non-linear multivariate linear regression model (MLRM). We applied the non-linear least square method of minimization for the sum of squares to find optimal parameters of MLRM. Multiple Regression Method was used to determine the correlation between a criterion variable and a combination of predictor variables. It was established that the Hp infection disease is most influenced by humidity. Hp prevalence is modelled using the Multiple Regression Method equation, the average H, D, T, P, and W were the most important parameters to deviation of the datasets (testing dataset was 17% and 18% for training dataset). This showed that the statistical model predicts the Hp prevalence with about 83% accuracy of the testing data set (11 months) and 87% accuracy of the training data set (42 months). Based on the proposed model, monthly infection can be predicted early for medical services to take preventative measures and for government to prepare against the bacteria. In addition, drug producers can adjust their drug production rates based on forecasting results. </p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Pemanasan global mungkin mempunyai kesan langsung terhadap kesihatan manusia kerana pertambahan populasi bakteria merbahaya seperti infeksi <em>H. pylori</em>. Adalah penting bagi mengesan kehadiran patogen dalam masyarakat bagi mengawal penularan penyakit dengan cepat, dan melalui kaedah kurang mahal. Kajian ini berkaitan analisis ramalan penularan infeksi <em>H. pylori</em> secara langsung terhadap parameter cuaca (cth: kelembapan, titik embun, suhu, tekanan, kelajuan angin) di Istanbul berdasarkan data dari Hospital Samatya Istanbul. Kajian ini membentuk model ramalan bagi menjangka penyebaran infeksi <em>H. pylori</em>. Matlamat adalah bagi mencipta model pembelajaran mesin bagi mengjangka penyakit berkaitan infeksi <em>H. pylori</em> (Hp) (cth: penyakit ulser gastrik, gastrik) berdasarkan pembolehubah cuaca. Dari tahun 1999 ke 2003, set data telah digunakan bagi mempelajari di mana sejumlah 7014 baris dari Hospital Samatya di Istanbul. Informasi berkaitan tahun-tahun tersebut dan lokasi mengenai kelembapan (H), titik embun (D), suhu (T), tekanan (P) dan kelajuan angin (W) dikumpul dari laman sesawang https://www.wunderground.com. Kajian ini mengguna pakai model ramalan bagi meramal kelaziman infeksi <em>H. pylori</em>, melalui model regresi berkadaran multivariat tidak-berkadaran (MLRM). Kaedah Kuasa Dua Terkecil tidak linear digunakan bagi pengurangan jumlah ganda dua bagi mencapai parameter optimum MLRM. Kaedah Regresi Gandaan digunakan bagi mencari persamaan antara kriteria pembolehubah dan gabungan pembolehubah ramalan. Dapatan menunjukkan infeksi penyakit Hp adalah disebabkan oleh faktor kelembapan. Penyebaran Hp dimodel menggunakan persamaan Kaedah Regresi Gandaan, purata H, D, T, P dan W adalah parameter terpenting bagi sisihan data latihan iaitu sebanyak 17% dan 18% bagi set data latihan. Ini menunjukkan model statistik menjangkakan penyebaran Hp adalah sebanyak 83% adalah tepat pada set data yang diuji (selama 11 bulan) dan 87% tepat pada set data latihan (selama 42 bulan). Berdasarkan model yang dicadangkan ini, infeksi bulanan dapat di jangka lebih awal bagi membendung servis kepada perubatan dan kerajaan bersiap-sedia memerangi bakteria ini. Tambahan, prosedur jumlah ubatan dapat dihasilkan lebih atau kurang daripada jumlah ubatan berdasarkan dapatan ramalan.</p> Komiljon Usarov Anvarjon Ahmedov Mustafa Fatih Abasiyanik Ku Muhammad Na’im Ku Khalif Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 183 192 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2164 Mechanical and Thermal Conductive Properties of Natural And Synthetic Cellulose Reinforced Epoxy Composites https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2182 <p>Natural and synthetic cellulose-based composites have been used widely as they have many advantages, the most significant of which are lightweight, durable, strong, flexible, and resistant to corrosion. Although several studies have reviewed the characteristics of these composites, only limited research has investigated combining both natural and synthetic cellulose together. In this study, the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy resin reinforced with different additives (sawdust and industrial cellulose) will be explored. To do this, four samples of different materials were prepared at room temperature. The first sample consisted of 100% epoxy, whilst the next sample contained 95 wt.% epoxy and 5 wt.% industrial cellulose. The third sample contained 95 wt.% epoxy and 5 wt.% natural cellulose (sawdust), and the final sample contained 95 wt.% epoxy, 2.5 wt.% natural cellulose and 2.5 wt.% industrial cellulose. The findings indicated that mechanical properties and thermal insulation can be enhanced by adding natural cellulose to the mixture. Compared to the pristine epoxy, the improvement ratios for mechanical properties were as follows: tensile strength 25%, impact strength 16.6%, and hardness 6.9%, while the results were negative for bending resistance (3.9% less). In terms of thermal properties, the sawdust/epoxy composite showed better insulation (29% higher) than neat epoxy resin. These promising findings suggest the proposed composite can be a good alternative in numerous applications such as automotive parts and building construction that require superior mechanical characteristics and thermal insulation.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Komposit semula jadi dan sintetik berasaskan selulosa telah banyak digunakan secara meluas kerana ia mempunyai banyak faedah, dan yang paling penting ianya ringan, tahan lama, kuat, fleksibel dan tahan hakisan. Walaupun terdapat banyak kajian telah dilakukan pada ciri-ciri yang terdapat pada bahan komposit ini, terdapat kurang kajian dilakukan ke atas gabungan Bersama kedua-dua bahan semua jadi dan sintetik selulosa. Kajian ini adalah tentang suhu dan ciri-ciri mekanikal damar epoksi yang diperkukuhkan dengan pelbagai bahan tambahan seperti serbuk gergaji dan selulosa industri. Bagi menghasilkan bahan kajian ini, empat sampel dari bahan berbeza disediakan pada suhu bilik. Sampel pertama terdiri daripada epoksi 100%, sementara sampel berikutnya mengandungi epoksi 95 wt.% dan selulosa industri sebanyak 5 wt.%. Sampel ketiga mengandungi epoksi 95 wt.% dan 5 wt.% selulosa semula jadi (dari serbuk gergaji), dan sampel terakhir mengandungi epoksi 95 wt.%, dan selulosa semula jadi 2.5 wt.% dan selulosa industri 2.5 wt.%. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan ciri-ciri mekanikal dan penebat suhu boleh dipertingkatkan dengan menambah selulosa semula jadi dalam campuran. Jika dibandingkan dengan epoksi asal, nisbah penambah baikan bagi ciri-ciri mekanikal adalah seperti berikut: kekuatan tegangan 25%, kekuatan hentaman 16.6% dan kekerasan adalah sebanyak 6.9%, sementara dapatan kajian adalah negatif bagi rintangan ketika membengkok (iaitu berkurang sebanyak 3.9%). Dari segi ciri-ciri haba, komposit serbuk gergaji/epoksi menunjukkan sebagai penebat yang baik (meningkat 29%) berbanding damar epoksi bersih. Penemuan yang bagus ini menunjukkan, komposit yang di cadangkan ini dapat menjadi alternatif terbaik dalam pelbagai kegunaan seperti bahagian-bahagian automotif dan pembinaan bangunan yang memerlukan peningkatan ciri-ciri mekanikal dan penebat haba.</p> Omran Shabeeb Dawood Mahjoob Hamid Mahan Muammel Hanon Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 193 204 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2182 Characteristics of Leachate Upon Hydrothermal Treatment Processing: Case Study of Ampang District Municipal Solid Waste Leachate https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2196 <p>Municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate is a hazardous liquid produced from decomposition of solid waste with high amount of organic matter and ammonia-nitrogen with obnoxious smell. This study aimed to investigate the behavior of MSW leachate when subjected to hydrothermal treatment using an autoclave set up at below water critical points (temperatures of 100 °C, 150 °C, and 200 °C at 0.1 MPa, 0.4 MPa and 1.6 MPa, respectively) with 15 min and 60 min holding time. Physicochemical characterization of the setup at 200 °C and 1.6 MPa at 60 min holding time indicates a feasible parameter when materials that caused the dark color and obnoxious smell were almost completely removed. Over 99% of chemical oxygen demand and ammonia nitrogen was eliminated when treated with hydrothermal treatment and yielded a condensed liquid product that complied with permissible limits set by the National Water Quality Standard Malaysia and the World Health Organization for wastewater discharges for irrigation purposes. Chromatographic analysis indicated that most of the organic compounds present in the raw leachate was removed. This processing is believed to be an environmentally friendly method that can treat MSW leachate rapidly, and it has the potential to be used as an effective alternative to existing leachate treatment technologies.