IIUM Engineering Journal https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal, published biannually (<strong>January </strong><em>and </em><strong>July</strong>), is a <em><strong>double-blind peer-reviewed</strong></em> open-access journal of the Kulliyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).</p> <div style="border: 2px solid #C0C0C0; padding: 3px;"><span style="color: #ff0000;"><em><strong> July 2021 issue papers are already selected and January 2022 issue papers are under review process. </strong></em></span><span style="color: #0000ff;">New registration and submission are now open for 2022 onward issues</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">.</span></div> <div style="border: 2px solid #C0C0C0; padding: 3px;"><span style="color: #ff0000;"><em><strong>Recently we have received many emails to verify the acceptance letter. It is the author responsibility to check the authenticity if the author did not submit any article through this site and email transmits from the iium.edu.my domain. </strong></em></span></div> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal publishes original research findings as regular papers, review papers (by invitation). The Journal provides a platform for Engineers, Researchers, Academicians, and Practitioners who are highly motivated in contributing to the Engineering disciplines and Applied Sciences. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the developing world's specific challenges and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.<strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Subject areas suitable for publication are as follows:</strong> </p> <ul> <li class="show">Chemical and Biotechnology Engineering</li> <li class="show">Civil and Environmental Engineering</li> <li class="show">Computer Science and Information Technology</li> <li class="show">Electrical, Computer, and Communications Engineering</li> <li class="show">Engineering Mathematics and Applied Science</li> <li class="show">Materials and Manufacturing Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechatronics and Automation Engineering</li> </ul> <p>Contributions from other areas of Engineering and Applied Science are welcome.</p> <p>A manuscript undergoes a double-blind review process. </p> <p><strong><strong>IIUM Engineering Journal Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statements</strong>:</strong></p> <p>IIUM EJ is committed to meet and uphold standards of ethical behaviour at all stages of the publication process. A summary of our expectation of editors, peer-reviewers, and authors is stated here [<a title="Editorial Policies" href="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/ethics">link</a>].</p> </div> IIUM Press, IIUM, Malaysia en-US IIUM Engineering Journal 1511-788X INFLUENCE OF FIBREGLASS MESH ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMCRETE https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1446 <p>This research project was designed to investigate the influence of fibremesh on the durability properties of lightweight foamcrete (LFC). The fibremesh, categorized as a synthetic fibre (man-made fibre), was used for this study. It poses a continuous fibre with warp and weft structure that was used as confinement material in this investigation where four different weights per area (g/m<sup>2</sup>) of the fibremesh were observed namely, 110 g, 130 g, 145 g, and 160 g. Three experimental tests were involved in this preliminary study: porosity, water absorption, and drying shrinkage test. All the specimens were confined with 1-layer fibremesh at a constant density of 1100kg/m<sup>3</sup> of LFC and the result was compared with the control (unconfined LFC). The 160 g/m<sup>2</sup> of fibremesh significantly improved the physical properties of LFC where 13.8%, 20%, and 57.4% enhancement was obtained for the porosity, water absorption, and drying shrinkage result, respectively.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Projek penyelidikan ini dijalankan bagi menyiasat kesan pengunaan jejaring sabut pada sifat ketahanan konkrit ringan berbusa (LFC). Jejaring sabut yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah jejaring gentian kaca tahan-alkali yang dikategorikan sebagai serat sintetik yang juga dikenali sebagai fabrik tekstil. Ia mempunyai serat yang panjang dan bersambung dengan struktur yang lekuk dan renda yang digunakan sebagai penambahbaikan bagi konkrit ringan berbusa. Terdapat empat berat jejaring sabut yang diuji iaitu 110 g, 130 g, 145 g, dan 160 g. Tiga jenis eksperimen bagi kajian awal ini iaitu keliangan, penyerapan air, dan pengecutan pengeringan. Semua spesimen dibalut dengan 1 lapisan jejaring sabut pada 1100kg/m<sup>3</sup> LFC dan data yang diperoleh dibandingkan dengan spesimen yang tidak dibalut dengan gentian kaca berjejaring. Jejaring sabut 160 g/m<sup>2</sup> meningkatkan sifat fizikal konkrit ringan berbusa di mana 13.8%, 20%, dan 57.4% peningkatan diperoleh bagi keliangan, penyerapan air, dan pengecutan pengeringan, masing-masing.