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK</em></strong> Larut lesap daripada sisa pepejal perbandaran merupakan cecair merbahaya yang berlaku semasa penguraian sisa pepejal dengan jumlah bahan organik dan ammonia-nitrogen yang tinggi dengan bau menjengkelkan. Kajian ini bertujuan bagi mengkaji sifat larut lesap ini apabila melalui rawatan hidroterma menggunakan autoklaf yang ditetapkan di bawah titik kritikal air (suhu 100 °C, 150 °C, dan 200 °C pada 0.1 MPa, 0.4 MPa dan 1.6 MPa masing-masing) dengan tempoh masa 15 minit dan 60 minit. Sifat fizikal kimia yang dirawat pada suhu 200 °C, 1.6 MPa selama 60 minit menunjukkan satu parameter yang boleh dilaksanakan apabila warna gelap dan bau yang menjengkelkan hampir dikurangkan sepenuhnya. Lebih 99% ammonia nitrogen disingkirkan apabila dirawat dengan rawatan hidrotherma dan menghasilkan air bersih yang mematuhi had yang dibenarkan oleh Piawaian Kualiti Air Kebangsaan Malaysia (NWQSM) dan Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO) bagi pelupusan air sisa pepejal bagi tujuan pengairan. Analisis kromatografi menunjukkan bahawa sebahagian besar sebatian organik yang terdapat dalam larut resap telah disingkirkan. Pemprosesan ini diyakini merupakan kaedah mesra alam yang dapat merawat dengan cepat, dan berpotensi digunakan sebagai alternatif efektif untuk teknologi rawatan larut lesap sedia ada.</p> Hadi Purwanto Siti Salwa Khamis Hamzah Mohd Salleh Alya Naili Rozhan Mohamed Abd. Rahman Rashidi Othman Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 205 217 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2196 Secure Slicing and Allocation of Resources of 5G Networks In Software-Defined Networking / Network Functions Virtualization https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1763 <p>In 5G communications, higher data rates and lower latency are needed due to the high traffic rate. Though resource wastage is avoided by secure slicing, sliced networks are exploited by DDoS attackers. Thus, in the present paper, traffic-aware setting up is PRESENTED for resource allocation and secure slicing over the virtualization of 5G networks enabled by software-defined network/network functions. In the proposed method (called T-S<sup>3</sup>RA), to authenticate user devices, Boolean logic is used with key derivation based on passwords. Moreover, the traffic arrangement is based on the 5G access points. To implement secure resource allocation and network slicing, deep learning models are used. Renyi entropy computation is employed to predict the DDoS attackers. Through the experimental results, the effectiveness of the presented approach is proved.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Melalui komunikasi 5G, kadar data yang tinggi dan latensi yang rendah amat diperlukan kerana kadar trafik yang tinggi. Walaupun pembaziran sumber dapat dielakkan melalui pemotongan selamat, rangkaian yang dipotong sering dieksploitasi oleh penyerang DDoS. Oleh itu, kajian ini menyediakan persekitaran sedar-trafik bagi peruntukan sumber dan pemotongan selamat ke atas rangkaian 5G secara maya melalui fungsi rangkaian takrif-perisian. Melaui pendekatan yang dicadangkan (iaitu T-S3RA), peranti pengguna disahkan terlebih dahulu menggunakan logik Boolean dengan perolehan kunci berdasarkan kata laluan. Di samping itu, susunan trafik adalah berdasarkan titik akses 5G. Bagi melaksanakan peruntukan sumber yang selamat dan pemotongan rangkaian, model pembelajaran mendalam telah digunakan. Pengiraan Entropi Renyi dibuat bagi meramal penyerang DDoS. Dapatan eksperimen mengesahkan keberkesanan pendekatan yang dicadangkan.</p> Ali Jasim Ramadhan Al-Aameri Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 85 103 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.1763 The Development of Water Pollution Detector Using Conductivity And Turbidity Principles https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2168 <p>Water pollution has caused negative impacts on human health as humans depend solely on water for drinking, cooking, and cleaning. Even more worrying is that the number of polluted rivers seems to increase as time progresses. Due to no real-time monitoring device being implemented, the authorities are unaware of any given river's real-time conditions. Therefore, this research aims to control the water pollution issue by designing and developing a low-cost device that can detect water pollutants and notifies the authorities if abnormalities occur. In this work, various water pollution sources in Malaysia have been identified: biochemical oxygen demand, ammoniacal nitrogen, and suspended solids. The general performance of the proposed device is also evaluated and analyzed. Water quality data is collected by the sensors and is sent to an IoT platform called ThingSpeak through a Wi-Fi module to be visualized and displayed. When the pollution is detected, the website will alert local authorities for their prompt actions. From the experiment conducted, the developed conductivity sensor managed to give readings with 6.84% and 6.35% error compared to the sensor in a benchmark paper and the ready-made sensor, respectively. Besides, the turbidity sensor also managed to give accurate readings according to various types of solution. The success of this research would help to reduce river pollution and provide positive outcomes to the environment.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Pencemaran air telah menyebabkan kesan negatif terhadap kesihatan manusia kerana kebergantungan mereka terhadap air untuk minum, memasak dan mencuci. Lebih membimbangkan adalah, jumlah sungai tercemar yang semakin meningkat seiring tahun-tahun yang berlalu. Oleh kerana tiada alat pemantauan masa nyata yang dilaksanakan, pihak berkuasa tidak menyedari keadaan semasa air sungai. Oleh itu, projek ini bertujuan bagi mengawal masalah pencemaran air dengan merancang dan menghasilkan alat kos rendah yang dapat mengesan pencemaran air dan memberitahu pihak berkuasa sekiranya berlaku bacaan yang tidak normal. Melalui kajian ini, pelbagai sumber pencemaran air di Malaysia telah dikenal pasti: permintaan oksigen biokimia, nitrogen amonia dan pepejal terampai. Prestasi umum alat ini juga dinilai dan dianalisis. Kualiti data air dikumpulkan oleh pengimbas dan maklumat dihantar ke platform IoT yang disebut ThingSpeak melalui modul Wi-Fi bagi tujuan tinjauan dan paparan. Apabila pencemaran dikesan, laman web tersebut akan memberi amaran kepada pihak berkuasa tempatan untuk tindakan segera. Melalui eksperimen yang dijalankan, pengimbas kekonduksian yang dihasilkan berjaya memberikan bacaan dengan ralat 6.84% dan 6.35% berbanding pengimbas yang terdapat di kertas penanda aras dan pengimbas siap pakai. Selain itu, pengimbas kekeruhan yang digunakan mampu memberikan bacaan yang tepat mengikut pelbagai jenis larutan. Projek ini diharap dapat membantu mengurangkan pencemaran sungai dan memberikan impak positif kepada alam sekitar.</p> Hasmah Mansor Nurulhasanah Amir Hamzah Maju Teddy Surya Gunawan Robiah Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 104 113 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2168 Optimal Distribution Network Reconfiguration Using Multi-Objective Cuckoo Search Algorithm https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2190 <p>In power system electricity delivery, the distribution system has the most electricity loss as the system has the highest R/X ratio and has a radial network at one time. Optimal reconfiguration of the distribution network is needed in order to reduce power losses. However, as it is also involved with multiple objectives and constraint problems such as switching frequency, voltage, and current limits, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. Hence, this paper proposes the Multi-objective Cuckoo Search (MOCS) algorithm to find the optimal reconfiguration of distribution networks by considering minimizing power losses and switch operations. Based on the simulation results on the IEEE-33 bus system, the performance of the MOCS-based scheme has been found to be significantly better than the single-objective algorithm thereby reducing approximately 33% of the power losses.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK</em></strong> Melalui sistem penghantaran jana kuasa elektrik, sistem pengagihan mempunyai pembaziran tenaga elektrik terbesar kerana sistem ini mempunyai nisbah R/X paling tinggi dan mempunyai satu rangkaian radial pada tiap-tiap satu masa. Konfigurasi semula rangkaian pengedaran yang optimum diperlukan bagi mengurangkan pembaziran tenaga. Walaubagaimanapun, oleh kerana ia melibatkan objektif dan kekangan masalah yang pelbagai seperti kadar peralihan, had voltan serta arus, adalah sukar bagi mendapatkan bacaan yang optimum. Oleh itu, kajian ini mencadangkan <em>Carian Cuckoo Pelbagai Objektif (MOCS)</em> bagi mencari konfigurasi semula yang optimum bagi sistem pengagihan tenaga dengan mengambil kira pengurangan pembaziran tenaga dan kadar peralihan. Berdasarkan keputusan simulasi pada sistem bas <em>IEEE-33,</em> pretasi <em>MOCS</em> telah menunjukkan peningkatan yang ketara berbanding algoritma objektif tunggal dan pengurangan sebanyak 33% tenaga.</p> AZRIN SAEDI MOHD SHAHRIN ABU HANIFAH HILMI HELA LADIN SITI HAJAR YUSOFF Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 114 124 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2190 A New VLSI Architecture for High-Performance Parallel Turbo Decoder https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2272 <p>Recent wireless communications demand maximum achievable data rates without intervention. The channel decoder in the physical layer would support such high data rates with a flexible hardware structure. The turbo channel decoder offers flexible hardware architecture and reliable decoding, but the turbo decoder design is complex and its hardware architecture consumes more power and area in a communication system. Hence, an optimized high-performance turbo decoder architecture with simplified QPP interleaver is needed for supporting various data rates. In this context, this article presents a new hardware architecture with a three-stage pipeline parallel turbo decoding process and each MAP decoder in the proposed parallel turbo decoder with a three-stage micro pipeline processing is presented. The proposed structure optimized the circuit complexity and improved the throughput through parallel pipeline decoding. Also, this article presents a simplified semi-recursive QPP interleaver, which avoids complex ‘mod‘ operations for a high-performance turbo decoder. The performance analysis has been done using Model sim, Xilinx Vivado design suite, and estimated performance analysis was observed on various 28 nm CMOS technology FPGAs and compared with the conventional designs. Analysis of the proposed design showed improvement in throughput up to 55.6% and a reduction in the power consumption up to 43% as compared to the recently reported architectures.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Komunikasi tanpa wayar terkini menuntut kadar data maksimum yang boleh dicapai tanpa intervensi. Penyahkod saluran dalam lapisan fizikal akan menyokong kadar data yang tinggi dengan struktur perkakasan fleksibel. Penyahkod saluran turbo menawarkan seni bina perkakasan fleksibel dan penyahkodan yang boleh dipercayai. Tetapi, penyahkod turbo merupakan blok yang kompleks, lebih berkuasa dan menggunakan kawasan yang luas dalam sistem komunikasi. Oleh itu, seni bina penyahkod turbo optimum berprestasi tinggi dengan antara lembar QPP yang mudah diperlukan bagi menyokong pelbagai kadar data. Dalam konteks ini, kajian ini merupakan seni bina perkakas baru dengan proses penyahkod turbo selari bersama salur paip tiga peringkat dan setiap penyahkod MAP yang dicadangkan dalam penyahkod turbo selari bersama proses saluran paip mikro tiga peringkat dibentangkan. Struktur yang dicadangkan dapat mengurangkan kerumitan litar dan meningkatkan daya pemprosesan melalui penyahkodan saluran paip selari. Selain itu, kajian ini merupakan antara lembar mudah QPP rekursif, yang dapat mengelakkan operasi 'mod' yang kompleks bagi penyahkod turbo berprestasi tinggi. Analisis prestasi telah dilakukan menggunakan sim Model, reka bentuk suit Xilinx Vivado, dan analisis prestasi anggaran telah diperhatikan pada pelbagai teknologi FPGA CMOS 28 nm dan dibandingkan dengan reka bentuk konvensional. Analisis reka bentuk yang dicadangkan menunjukkan peningkatan sepanjang 55.6% dan pengurangan penggunaan kuasa sehingga 43% berbanding seni bina laporan terkini.</p> sujatha elukuru SUBHAS CHENNAPALLI GIRIPRASAD MAHENDRA NANJAPPA Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 125 137 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2272 Fuzzy Logic and PI Controller for Photovoltaic Panel Battery Charging System https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2385 <p>Due to the nonlinear property of the PV panels, there are a few significant restrictions and limitations in the PV solar system. The PV panels always have to depend on environmental conditions such as temperature and solar radiation to generate efficient power. This paper proposed an optimum control system that can handle the uncertainties and nonlinearities of any system by using the Fuzzy Logic Control system (FLC). The proposed system utilized an FLC system for a DC-DC boost converter, tracking the PV panel’s maximum power point (MPPT). A PI control system is also used to maintain the continuous power supply for an optimum battery charging system for the DC-DC Buck converter. The goal is to provide constant voltage and appropriate current for charging the battery. It will increase the system efficiency and reduce the losses. It would also increase the battery life cycle and help the battery to charge fast. There are several MPPT methods found in the literature. The FLC can make a precise decision by considering the environmental state of the system. It can get a response to nonlinear environmental conditions instantly. The proposed system yielded an expected accuracy of 92% to 96%, with a system efficiency of 76% to 83%. Besides, it does not require any knowledge about the system since it is a rule-based system. The entire system has been designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results have been analyzed under 9 environmental states in a 1.0 s period.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Berdasarkan struktur tak linear panel PV, terdapat beberapa faktor kekangan yang jelas dan had tertentu dalam sistem solar PV. Panel PV selalunya sering bergantung kepada kondisi persekitaran seperti suhu dan radiasi solar bagi menghasilkan tenaga optimum. Kajian ini mencadangkan sistem kawalan optimum yang dapat mengawal ketidaktentuan dan ketidak linearan apa-apa sistem menggunakan sistem Kawalan Logik Fuzi (FLC). Sistem yang dicadangkan ini menggunakan sistem FLC bagi penukaran penggalak DC-DC, mengesan titik tenaga maksimum panel PV (MPPT). Sistem Kawalan PI turut digunakan bagi menyediakan bekalan tenaga berterusan untuk sistem pengecas bateri optimum melalui penukaran Balik DC-DC. Matlamat adalah bagi menghasilkan voltan berterusan &amp; arus mencukupi bagi mengecas bateri. Ia dapat meningkatkan kecekapan sistem dan mengurangkan pembaziran tenaga. Ia juga dapat meningkatkan kitaran hayat bateri dan membantu bateri mengecas dengan cepat. Terdapat beberapa kaedah MPPT dijumpai dalam kajian terdahulu. FLC dapat menghasilkan keputusan tepat dengan mengambil kira keadaan persekitaran pada sistem tersebut. Ia dapat memberi respon kepada keadaan persekitaran tak linear dengan serta merta. Sistem yang dicadangkan menghasilkan ketepatan yang dijangkakan sebanyak 92% hingga 96%, dengan kecekapan sistem sebanyak 76% hingga 83%. Selain itu, ia tidak memerlukan apa-apa pengetahuan tentang sistem tersebut kerana sistem ini berdasarkan aturan. Keseluruhan sistem dibangunkan menggunakan MATLAB/Simulink. Dapatan simulasi dikaji menggunakan 9 tahap persekitaran dalam tempoh 1.0 s.</p> MAZBAHUR RAHMAN KHAN S. M. A. Motakabber AHM Zahirul Alam SYED AHMAD FAWWAZ WAFA Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 138 153 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2385 Effect of Feed Flowrates on the Physical Properties and Antioxidant of Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria Macrocarpa) Encapsulated Powder https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1713 <p>This paper presents an experimental study on the encapsulation of Mahkota Dewa extracts by maltodextrin using spray drying. The bioactive compound from dried Mahkota Dewa was obtained using a subcritical water extraction process prior to a spray drying process. The effect of feed flow rate (485 to 2115 ml/h) was investigated using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT). It was observed that the mean particle size increase varied from 3.55 to 8.38 µm when the feed flow rate increased from 485 to 2115 ml/h. Moisture content increased 4.88 to 6.83% as the feed flow rate increased from 485 to 2115 ml/h, whereas the antioxidant activity increased slightly from 90.48 to 91.65%. The findings from this study showed that decrease in feed flow rate reduces antioxidant activity, moisture content, and particle size.