</p> Anisah Mat Serudin Md Azree Othuman Mydin Abdul Naser Abdul Ghani Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 23 34 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1446 FROUDE NUMBER VARIANCE WITH RESPECT TO THE HYDRODYNAMIC RESPONSE OF A NON-STATIC VEHICLE AT A LOW-LYING FLOODED ROADWAY https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1502 <p>In terms of stability, the response of static cars in floodwaters has been widely investigated. However, the hydrodynamics of a non-static vehicle exposed to such events are less explored. Herein the study ponders the assessment of the hydrodynamic forces experienced by a non-static vehicle attempting to cross a low-lying flooded street. With that regards, a Perodua Viva was modeled (1:10) and tested in the Hydraulics Laboratory under partial submergence and sub-critical flows, fulfilling the similarity laws. Since the Froude number could best analyze the flow conditions, the behavior of the hydrodynamic forces and the Froude number have been the focus of this investigation. From the study of outcomes, an inverse relation of the Froude number with respect to the buoyancy force, along with positive trends relating to drag, frictional, and rolling resistance, were noticed.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Dari segi kestabilan, tindak balas kereta statik dalam air banjir telah banyak dikaji. Walau bagaimanapun, hidrodinamik kenderaan tidak statik yang terdedah kepada kejadian seperti itu kurang diterokai. Kajian ini menilai daya hidrodinamik kenderaan tidak statik yang cuba melintas jalan raya yang banjir. Sehubungan itu, sebuah Perodua Viva dimodelkan (1:10) dan diuji dalam Makmal Hidraulik di bawah perendaman separa dan didedahkan kepada aliran sub-kritikal, seperti ketika kejadian. Manakala nombor Froude adalah terbaik dalam menganalisa keadaan aliran air. Oleh itu, tindak balas daya hidrodinamik dan nombor Froude menjadi fokus penyelidikan ini. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan kaitan terbalik nombor Froude pada daya apungan, sedangkan tren positif yang berkaitan dengan daya tarik, geseran dan rintangan guling diperhatikan.</p> Syed Muzzamil Hussain Shah Zahiraniza Mustaffa Shabir Hussain Khahro Khamaruzaman Wan Yusof Aminuddin Ab Ghani Ebrahim Hamid Hussein Al-qadami Fang Yenn Teo Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 35 46 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1502 ADAPTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF SVSF FOR A FEATURE-BASED SLAM ALGORITHM USING MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION AND EXPECTATION MAXIMIZATION https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1403 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> The smooth variable structure filter (SVSF) has been considered as the robust estimator. Like other filters, the SVSF needs an accurate system model and known noise statistics to approximate the posterior state. Unfortunately, the system cannot be accurately modeled, and the noise statistic is unknown in the real application. For these reasons, the performance of SVSF might be decreased or even led to divergence. Therefore, the enhancement of SVSF is required. This paper presents an Adaptive SVSF. Initially, SVSF is smoothed. To provide the ability to estimate the noise statistic, ASVSF is then derived based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and expectation-maximization (EM). Additionally, the unbiased noise statistic is also approached. However, its covariance is complicatedly formulated. It might cause a negative definite symmetric matrix. Therefore, it is tuned based on the innovation covariance estimator (ICE). The ASVSF is designed to solve the online problem of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). Henceforth, it is termed as the ASVSF-SLAM algorithm. The proposed algorithm showed better accuracy and stability compared to the conventional algorithm in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) for both Estimated Path Coordinate (EPC) and Estimated Map Coordinate (EMC).</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penapis struktur bolehubah lembut (SVSF) telah dianggap sebagai penganggar teguh. Seperti penapis lain, SVSF memerlukan model sistem yang tepat dan statistik hingar yang diketahui bagi menganggar keadaan posterior. Malangnya, sistem tidak dapat dimodelkan dengan tepat dan statistik hingar tidak diketahui dalam aplikasi sebenar. Atas sebab-sebab ini, prestasi SVSF mungkin berkurangan, bahkan berbeza. Oleh itu, memperbaharui SVSF adalah perlu. Kajian ini adalah mengenai SVSF Mudah Suai. Pada awalnya, SVSF dilembutkan. Bagi menyediakan keupayaan anggaran statistik hinggar, ASVSF dihasilkan terlebih dahulu berdasarkan anggaran kemungkinan maksimum (MLE) dan maksimum-harapan (EM). Tambahan, statistik hinggar yang tidak berat sebelah juga dibuat. Walau bagaimanapun, rumusan formula kovarians ini adalah kompleks. Ini mungkin menyebabkan matriks simetri menjadi negatif. Oleh itu, ia diselaraskan berdasarkan penganggar kovarians inovasi (ICE). ASVSF dibina bagi menyelesaikan masalah dalam talian Penempatan dan Pemetaan Serentak (SLAM) dalam talian. Oleh itu, ia disebut sebagai algoritma ASVSF-SLAM. Algoritma yang dicadangkan ini menunjukkan ketepatan dan kestabilan yang lebih baik berbanding algoritma konvensional dari segi ralat punca min kuasa dua (RMSE) bagi kedua-dua Koordinat Anggaran Laluan (EPC) dan Anggaran Koordinat Peta (EMC).