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kertas kerja ini adalah berkenaan kajian eksperimen melalui proses pengkapsulan ekstrak buah Mahkota Dewa dengan menggunakan maltodekstrin melalui teknik pengeringan semburan. Sebatian bioaktif dari buah Mahkota Dewa kering diperoleh melalui teknik pengekstrakan air subkritikal sebelum proses pengeringan semburan. Kesan kadar aliran masuk (485 hingga 2115 ml/jam) dikaji menggunakan konsep satu-faktor-pada-satu-masa (OFAT). Dapatan kajian mendapati bahawa purata saiz zarah meningkat dari 3.55 kepada 8.38 µm ketika kadar aliran masuk meningkat dari 485 sehingga 2115 ml/jam. Kandungan kelembapan meningkat dari 4.88 kepada 6.83% dengan kenaikan kadar aliran masuk dari 485 hingga 2115 ml/jam, sedangkan aktiviti antioksida meningkat sedikit dari 90.48 hingga 91.65%. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa penurunan kadar aliran masuk berkurang melalui aktiviti antioksida, kandungan kelembapan dan saiz zarah.</p> Siti Kholijah Abdul Mudalip Muhammad Norzaman Kathiman Jolius Gimbun Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 1 9 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.1713 Potential of Low Carbon Nanotubes Dosage on Chromium Removal from Water https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1717 <p>This paper involves a method of eliminating hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) from the synthetic water via a low dosage of carbon nanotubes (CNT). The ability of CNT to remove Cr(VI) from synthetic water through the adsorption process was studied in batch experimentation. The findings revealed up to 100% elimination of Cr(VI) in the 0.07 mg/L Cr(VI) concentration. These excessive elimination proficiencies were credited to the powerful adsorption of chromium ions to the physical properties of the CNT. A pattern layout was created in these experimental runs in order to locate the ideal situation of the Cr(VI) deletion from synthetic water. To accomplish the purposes of the experiment, there were 4 independent variables influencing several points, namely the CNT dosage, the pH of the water, the agitation speed, and the contact time. The StatGraphics Centurion XV software has been used to create the adsorption equivalence and to discover the major impacts to the elimination of Cr(VI). The results show that the adsorption capability of the carbon nanotubes was considerably reliant on the pH of the Cr(VI) solution, supported by the CNT dosage, the contact time, and the agitation speed. The expected optimization, using the adsorption equation, shows that a 1 mg CNT dosage with a pH=2, 120 minutes contact time, and moderate agitation rate at 150 rpm is the most optimal.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini melibatkan kaedah bagi menyingkirkan kromium (VI) dari air sintetik menggunakan karbon tiub nano berdos rendah. Eksperimen kelompok dilakukan bagi menentukan keupayaaan karbon tiub nano menyingkirkan Cr(VI) dari air sintetik melalui proses penjerapan. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan Cr(VI) telah disingkirkan sebanyak 100% dari kepekatan 0.07 mg/L Cr(VI). Kecekapan penyingkiran ini adalah disebabkan penjerapan ion-ion kromium yang kuat terhadap sifat fizikal nano tiub karbon tersebut. Rekabentuk eksperimen telah dibina bagi menentukan peringkat optima penyingkiran Cr(VI) dari air sintetik. Bagi mencapai matlamat kajian, empat faktor yang terdiri daripada dos nano tiub karbon, pH air, kelajuan goncangan dan masa sentuhan diukur. Perisian StatGraphics Centurion XV telah digunakan bagi mendapatkan nilai setara proses penjerapan dan kesan utama yang menyebabkan tersingkirnya Cr(VI). Dapatan kajian menunjukkan keupayaan penjerapan oleh nano tiub karbon sangat bergantung kepada pH larutan Cr(VI), disusuli dengan dos nano tiub karbon masa sentuhan dan kelajuan goncangan. Penjerapan optimum Cr(VI) dapat dicapai pada tahap 1 mg dos nano tiub karbon, larutan pada pH 2, masa sentuhan selama 120 minit dengan kelajuan goncangan sebanyak 150 rpm.</p> Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabashi Abuelfutouh FIRDAUS ABD-WAHAB Warqaa Muhammed Bahaaddin LUBNA M. MUSA ABDURAHMAN NOUR HAMID ISAM Y. QUDSIEH Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 10 19 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.1717 Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Composite Flours Based on Mocaf and Tempeh Flour for Making Cookies https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2234 <p>Gluten and casein free cookie products are increasingly in demand by consumers. Gluten and casein free cookies were made using mocaf as a substitute for gluten-free flour and tempeh flour as a casein-free protein source. The characteristics of a good cookie composite flour made from mocaf and tempeh flour need to be known. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical and functional properties of a cookie composite flour based on mocaf and tempeh flour. The composite flour was mixed by dry mixing. The composite flour formulations were: C0 (100% wheat flour); C1 (100% mocaf); C2 (75% mocaf and 25% tempeh flour); C3 (50% mocaf and 50% tempeh flour); C4 (25% mocaf and 75% tempeh flour) and C5 (100% tempeh flour). The results showed that addition of tempeh flour increased the ash, protein, fat, minerals, a* value, b* value, and water absorption capacity. The addition of tempeh flour was proven to reduce moisture content, carbohydrates, lightness, and whiteness index value. The cookie composite flour made from 75% mocaf and 25% tempeh flour had a gelatinization profile similar to 100% wheat flour, so this formula was recommended as a cookie composite flour.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Produk kuki bebas gluten dan kasein semakin meningkat dalam permintaan pengguna. Kuki bebas gluten dan kasein dibuat menggunakan mocaf sebagai pengganti tepung bebas gluten dan tepung tempe sebagai sumber protein bebas kasein. Ciri-ciri tepung komposit biskut yang baik diperbuat daripada tepung mocaf dan tempeh perlu diketahui. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menentukan sifat fizikokimia dan fungsian bagi tepung komposit biskut berasaskan tepung mocaf dan tempeh. Tepung komposit telah dicampur dengan adunan kering. Formulasi tepung komposit ialah C0 (100% tepung gandum); C1 (100% mocaf); C2 (75% mocaf dan 25% tepung tempeh); C3 (50% mocaf dan 50% tepung tempeh); C4 (25% mocaf dan 75% tepung tempeh) dan C5 (100% tepung tempeh). Hasil kajian menunjukkan penambahan tepung tempeh meningkatkan kadar abu, protein, lemak, mineral, nilai a*, nilai b*, dan kapasiti penyerapan air. Penambahan tepung tempeh terbukti dapat mengurangkan kandungan lembapan, karbohidrat, ringan, dan nilai indeks keputihan. Tepung komposit biskut yang diperbuat daripada 75% mocaf dan 25% tepung tempe mempunyai profil gelatinisasi yang serupa dengan 100% tepung gandum, jadi formula ini disyorkan sebagai tepung komposit biskut.</p> Dita Kristanti Woro Setiaboma Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 20 31 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2234 The Effect of Layer Thickness on Repeatability of 3d Printed PLA Parts Produced Using Openware 3D Printer https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2137 <p>Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) is categorized as an additive manufacturing process, recognized as the simplest way to accomplish 3D printing. Previous studies have proven that FFF can be trusted to create custom parts with high complexity. However, some performance issues still exist with this method that must be resolved to improve conventional manufacturing techniques. One of them is its repeatability performance that is debatable when it comes to producing repetitive runs of similar parts. Printing parameter is one of the factors that play a significant role on the repeatability performance of parts produced. In this study, the effect of layer thickness on the repeatability of 3D printed PLA, produced using an Openware 3D printer (Espresso F220), was investigated. Two product geometries (Part A and Part B) were produced. Layer thickness was chosen as a variable parameter (0.1 mm, 0.2 mm, and 0.3 mm) for each geometry. Data to measure repeatability of the printed PLA parts were determined based on the measurements of length, width, thickness and surface roughness for each geometry. Then, repeatability performance was analyzed through One-way ANOVA analysis. From the results, the layer thickness parameter did influence dimensional quality and repeatability of samples produced. Part length and thickness offered better repeatability performance, to both product geometries being compared, in width and surface roughness. The study reveals that variations in sample properties depends on not only one, but also every printing parameter involved. Repeatability performance can be improved by identifying the ideal combination of printing parameters to produce good part quality.