</p> Heru Suwoyo Yingzhong Tian Wenbing Wang Long Li Andi Adriansyah Fengfeng Xi Guangjie Yuan Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 269 286 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1403 SYSTEM OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF THE LEVEL OF STEAM POWER GENERATORS ON THE BASIS OF THE REGULATION CIRCUIT WITH SMOOTHING OF THE SIGNAL https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1415 <p>The purpose of this article is to develop high-quality combined automatic control systems (ACS) for the water level in the drum of steam boilers of thermal power plants (TPPs), which can significantly improve the quality of regulation and increase the efficiency of TPPs in a wide range of load changes. To improve the quality of water level control in the drum of steam generators of nuclear power plants with a pressurized water-cooled power reactor (PWPR), it is proposed to use a combined automatic control system based on a control loop with a correcting PI-controller tuned to a symmetrical optimum, with smoothing the reference signal and device compensation of the most dangerous internal and external measurable disturbances. A technique has been developed for assessing the impact of changes in the quality characteristics of transients of combined self-propelled guns by the water level in the drum of steam boilers and steam generators on the safety, reliability, durability, and efficiency of thermal power equipment of thermal power plants. Comparison was made of direct indicators of the quality of three ACS (typical and three-pulse, digital system with an observer state, and the proposed combined ACS). The simulation results of transients of the proposed and typical three-pulse self-propelled guns confirmed the advantages of the first.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Artikel ini bertujuan bagi membina sistem kombinasi automatik (ACS) berkualiti tinggi bagi aras air dalam drum dandang stim tenaga terma logi kuasa (TPP). Ini dapat meningkatkan mutu peraturan dan meningkatkan kecekapan TPP secara signifikan dengan pelbagai perubahan beban. Bagi meningkatkan kualiti kawalan aras air dalam drum penjana wap loji kuasa tenaga nuklear dengan reaktor berpendingin air bertekanan (PWPR). Gabungan sistem kawalan automatik berdasarkan gelung kawalan dengan pembetulan PI telah dicadangkan dan diselaraskan simetri secara optimum, dengan melancarkan isyarat rujukan dan pembetulan peranti dari gangguan yang boleh diukur dari dalam dan luar. Satu teknik telah dibina bagi menilai kesan perubahan ciri kualiti transien gabungan berjentera pada aras air di tong dandang stim dan drum penjana wap pada keselamatan, kebolehpercayaan, ketahanan dan kecekapan peralatan tenaga terma loji janakuasa. Perbandingan dibuat pada kualiti tiga ACS (sistem digital khas dan tiga signal dengan keadaan pemerhati dan gabungan ACS yang dicadangkan). Hasil sistem simulasi transien yang dicadangkan dan tiga signal biasa berjentera mengesahkan kelebihan pada yang pertama.</p> Dilnoza Umurzakova Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 287 297 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1415 ASSIST AS NEEDED CONTROL STRATEGY FOR UPPER LIMB REHABILITATION ROBOT IN EATING ACTIVITY https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1480 <p>The slacking behaviour or lack of participation from impaired patients during robotic rehabilitation therapy is one of the factors that slow down their recovery. The implementation of Assist As Needed (AAN) control law in the robotic assisted rehabilitation treatment may alleviate this problem and encourage the patients to be actively involved in the rehabilitation exercises. This paper presents a new Assist As Needed control strategy for an upper limb rehabilitation robot in assisting subjects with various levels of capabilities to regain their original upper limb’s functionality in realizing basic motions in eating activity. The controller consists of Proportional, Integral, Derivative (PID) controller in the feedback loop, with an adjustable gain K that varies according to the user’s level of capability. A Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) is used to identify the user’s upper extremity capability level. The controller regulates the necessary amount of assistance provided by the robot based on the information obtained from the sensor. The automatic adjustment of the robot’s assistance to the subjects leads them to put in their own effort in accomplishing the desired movements. The proposed control strategy is simple, easy to program, and mathematically less complicated. A prototype of the wearable upper limb rehabilitation robot has been built and a Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been developed using MATLAB software to facilitate the rehabilitation process and for progress monitoring. The simulation and experimental results have proven that the proposed control strategy is successful in regulating the necessary amount of robot assistance according to the patients’ level of capability. The proposed controller has effectively driven the upper limb rehabilitation robot to achieve the desired trajectory with zero steady state error, percentage overshoot less than 8% and settling time below 6 seconds, whilst providing the correct amount of robotic assistance in accordance to the subjects’ capability level.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Reaksi kurang respon dari pesakit kurang keupayaan semasa terapi pemulihan robotik adalah satu faktor melambatkan kadar pemulihan. Pelaksanaan teknik kawalan Bantu Apabila Diperlukan (AAN) dalam rawatan pemulihan dengan bantuan robot dapat membantu dan mendorong pesakit terlibat secara aktif dalam latihan pemulihan. Artikel ini membentangkan strategi kawalan baru, iaitu Bantu Apabila Diperlukan oleh robot pemulihan bagi anggota atas pesakit yang mempunyai pelbagai tahap kemampuan, dalam mengembalikan fungsi asas gerakan tangan seperti aktiviti makan. Teknik kawalan terdiri daripada kawalan Berkadar, Integral, Terbitan (PID) dalam lingkaran tindak balas, dengan pemboleh ubah K mengikut tahap kemampuan pesakit. Alat pengukur Resistan Daya Rasa (FSR) digunakan bagi mengenal pasti tahap kemampuan maksima pesakit dalam menggerakkan tangan. Berdasarkan maklumat yang diperoleh daripada sensor, teknik kawalan akan menghantar maklumat kepada robot bagi membantu pesakit. Bantuan automatik yang dibekalkan robot kepada pesakit akan mendorong pesakit berusaha melakukan gerakan yang diperlukan. Strategi kawalan yang dicadangkan ini adalah ringkas, mudah diprogramkan dan kurang rumit dari segi matematik. Sebuah prototaip robot pemulihan anggota tangan telah dibina dan sebuah platform grafik bagi pengguna (Antara Muka Grafik Pengguna, GUI) telah dibangunkan menggunakan perisian MATLAB bagi memudahkan proses pemulihan dan pemantauan kemajuan pesakit. Hasil simulasi dan eksperimen membuktikan bahawa strategi cadangan kawalan ini berjaya mengatur jumlah bantuan daripada robot bersesuaian dengan tahap kemampuan pesakit. Teknik kawalan yang dicadangkan telah berjaya menggerakkan robot pemulihan tangan bagi mencapai lintasan gerakan yang diinginkan dengan ralat sifar pada keadaan stabil, peratusan ayunan berlebihan kurang daripada 8%, masa penyelesaian bawah 6 saat dan pada masa sama, memberikan maklumat bantuan robot yang tepat, bersesuaian dengan tahap kemampuan pesakit.</p> Norsinnira Zainul Azlan Nurul Syuhadah Lukman Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 298 322 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1480 IMPROVED CONSTRAINT HANDLING APPROACH FOR PREDICTIVE FUNCTIONAL CONTROL USING AN IMPLIED CLOSED-LOOP PREDICTION https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1538 <p>Predictive Functional Control is a simple alternative to the traditional PID controller which has the capability to handle process constraints more systematically. Nevertheless, the most basic form of PFC has suffered from ill-posed prediction due to its simplicity in formulation and assumption of constant future input dynamics. Although some constraints can be satisfied, nevertheless the performance may be very conservative due to this issue. The main objective of this paper is to improve the constrained performance of a PFC controller with a minimum modification of the existing formulation. Specifically, a novel constraint handling approach for PFC is proposed based on an implied closed-loop prediction. Instead of assuming a constant input as deployed in the conventional open-loop prediction, the implied closed-loop input dynamics are utilised to detect future constraint violations. In addition, a future perturbation is introduced into the prediction structure as an extra degree of freedom for satisfying the constraints. Two simulation results confirm that the proposed approach gives far less conservative constraint handling and thus better control performance compared to the nominal PFC. Furthermore, this novel implementation also alleviates the well-known tuning difficulties and prediction inconsistency issues that are associated with conventional PFC when handling constraints.