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: : </em></strong>Fabrikasi Filamen Fius (FFF) yang dikategori sebagai proses pembuatan tambahan, diakui sebagai kaedah termudah bagi menghasilkan pencetakan 3D. Kajian terdahulu telah membuktikan bahawa FFF dapat menghasilkan komponen khas yang kompleks. Walau bagaimanapun, beberapa isu peningkatan mutu masih berlaku, iaitu kaedah ini masih perlu diperbetulkan bagi membaiki teknik pembuatan konvensional. Salah satu adalah peningkatan keterulangan bagi menghasilkan komponen yang serupa secara berulang. Parameter pencetakan adalah salah satu faktor yang berperanan penting bagi peningkatan keterulangan komponen yang dihasilkan. Kajian ini mengkaji tentang kesan ketebalan lapisan terhadap kebolehulangan PLA bercetak 3D yang dihasilkan melalui pencetak Openware 3D (Espresso F220). Dua geometri produk (bahagian A dan B) dihasilkan. Ketebalan lapisan dipilih sebagai parameter pemboleh ubah (0.1mm, 0.2mm dan 0.3mm) bagi setiap geometri. Data bagi mengukur keterulangan bahagian PLA yang bercetak ditentukan berdasarkan pengukuran panjang, lebar, ketebalan dan kekasaran permukaan bagi setiap geometri. Kemudian, peningkatan keterulangan dianalisa melalui analisis ANOVA Sehala. Dapatan hasil menunjukkan, parameter ketebalan lapisan mempengaruhi kualiti dimensi dan kebolehulangan sampel yang dihasilkan. Panjang dan ketebalan bahagian mempunyai peningkatan keterulangan yang lebih baik bagi kedua-dua geometri produk berbanding lebar dan kekasaran permukaan. Dapatan menunjukkan bahawa variasi sifat sampel tidak hanya bergantung pada satu, malah pada setiap parameter pencetakan yang terlibat. Peningkatan keterulangan dapat diperbaiki dengan mengenal pasti kombinasi parameter pencetakan yang ideal bagi menghasilkan kualiti bahagian terbaik.</p> Normariah Che Maideen MOHD IKMAL HISHAM ABDUL RAHIM SALINA BUDIN KOAY MEI HYIE HAMID YUSOFF Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 218 227 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2137 Characterization and Sintering Properties of Hydroxyapatite Bioceramics Synthesized From Clamshell Biowaste https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2143 <p>Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a type of calcium phosphate-based bioactive ceramic that resembles the mineral phase of bone and teeth with great potential for bone substitution and biomedical implants. Biogenic-derived HA emerges as a cheap and eco-sustainable alternative to improve waste utilization. However, hydroxyapatite has limited applications due to its apparent brittleness, thus prompting investigation for enhanced sintering properties. In the present study, the combination of calcination and chemical precipitation technique was used to extract hydroxyapatite (HA) from ark clamshells (<em>Anadara granosa</em>). The method successfully produced HA powder with a Ca/P ratio of 1.6 and characteristic bands corresponded to pure HA via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The synthesized HA powder was then sintered at temperatures ranging from 1200 °C to 1300 °C, followed by mechanical evaluation of the density, Vickers hardness, fracture toughness and grain size. It was revealed that the samples sintered at 1250 °C achieved a relative density of ~88%, Vickers hardness of 5.01 ± 0.39 GPa, fracture toughness of 0.88 ± 0.07 MPa.m<sup>1/2</sup> and average grain size of ~3.7 µm. Overall, the results suggest that ark clamshell synthesized HA (ACS) had the potential to be used as functional bioceramics for biomedical applications.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Hidroksiapatit (HA) adalah sejenis seramik bioaktif berasaskan kalsium fosfat yang menyerupai fasa mineral tulang dan gigi, berpotensi besar mengantikan tulang dalam implan bioperubatan. HA yang berasal dari biogenik muncul sebagai alternatif yang murah dan eko-lestari dalam menambah baik pengurusan sisa. Walau bagaimanapun, hidroksiapatit mempunyai aplikasi yang terhad kerana mempunyai kerapuhan yang ketara, menyebabkan penyelidikan diperlukan bagi meningkatkan sifat sintering. Gabungan teknik kalsinasi dan pemendakan kimia telah digunakan dalam kajian ini, bagi mengekstrak hidroksiapatit (HA) dari kulit kerang (<em>Anadara granosa</em>). Kaedah ini telah berjaya menghasilkan serbuk HA dengan nisbah 1.6 Ca/P dan jalur puncak sepadan dengan HA tulen melalui Spektroskopi Inframerah Transformasi Fourier (FTIR). Serbuk HA ini kemudian disinter pada suhu antara 1200 °C hingga 1300 °C, diikuti penilaian mekanikal pada ketumpatan, kekerasan Vickers, kerapuhan dan ukuran bijirin. Hasil ujian menunjukkan bahawa sampel yang disinter pada suhu 1250 °C mencapai ~88% ketumpatan relatif, kekerasan Vickers 5.01 ± 0.39 GPa, kerapuhan pada 0.88 ± 0.07 MPa.m<sup>1/2</sup> dan purata ukuran butiran ~ 3.7 µm. Secara keseluruhan, dapatan menunjukkan bahawa kulit kerang HA yang disentisis (ACS) berpotensi sebagai bioseramik bagi aplikasi bioperubatan.</p> Chui Kim Ng Sara Kit Yee Lee Chin Hong Tan RAMESH Singh Chen Hunt Ting Yea Dat Chuah Chou Yong Tan Ubenthiran SUTHARSINI Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 228 236 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2143 Earlier Denaturation of DNA By Using Novel Ternary Hybrid Nanoparticles https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2148 <p>Two novel ternary hybrid nanoparticles (THNp) consisting of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxides (rGO) were added to samples of DNA. The effect of the addition of nanoparticles on the thermal denaturation of DNA samples was studied by measuring the absorbance using a temperature-controlled Perkin Elmer UV spectrophotometer. Adding GO-TiO<sub>2</sub>-Ag and rGO-TiO<sub>2</sub>-Ag nanoparticles lowered the denaturation temperature of template DNA significantly. The nanoparticles affect the denaturation rate. The optimal GO-TiO<sub>2</sub>-Ag and rGO-TiO<sub>2</sub>-Ag concentrations were found to be 5 × 10<sup>-2</sup>, which resulted in 86- and 180-folds augmentation of DNA denaturation (6.5 µg/mL), respectively, while it resulted in 2- and 7-folds augmentation of DNA denaturation (11.5 µg/mL), respectively, at temperature as low as 80 °C. The results indicated that rGO-TiO<sub>2</sub>-Ag nanoparticles exhibited significantly higher DNA denaturation enhancement than rGO-TiO<sub>2</sub>-Ag nanoparticles, owing to their enhanced thermal conductivity effect. Therefore, these nanoparticles could help to get improved PCR yield, hence enable amplification to be performed for longer cycles by lowering the denaturation temperatures.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> Dua ternar baru nanopartikel hibrid (THNp) mengandungi oksida grapen (GO) dan oksida grapen yang dikurangkan (rGO) dan dimasukkan ke dalam sampel DNA. Kesan penambahan nanopartikel pada denaturasi termal pada sampel DNA telah dikaji dengan mengukur penyerapan menggunakan kawalan-suhu Perkin Elmer UV spektrofotometer. Penambahan GO-TiO<sub>2</sub>-Ag dan rGO-TiO<sub>2</sub>-Ag nanopartikel telah mengurangkan suhu denaturasi pada templat DNA dengan nyata. Nanopartikel memberi kesan pada kadar denaturasi. Kepekatan optimal GO-TiO<sub>2</sub>-Ag dan rGO-TiO<sub>2</sub>-Ag didapati sebanyak 5 × 10<sup>-2, </sup>menyebabkan penambahan sebanyak 86- dan 180-lipat pada DNA denaturasi (6.5 µg/mL), masing-masing, sementara ia menyebabkan sebanyak 2- dan 7-lipat penambahan pada DNA denaturasi (11.5 µg/mL), masing-masing, pada suhu serendah 80 °C. Dapatan menunjukkan nanopartikel rGO-TiO<sub>2</sub>-Ag mempunyai kenaikan penambahan DNA denaturasi nyata berbanding nanopartikel rGO-TiO<sub>2</sub>-Ag, disebabkan kesan kekonduksian penambahan suhu. Oleh itu, nanopartikel ini dapat membantu bagi penambah baikan pengeluaran PCR, membolehkan penguatan dapat dilakukan dalam kitaran lebih lama dengan merendahkan suhu denaturasi.