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kawalan Kefungsian Ramalan adalah alternatif mudah kepada kawalan tradisional PID yang mempunyai kekangan keupayaan bagi mengawal proses secara lebih tersusun. Namun, keadaan paling asas pada kesan PFC adalah daripada ramalan tak teraju-rapi yang disebabkan oleh formula ringkas dan anggapan dinamik input yang sama bagi masa depan. Walau kekangan ini dapat diatasi, namun prestasi akan berubah secara konservatif disebabkan oleh isu ini. Objektif utama kajian ini adalah bagi membaiki kekangan prestasi kawalan PFC dengan modifikasi minimum formula yang ada. Secara spesifik, pendekatan nobel kawalan PFC dicadangkan berdasarkan ramalan lingkaran-tertutup. Selain anggapan input tetap seperti yang dilakukan pada ramalan lingkaran-terbuka yang konservatif, dinamik input yang dibuat pada lingkaran-tertutup telah digunakan bagi mengesan kekangan masa depan yang bertentangan. Tambahan, gangguan yang bakal berlaku pada masa depan telah diperkenalkan ke dalam struktur ramalan sebagai tambahan darjah pada kebebasan bagi mengatasi kekangan. Dua dapatan simulasi kajian menyetujui pendekatan yang dicadangkan dan menyebabkan sangat kurang kekangan pengendalian pada sistem konservatif, oleh itu kawalan yang lebih bagus pada prestasi berbanding pada PFC nominal. Selain itu, pendekatan nobel ini juga menghilangkan kesukaran pelarasan yang dikenali ramai dan ramalan isu tidak konsisten yang terdapat pada PFC konvensional apabila mengendali kekangan.</p> Muhammad Abdullah John Anthony Rossiter Alia Farhana Abdul Ghaffar Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 323 338 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1538 CHARACTERISATION AND PRODUCTION OF POLY (LACTIC ACID)/POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL) MICROFIBER VIA MELT DRAWN SPINNING PROCESS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1364 <p>In this study, melt blended compositions of pure PLA with additions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) up to 30 wt% were prepared. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to investigate the properties of PLA/PEG blends, such as structural, thermal, and morphological properties. The results showed that further increments of PEG cause the -OH group of PLA/PEG blends to show a broad peak, indicating that there is hydrogen bonding interaction between PEG and PLA chains. DSC result revealed that the addition of PEG decreases the glass transition temperature from 57 °C to 46 °C and crystallization temperature from 107 °C to 87 °C. Such trends suggest enhanced chain mobility of PLA chains. TGA thermograms showed that further additions of PEG into PLA resulted in a consistent shift to lower temperature and decrease in thermal stability. Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of the melt spun PLA/PEG microfibers revealed that the diameter of the microfibers averaged between 15 to 80 microns.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini menganalisa komposisi adunan lebur PLA asli bersama tambahan polietilena glikol (PEG) sebanyak 30%. Penjelmaan Fourier spektroskopi inframerah (FTIR), kalorimeter pengimbasan pembezaan (DSC) dan analisis termogravimetri (TGA) telah digunakan bagi mengkaji sifat-sifat adunan PLA/PEG, seperti struktur, terma dan sifat-sifat morfologi. Keputusan menunjukkan penambahan PEG seterusnya menyebabkan kumpulan -OH campuran PLA/PEG memberikan puncak yang lebar, ini menunjukkan ada interaksi ikatan hidrogen antara rantaian PEG dan PLA. Keputusan DSC menunjukkan penambahan PEG mengurangkan perubahan gelas dari 57 °C kepada 46 °C dan suhu kristalisasi dari 107 °C kepada 87 °C. Trend ini mencadangkan peningkatan pergerakan rangkaian pada rantaian PLA. Termogram TGA menunjukkan dengan penambahan berterusan PEG ke dalam PLA menghasilkan penurunan konsisten pada suhu dan pengurangan kestabilan haba. Pemerhatian mikroskop optik (OM) dan mikroskopi elektron penskanan (SEM) mikrofiber spun lebur PLA/PEG menunjukkan purata diameter mikrofiber ini antara 15 ke 80 mikron.</p> Nur Atiqah Mohd. Akhir Maizatulnisa Othman Yose Fachmi Buys Norhashimah Shaffiar Dzun Noraini Jimat Sharifah Imihezri Syed Shaharuddin Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 201 212 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1364 GRAPHENE OXIDE MICROCAPSULES (GOMs) WITH LINSEED OIL CORE VIA PICKERING EMULSION METHOD: EFFECT OF DISPERSE SPEED https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1426 <p>Graphene oxide microcapsules (GOMs) have been prepared through Pickering emulsion method by varying the disperse speed to study its effect on the GOM’s size. The GOMs were characterized through phase separation observation, polarized optical microscope (POM), and particle size analyser (PSA). Phase separation observation showed more viscous and cloudy emulsion was produced when the disperse speed was increased. After 24 hours, only 800 rpm emulsion did not show any phase separation. POM characterization depicted that increasing the emulsification energy led to the finer emulsion with the 1200 rpm sample showing the smallest microcapsule size of around 8 ?m. However, PSA analysis suggested that although the disperse speed controls the GOMs size, the amount of GO in the emulsion plays an important role for the microcapsule to maintain its stability. Emulsion produced at 800 rpm possesses satisfactory stability with GOMs diameter of 11.15 ?m. The result also suggested that graphene oxide encapsulated linseed oil may act as a promising candidate for healing microcapsules in a self-healing coating system.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Mikrokapsul graphene oksida (GOMs) telah dihasilkan melalui kaedah emulsifikasi Pickering dengan memvariasikan tenaga pengemulsi untuk mengkaji kesannya terhadap saiz GOMs. GOMs dicirikan melalui pemerhatian pemisahan fasa, mikroskop optik polarisasi (POM) dan penganalisis saiz zarah (PSA). Pemerhatian pemisahan fasa menunjukkan emulsi yang lebih likat dan keruh dihasilkan apabila kelajuan pengemulsi meningkat. Selepas 24 jam, hanya emulsi 800 rpm tidak menunjukkan pemisahan fasa. Pencirian POM meunjukkan bahawa peningkatan tenaga pengemulsi menghasilkan emulsi yang lebih halus dengan sampel 1200 rpm menunjukkan saiz mikrokapsul terkecil, sekitar 8 ?m. Walau bagaimanapun, analisis PSA mencadangkan bahawa walaupun kelajuan pengemulsi mengawal saiz GOMs, jumlah GO dalam emulsi memainkan peranan penting untuk mengekalkan kestabilan mikrokapsul. Emulsi yang dihasilkan pada 800 rpm mempunyai kestabilan yang memuaskan dengan purata saiz GOMs sekitar 11.15 ?m. Berdasarkan dapatan kajian, graphene oksida yang terkandung minyak biji rami boleh menjadi salah satu mikrokapsul penyembuh dalam sistem cat auto-sembuh.</p> Nurul Nadiah Sahir Noor Azlina Hassan Norita Binti Hassan Norhasnidawani Binti Johari Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 213 222 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1426 INVESTIGATION ON THE MECHANICAL, THERMAL, BIO-DEGRADATION, AND BIO-COMPATIBILITY PROPERTIES OF POLY (LACTIC ACID) / POLY (ETHYLENE GLYCOL) BLEND https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1478 <p>Absorbable sutures are widely used in surgery. In addition to acceptable mechanical properties, the surgical sutures should exhibit favorable degradability properties. In this research, the mechanical and thermal properties, hydrophilicity, biodegradability, pH changes, and drug release profile of polylactic acid (PLA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) alloy were examined to fabricate absorbable sutures. The test results for the mechanical properties showed that the strength of the PLA/PEG alloy decreased with increasing PEG content, leading to an increase in elongation. The differential thermal analysis indicated that the resulting material was above its glass transition temperature (Tg) at ambient temperature and was thus flexible enough. According to the degradation test results, the alloys were degraded similar to the commercial sample. Furthermore, the pH measurements revealed that the degradation of the alloy had no significant effect on the pH of the environment. Bupivacaine hydrochloride was incorporated into a certain amount of PLA and PEG, and the drug release rate was then measured. The sample provided a suitable substrate for burst release. Moreover, the cytotoxicity test was carried out to evaluate the biocompatibility properties of the PLA/PEG alloy and it was found that this alloy is biocompatible and the biocompatibility of the material decreases with increasing drug loading.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Sutur boleh serap telah digunakan dalam pembedahan secara meluas. Tambahan kepada sifat-sifat mekanikal ini, sutur pembedahan perlu memiliki ciri-ciri kebolehurain yang dikehendaki. Dalam kajian ini, sifat-sifat mekanikal dan terma, kehidrofilikan, kebolehuraian, perubahan pH, dan profil penguraian ubat asid polilaktik (PLA) dan aloi polietilena glikol (PEG) telah dikaji bagi mencipta sutur boleh serap. Hasil kajian mendapati sifat-sifat mekanikal menunjukkan kekuatan PLA/PEG aloi berkurangan dengan penambahan level PEG, menyebabkan bertambahnya pemanjangan. Analisis pembezaan terma menunjukkan hasil bahan adalah melepasi suhu perubahan gelas (Tg) pada suhu sekitar dan oleh itu sangat lentur. Berdasarkan hasil kajian degradasi, aloi ini telah digradasi seperti sampel komersial. Tambahan lagi, ukuran pH menunjukkan degradasi aloi ini tidak menunjukkan kesan langsung pada pH persekitaran. Bupivacaine hidroklorida dimasukkan ke dalam PLA dan PEG, dan kadar ubat dibebaskan kemudiannya diukur. Sampel substrat yang bersesuian disediakan bagi pelepas letus. Tambahan, ujian Kesitotoksikan telah dijalankan bagi menilai ciri-ciri keserasian-bio aloi PLA/PEG dan didapati aloi ini serasi-bio dan keserasian-bio bahan berkurangan dengan penambahan beban ubat.