</p> Mohammed Zayan Jalal Akbar John Abdul Khaliq Rasheed Batoul Alallam Mohammed Khalid Ahmad Faris Ismail Hamzah Salleh Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 237 245 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2148 Virtual Prototype-based Kinematic Modeling and Simulation of a Multi-mode Amphibious Robot https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2157 <p>The amphibious robot, which has the capability of multi-mode motion, can maneuver diverse environments with high mobility and adaptability. These are employed in the area of reconnaissance, search and rescue operations, and monitoring. The existing amphibious robots have lower maneuverability over the crawling period on uneven and slope surfaces on the land. In this paper, a kinematic model of the amphibious robot based on virtual prototyping is designed for multi-mode locomotion. ADAMS (Automated dynamic analysis of mechanical systems) is a multi-body dynamic solver adopted to build the simulation model for the robot. The novel amphibious robot employs a Rockerbogie mechanism equipped with wheel paddles. The locomotion analysis on land involves straight-going and obstacle negotiation, which is simulated using ADAMS. The simulation analysis result demonstrates increased maneuverability, achieving a robot's velocity of 1.6 m/s. Normal forces on the front and rear wheels show equal load distribution, contributing more to the robot’s equilibrium over uneven terrain. The simulation result reflects the accurate kinematic characteristics of the amphibious robot and provides a theoretical basis for developing an algorithm for robot motion control and optimization. Further, this research will concentrate on the kinematic simulation maneuvering in water mode with the wheel paddle.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Robot amfibia yang memiliki berbilang mod pergerakan, dapat bergerak dalam persekitaran berbeza dengan ketinggian mobiliti dan adaptasi. Kebolehan ini dapat digunakan dalam kawasan pengintipan, operasi pencarian dan menyelamat, dan peninjauan. Robot amfibia sedia ada mempunyai kurang kebolehgerakan sepanjang tempoh merangkak pada permukaan cerun dan permukaan tidak rata pada tanah. Dalam kajian ini, model kinematik robot amfibia berdasarkan prototaip maya dibentuk berdasarkan gerak alih pelbagai mod. Sistem Mekanikal Analisis Dinamik Automatik (ADAMS) adalah penyelesai dinamik berbilang badan telah diadaptasi bagi membina model simulasi robot. Robot amfibia baru dicipta berdasarkan mekanisme Rockerbogie beserta padel tayar. Analisis gerak alih atas tanah ini termasuk gerakan-lurus dan rundingan halangan, disimulasi menggunakan ADAMS. Dapatan simulasi kajian menunjukkan peningkatan kebolehgerakan, mencapai halaju robot sehingga 1.6 m/s. Daya tujahan normal pada depan dan belakang tayar menunjukkan keseimbangan agihan beban, menyumbang lebih kepada keseimbangan robot ke atas permukaan yang tidak rata. Dapatan kajian dari simulasi menunjukkan ciri-ciri kinematik yang tepat pada robot amfibia dan menyediakan teori asas bagi membangunkan algoritma kawalan pergerakan dan pengoptimuman. Seterusnya, kajian ini mengfokuskan simulasi gerakan kinematik dalam mod air beserta padel tayar. </p> Mohammed Rafeeq Siti Fauziah Toha Salmiah Ahmad MOHD ASYRAF MOHD RAZIB Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 246 256 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2157 Editorial https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2460 <h2 style="margin: 18.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">CHIEF EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <blockquote> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ahmad Faris Ismail, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> </blockquote> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">TECHNICAL EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <blockquote> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Sany Izan Ihsan, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> </blockquote> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">EXECUTIVE EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <blockquote> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">AHM Zahirul Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> </blockquote> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">ASSOCIATE EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <blockquote> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Nor Farahidah Za’bah, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> </blockquote> <h2 style="margin-left: 0cm; line-height: normal;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">LANGUAGE EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <blockquote> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .1pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Lynn Mason, Malaysia</span></p> </blockquote> <h2 style="margin: 6.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">COPY EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <blockquote> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> </blockquote> <h2 style="margin: 6.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">MALAY TRANSLATOR</span></strong></h2> <blockquote> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Nurul Arfah Che Mustapha, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;">&nbsp;</p> <h2 style="line-height: 10.75pt; margin: 12.0pt 0cm 6.0pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS</span></strong></h2> <blockquote> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Abdullah Al-Mamun, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Abdumalik Rakhimov, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Aishah Najiah Bt. Dahnel, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Alya Naili Binti Rozhan, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Norsinnira Bt. Zainul Azlan, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Hazleen Anuar, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Konstantin Khanin, University of Toronto, Canada</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Ma'an Al-Khatib, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Meftah Hrairi, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Mohamed B. Trabia, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Mohammad S. Alam, Texas A&amp;M University-Kingsville, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Mustafizur Rahman, National University Singapore, Singapore</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Ossama Abdulkhalik, Michigan Technological University, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Mohamed Hadi Habaebi, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Mohd. Sultan Ibrahim Bin Shaik Dawood, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Muhammad Ibn Ibrahimy, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Nor Fadhillah Mohamed Azmin, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 108.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;">Waqar Asrar, IIUM, Malaysia</p> </blockquote> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 171.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></p> <h1><strong>INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE</strong></h1> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">A. Anwar, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">Abdul Latif Bin Ahmad, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">Farzad Ismail, USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">Hany Ammar, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">Idris Mohammed Bugaje, Nigeria</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">K.B. Ramachandran, India</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">Kunzu Abdella, Canada</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">Luis Le Moyne, ISAT, University of Burgundy, France</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">M Mujtaba, United Kingdom</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">Mohamed AI-Rubei, Ireland</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">Mohamed B Trabia, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">Syed Kamrul Islam, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">Tibor Czigany, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in .55pt .0001pt 49.5pt;">Yiu-Wing Mai, The University of Sydney, Australia.