</p> Zohreh Zarinkolah Hamed bagheri Saman Hosseinkhani Maryam Nikkhah Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 223 233 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1478 THE PREPARATION OF CaO-BASED PELLET USING RICE HUSK ASH VIA GRANULATION METHOD FOR POTENTIAL CO2 CAPTURE https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1544 <p>CO<sub>2</sub> capturing has become very significant option to reduce the emission of CO<sub>2</sub> in the atmosphere and hence, minimizing environmental issues.Among solid CO<sub>2</sub> sorbent, calcium oxide (CaO) is an attractive regenerable sorbent for CO<sub>2</sub> capturing because of their reactivity and high CO<sub>2</sub> absorption capacity. CaO alone suffers from rapid decay of CO<sub>2</sub> adsorption during multiple carbonation/calcination reaction cycles. The stability of CaO sorbents during cyclic runs can be achieved via the incorporation of additive support materials. The silica (SiO<sub>2</sub>) from natural sources such as rice husk is the best candidate to be used as an additive in the sorbents. However, the CaO-based sorbent in finely generated powders are prone to severe attrition problems. Therefore, this research focuses on preparation of CaO-based pellets by using rice husk ash (RHA) via granulation method. The result of the raw materials confirmed that Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub> have crystalline structure with finely distributed grains and RHA exhibit amorphous structure with randomly oriented size grains. Based on the XRD, it is confirmed that the insertion of RHA does not alter the phase structure of the pellets. Each ratio yield different intensity value and has formation of new peaks after sintering. Meanwhile, the microstructures of the pellets show that the pores reduced as the calcination temperature increased while the incorporation of RHA caused the pores size increased with randomly oriented shape. These findings indicate that the optimum value for the pellets is with the Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub>:RHA ratio of 80:20 and calcination temperature of 750 °C.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penangkapan CO<sub>2</sub> telah menjadi pilihan yang sangat penting untuk mengurangkan pelepasan CO<sub>2</sub> di atmosfer serta kesan alam sekitar. Antara penjerap CO<sub>2</sub> pepejal, kalsium oksida (CaO) adalah penyerapan yang menarik untuk CO<sub>2</sub> yang ditangkap kerana kereaktifan dan kapasiti penyerapan CO<sub>2</sub> yang tinggi. CaO sahaja menderita daripada pelepasan cepat penjerapan CO<sub>2</sub> semasa kitaran tindakbalas karbonasi / kalsinasi. Kestabilan CaO penjerap semasa berlaku kitaran boleh dicapai melalui penggabungan bahan sokongan tambahan. Silika (SiO<sub>2</sub>) dari sumber semula jadi seperti sekam padi (RHA) adalah calon terbaik untuk digunakan sebagai aditif dalam penjerap. Walau bagaimanapun, penjerap berasaskan CaO dalam bentuk serbuk halus yang dihasilkan adalah terdedah kepada masalah pergeseran yang teruk. Oleh itu, kajian ini memberi tumpuan kepada penyediaan pelet berasaskan CaO dengan menggunakan abu sekam beras melalui kaedah granulasi. Hasil bahan mentah mengesahkan bahawa Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub> mempunyai struktur kristalografi dengan bijirin halus dan RHA yang mempamerkan struktur bukan kristal dengan butiran saiz berorientasikan secara rawak. Berdasarkan XRD, ia disahkan bahawa penyisipan RHA tidak mengubah struktur kristalografi pelet. Setiap nisbah menghasilkan nilai intensiti yang berbeza dan mempunyai pembentukan puncak baru selepas pensinteran. Sementara itu, mikrostruktur pelet menunjukkan bahawa pori-pori berkurangan apabila suhu kalsinasi meningkat sementara pembentukan RHA menyebabkan saiz pori meningkat dengan bentuk berorientasikan rawak. Penemuan ini menunjukkan bahawa nilai optimum bagi pelet adalah dengan nisbah Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub>:RHA 80:20 dan suhu kalsinasi 750 °C.</p> Farah Diana Mohd Daud Muhammad Mirza Mohamad Azir Mudrikah Sofia Mahmud Norshahida Sarifuddin Hafizah Hanim Mohd Zaki Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 234 244 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1544 PREPARATION OF THE ELECTROSPUN POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE / POLYVINYL ALCOHOL SCAFFOLD AS A POTENTIAL TISSUE REPLACEMENT https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1548 <p><strong><em>:</em></strong> <strong> </strong>Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), a piezoelectric material, is commonly used in tissue engineering due to its potential for mimicking the electrical microenvironment of biological conditions for tissue development. In this present research, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was introduced into electrospun PVDF fabrication through an electrospinning process, aiming to enhance the nanofibrous membrane's biocompatibility properties by improving the hydrophilicity properties to act as an artificial tissue scaffold. The electrospun PVDF/PVA membranes are found to be optimum at a PVDF-to-PVA ratio of 90:10 due to its excellent mechanical, morphological, and hydrophilicity conductivity properties. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy verified strong hydrogen bonding interaction formed between the fluorine group of PVDF with oxygen-containing in the hydroxyl group of PVA. <em>In-vitro</em> cell culture showed that the enhanced hydrophilic property of electrospun PVDF/PVA could significantly enhance the cell growth. These positive results indicated that the scaffold could be implemented as artificial tissue material for tissue engineering applications.