</p> <p style="margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;">&nbsp;</p> <h2 style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIMS &amp; SCOPE OF IIUM ENGINEERING JOURNAL</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 98%; margin-right: 5.6pt;">The <strong>IIUM Engineering Journal</strong>, published biannually (January and July), is a carefully refereed international publication of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). Contributions of high technical merit within the <span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">span </span>of engineering disciplines; covering the main <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;"> areas </span>of engineering: Electrical and <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;"> Computer </span>Engineering; Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Automation <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and</span> Mechatronics Engineering; Material and Chemical Engineering; Environmental <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and</span> Civil Engineering; Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Engineering Mathematics and Physics; and Computer Science and Information Technology are considered for publication in this journal. Contributions from <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">other areas </span>of Engineering <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and </span>Applied Science are also welcomed. The <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">IIUM </span>Engineering Journal publishes contributions under <em>Regular papers and Invited review papers</em>. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the specific challenges of the developing world, and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.<span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.55pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">REFEREES’ NETWORK</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: 5.9pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: -.05pt; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US">All papers submitted to IIUM Engineering Journal will be subjected to a rigorous reviewing process through a worldwide network of specialized and competent referees. Each accepted paper should have at least two positive referees’ assessments.</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">SUBMISSION OF A MANUSCRIPT</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.7pt;"><span lang="EN-US">A manuscript should be submitted online to the IIUM Engineering Journal website at </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-right: 6.05pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height: 98%;"><a href="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal"> <span style="font-size: small;">http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal</span></a><span style="font-size: small;">. Further correspondence on the status of the paper could be done through the journal website.</span></span></p> <div class="WordSection2"> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 113%; margin: 0cm 5.85pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Whilst every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher and the editorial committee accept no liability whatsoever for the consequence of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 113%; margin: 0cm 5.85pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;" align="center"><img src="https://journals.iium.edu.my/pub/ejournal/public/site/images/zahirul/image001.jpg" alt="" width="231" height="135"></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; margin-bottom: 0;" align="center"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 13.0pt;">IIUM Engineering Journal</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; margin-bottom: 0;" align="center"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 9.0pt;">ISSN: 1511-788X&nbsp;&nbsp; E-ISSN: 2289-7860</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;" align="center"><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></p> </div> <p><strong>Published by:</strong> <br><strong>IIUM Press</strong>, <br>International Islamic University Malaysia <br>Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia <br>Phone (+603) 6421-5014, Fax: (+603) 6421-6298</p> AHM Zahirul Alam Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 i i 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2460 Evaluation of Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Structures with Shear Walls having Different Thicknesses and Different Positions https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2070 <p>Ductility is one of the main criteria in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. ASCE 7-10 seismic design code recognizes the importance of ductility in earthquake-resistant structures. The structures need to be designed to have sufficient strength and ductility for overall safety against earthquake forces. Both the strength and the ductility are mutually associated to enhance structural seismic safety in this study. Previous studies showed that a shear wall gives different performance based on its position in building structures. This paper presents the position of the shear walls and shear wall thicknesses effects on ductility. A total of 96 two-dimensional (2D) models are analyzed for this work using ETABS software. The non-linear static analysis (pushover) method is used to analyze and design these RC building structures with shear walls. It is concluded that an increase in shear wall thickness causes a decrease in ductility values, and a decrease in ductility value will also occur when the shear wall position changes from edge to middle.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Kemuluran adalah salah satu kriteria utama dalam struktur konkrit bertulang (RC). Kod reka bentuk ASCE 7-10 seismik dunia menyedari pentingnya kemuluran dalam struktur tahan gempa. Struktur perlu dibina bagi mencapai ketahanan kekuatan dan kemuluran yang mencukupi bagi keselamatan keseluruhan terhadap kekuatan gempa. Kekuatan dan kemuluran dihubungkan bersama bagi meningkatkan keselamatan tahan gempa dalam kajian ini. Kajian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahawa dinding ricih memberikan prestasi yang berbeza berdasarkan kedudukannya dalam struktur bangunan. Kertas ini menunjukkan kedudukan dinding ricih dan ketebalan dinding ricih kesan pada kemuluran. Sebanyak 96 model dua dimensi (2D) dianalisis dalam kajian ini menggunakan perisian ETABS. Kaedah analisis statik bukan linear (pushover) digunakan bagi menganalisis dan merancang struktur bangunan RC ini dengan dinding ricih. Kesimpulannya peningkatan ketebalan dinding ricih menyebabkan penurunan nilai kemuluran, dan penurunan nilai kemuluran juga akan terjadi ketika posisi dinding ricih berubah dari tepi ke tengah.</p> Rifat Resatoglu Shahram Jkhsi Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 32 44 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2070 New Approach to Predict Fecal Coliform Removal for Stormwater Biofilters Application https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2173 <p>Fecal coliform removal using stormwater biofilters is an important aspect of stormwater management. A model that can provide an accurate prediction of fecal coliform removal is essential. Therefore, feedforward backpropagation neural network (FBNN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were developed using a range of input features, namely grass type, the thickness of biofilter, and initial concentration of E. coli, while the estimated final concentration of <em>E. coli </em>was the output variable. The ANFIS model shows a better overall performance than the FBNN model, as it has a higher R<sup>2</sup>-value of 0.9874, lower MAE and RMSE values of 3.854 and 6.004 respectively, and a smaller average percentage error of 14.2%. Hence, the proposed ANFIS model can be served as an advanced alternative to replace the need for laboratory work.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penyingkiran kolifom tinja menggunakan turas biologi (bioturas) air hujan merupakan aspek penting dalam pengurusan air hujan. Model yang dapat menunjukkan anggaran tepat tentang penyingkiran kolifom tinja adalah penting. Oleh itu, model rangkaian suapan neural perambatan belakang (FBNN) dan sistem adaptasi inferen neuro-fuzi (ANFIS) telah dibentukkan menggunakan pelbagai ciri input, iaitu jenis rumput, ketebalan bioturas dan kepekatan awal E. coli, manakala anggaran kepekatan akhir bagi <em>E. coli</em> merupakan hasil pembolehubah. Model ANFIS menunjukkan peningkatan keseluruhan yang lebih baik berbanding model FBNN, kerana ia mempunyai nilai R<sup>2</sup> yang lebih tinggi iaitu 0.9874, nilai MAE dan RMSE yang lebih rendah iaitu sebanyak 3.854 dan 6.004 masing-masing, dan ralat peratusan purata yang lebih kecil sebanyak 14.2%. Oleh itu, model ANFIS yang dicadangkan boleh dijadikan alternatif awal bagi menggantikan keperluan kerja makmal.</p> Sai Hin Lai Chun Hooi Bu Ren Jie Chin Xiang Ting Goh Fang Yenn Teo Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 45 58 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2173 Granular Subbase Improvement with Recycled Concrete Aggregates in Tropical Areas https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2367 <p>Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) for Granular Subbase (GSB) in the tropical area is evaluated in this work. Among the materials widely studied as replacements in granular and surface layers is RCA. Its mechanical behavior in granular layers has mainly been evaluated with tests such as California Bearing Ratio (CBR). However, abrasion is also a determining property in the strength of these materials. In this study, the performance of Natural Aggregates (NA) with replacement of RCA was evaluated for use as GSB in a tropical area. Even though several laboratory tests were performed, the focus of the article lies on the performance in the Los Angeles (LA) abrasion test. Two replacement percentages of coarse RCA were considered: 10 and 15 % by weight of aggregates. The RCA and NA were characterized according to different laboratory tests: Granulometry, Absorption, Atterberg Limits test, Plasticity, Specific Gravity, and LA abrasion. In turn, all results were compared with Colombian specifications for a typical GSB in the area. In addition, a simple Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was included to evaluate the environmental impacts of the base and alternative scenarios. The results show that GSB with 10% RCA present a higher abrasion resistance than the GSB with 15% RCA. Even better results are obtained with 10% RCA than with natural GSB. Specifically, average LA abrasion test losses of 30.86, 29.80 and 32.07% were obtained for NA, 10% RCA and 15% RCA, respectively. The LCA results show an increase of 50% and 75% in energy consumption by comparing the base scenario with 10 and 15% RCA replacement, respectively. This leads to an increase of 40 and 80% in carbon monoxide (CO) emissions for 10 and 15% RCA replacement respectively, and 100% in carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions for both alternative scenarios.</p> <p><strong><em> </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penggunaan Agregat Konkrit Kitar Semula (RCA) bagi Subtapak Butiran (GSB) bagi kawasan tropika telah dikaji dalam kajian ini. Antara bahan yang banyak dikaji sebagai bahan ganti dalam butiran dan lapisan permukaan adalah RCA. Ciri-ciri mekanikal dalam lapisan butiran telah diuji, terutamanya dengan ujian seperti Nisbah Bearing California (CBR). Walau bagaimanapun, pelelasan juga merupakan ciri penting dalam menentukan ketahanan material. Kajian ini merupakan prestasi Agregasi Semulajadi (NA) dengan ganti RCA yang diuji bagi penggunaan GSB di kawasan tropika. Walaupun pelbagai ujian makmal telah dijalankan, fokus artikel ini terletak pada prestasi ujian pelelasan Los Angeles (LA). Dua gantian bagi peratus RCA kasar telah diambil kira: iaitu pada agregat berat 10% dan 15%. Ciri-ciri RCA dan NA dikategori berdasarkan pelbagai ujian lab yang pelbagai: Granulometri, Penyerapan, ujian Had Atterberg, Keplastikan, Graviti Tertentu dan Pelelasan LA. Kemudian, kesemua dapatan kajian dibandingkan dengan ciri-ciri Kolombia bagi ciri tipikal GSB di kawasan itu. Tambahan, Pentaksiran Kitar Hidup (LCA) yang ringkas dimasukkan bagi menilai impak terhadap alam terhadap penggunaanya pada pangkal bijirin dan pada senario alternatif. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan GSB yang menggunakan RCA 10% mempunyai rintangan lelasan tertinggi berbanding GSB dengan RCA 15%. Tambahan, dapatan kajian yang lebih baik didapati daripada RCA 10% berbanding GSB semula jadi. Terutama pada purata ujian lelasan LA telah mengalami penyusutan sebanyak 30.86, 29.80 dan 32.07% bagi NA, RCA 10% dan RCA 15%, masing-masing. Dapatan LCA menunjukkan peningkatan sebanyak 50% dan 75% pada penggunaan tenaga dengan perbandingan senario Subtapak Butiran dengan gantian RCA 10% dan 15%, masing-masing. Ini membawa kepada peningkatan sebanyak 40% dan 80% emisi karbon monoksida (CO) bagi gantian RCA 10% dan 15% masing-masing, dan emisi karbon dioksida (CO<sub>2</sub>) 100% bagi kedua-dua senario alternatif.</p> Daniela L. Vega A. Jose Eduardo Salcedo Fontalvo Richard Jimenez Triana Dulce Maria Palacios del Barre Cesar Fresneda Saldarriaga Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 23 2 59 71 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2367 Improvement of Problematic Soil Using Crumb Rubber Tyre https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/2293 <p>Construction on problematic soil that has low bearing capacity, low shear strength, high compressibility, and high water-content will interfere with the smooth construction process and will affect time and cost due to repetitive maintenance. Pavement built on problematic soil as its subgrade is exposed to pavement failures, such as fatigue cracking, longitudinal cracking, and pumping, owing to swelling or shrinkage due to moisture variation and differential settlement. Therefore, improvement of the ground needs to commence so as to improve its load bearing capacity, in order to sustain the load on top of it. Consequently, the main aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of crumb tyre rubber mixed with soil samples as one of the soil stabilisation techniques and to establish the optimum usage percentage of crumb tyre rubber as a stabiliser. Clayey sand soil was mixed with 5%, 10% and 15% of crumb tyre rubber by weight of the soil sample and was tested for physical properties, such as particle size distribution and plasticity index. In obtaining the changes in strength, mixed clayey sand-crumb tyre rubber samples were subjected to compaction and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests. The results showed that the increment of crumb tyre rubber percentage as an additive, increased the CBR value and therefore enhanced the strength of the modified soil. However, the crumb tyre rubber stabiliser affected the optimum moisture content and maximum dry density of the modified samples by decreasing their values. The optimum percentage of crumb tyre rubber mixture was found to be 10% by weight at the end of this study. These findings indicate that the measured crumb tyre rubber is suitable for supporting the clayey sand soil for the subgrade of pavement construction.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Pembinaan di atas tanah bermasalah yang mengandungi kapasiti galas rendah, kekuatan ricih rendah, kebolehmampatan tinggi dan kandungan air tinggi akan mengganggu kelancaran proses pembinaan dan akan menjejaskan kekangan masa dan wang akibat penyelenggaraan berulang. Jalan raya yang dibina di atas tanah yang bermasalah akan mengalami kegagalan turapan seperti keretakan, rekahan membujur dan pengepaman, disebabkan oleh subgrednya terdedah kepada pembengkakan atau pengecutan akibat perubahan kelembapan dan pemendapan berbeza. Oleh itu, penambah baikan tanah perlu dilakukan bagi mencapai kapasiti galas beban lebih baik untuk menampung beban di atasnya. Oleh itu, tujuan utama kajian ini adalah bagi menentukan keberkesanan serpihan tayar getah yang dicampur dengan sampel tanah sebagai salah satu teknik penstabilan tanah dan menentukan peratusan optimum penggunaan tayar getah sebagai penstabil. Tanah pasir liat sebagai bahan utama dalam kajian ini dicampur dengan 5%, 10% dan 15% serbuk tayar getah mengikut berat sampel tanah dan telah diuji sifat fizikalnya, seperti taburan saiz zarah dan indeks keplastikan. Perubahan dalam kekuatan ditentukan dengan cara menggaul sebatian sampel tayar getah bersama pasir tanah liat dan diuji dengan eksperimen pemadatan dan ujian <em>Nisbah Bearing California (CBR).</em> Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa penambahan peratusan serbuk tayar getah sebagai bahan penstabil telah meningkatkan nilai CBR dan sekaligus meningkatkan kekuatan tanah yang diubah suai. Walau bagaimanapun, penstabil tayar getah mempengaruhi kandungan lembapan optimum dan ketumpatan kering maksimum sampel yang diubah suai dengan nilai berkurang. Pada akhir kajian ini, peratusan optimum bancuhan serbuk tayar getah yang diperolehi adalah sebanyak 10% berat sampel. Dapatan ini menunjukkan bahawa tayar getah remah adalah sesuai dalam menyokong tanah pasir liat bagi subgred pembinaan turapan.</p> N. A. SAPARUDIN N. KASIM K. A. TAIB W. N. A. W. AZAHAR N. A. KASIM M. ALI Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-07-11 2022-07-11 23 2 72 84 10.31436/iiumej.v23i2.2293