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Polivinilidena fluorida (PVDF) adalah bahan piezoelektrik yang biasa digunakan dalam kejuruteraan tisu kerana potensinya menyerupai keadaan persekitaran mikro-elektrik biologi bagi perkembangan tisu. Dalam penyelidikan ini, polivinil alkohol (PVA) diperkenalkan ke dalam fabrikasi pintalan-elektro PVDF melalui proses pemintalan-elektro, yang bertujuan bagi mengembangkan sifat biokompatibiliti membran nanogentian dengan meningkatkan sifat hidrofilik bagi menjadi perancah tisu tiruan. Membran pintalan-elektro PVDF / PVA didapati optimum pada nisbah PVDF-ke-PVA, 90:10 kerana sifat kekonduksian, mekanikal, morfologi dan hidrofiliknya yang sangat baik. Spektroskopi transformasi inframerah Fourier (FTIR) mengesahkan interaksi ikatan hidrogen yang kuat terbentuk antara kumpulan fluoro PVDF dengan oksigen yang terkandung dalam kumpulan hidroksil PVA. Kultur sel secara in-vitro menunjukkan bahawa sifat hidrofilik pintalan-elektro PVDF / PVA dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan sel secara signifikan. Hasil positif ini menunjukkan bahawa perancah ini dapat digunakan sebagai bahan tisu buatan bagi aplikasi kejuruteraan tisu.</p> Mohd Syahir Anwar Hamzah Nurul Amira Ab Razak Celine Ng Akmal Hafiszi Abdul Azize Jumadi Abdul Sukor Soon Chin Fhong Mohd Safiee Idris Nadirul Hasraf Mat Nayan Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 245 258 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1548 THE DURABILITY OF HYGRO-IMMERSION AGED CELLULOSE FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1587 <p>This study aims at investigating the effect of water ageing on the durability of cellulose fibre reinforced polymer layered silicate nanocomposite. The material used comprises cellulose fibres from pinewood as reinforcement and high-density polyethene (HDPE) coupled with nanoclay as matrix phase. The prepared material is subjected to tap water ageing for 21 days. The durability is quantified by Barcol hardness for the material and measured at an interval period of 7 days. The obtained results indicate a reduction of hardness by 5.24, 13.17, and 16.60% in 7, 14, and 21 days aged nanocomposites. Besides, the one-way ANOVA test shows that the immersion time for the composite has a significant effect on the durability of the material with an R<sup>2 </sup>value of 99.96% tested at 95% confidence interval. The concluding remarks are validated using the results obtained for thickness swelling using the Fourier analysis. The work also presents a regression equation with high degree of accuracy, capable of estimating the Barcol hardness value for a given immersion time.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kesan penuaan air terhadap ketahanan nanokomposit silikat berlapis polimer bertetulang serat selulosa. Bahan yang digunakan terdiri daripada serat selulosa dari kayu pina sebagai tetulang dan polietena berketumpatan tinggi (HDPE) ditambah dengan nanoclay sebagai fasa matriks. Bahan yang disediakan mengalami penuaan air paip selama 21 hari. Ketahanan diukur dengan kekerasan bahan Barcol dan diukur pada selang waktu 7 hari. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan penurunan kekerasan sebanyak 4.74, 8.88 dan 18.90% dalam nanokomposit usia 7, 14 dan 21 hari. Selain itu, analisis satu arah ujian varians menunjukkan bahawa masa rendaman komposit mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap ketahanan bahan dengan nilai R<sup>2 </sup>99.96% yang diuji pada selang keyakinan 95%. Ucapan penutup disahkan menggunakan hasil yang diperoleh untuk pembengkakan ketebalan menggunakan analisis Fourier. Karya ini juga menyajikan persamaan regresi dengan tahap ketepatan yang tinggi, yang dapat menganggarkan nilai kekerasan Barcol untuk masa rendaman tertentu.</p> C. S. Suhas Kowshik Nanjangud Mohan Nithesh Naik Manjunath Shettar Ritesh Bhat Shivaksh Rohatgi Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 259 268 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1587 A NOVEL DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION APPROACH TO IMPROVE MICROARRAY DATA CLASSIFICATION https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1447 <p>Cancer tumor prediction and diagnosis at an early stage has become a necessity in cancer research, as it provides an increase in the treatment success chances. Recently, DNA microarray technology became a powerful tool for cancer identification, that can analyze the expression level of a different and huge number of genes simultaneously. In microarray data, the large genes number versus a few records may affect the prediction performance. In order to handle this "curse of dimensionality” constraint of microarray dataset while improving the cancer identification performance, a dimensional reduction phase is necessary. In this paper, we proposed a framework that combines dimensional reduction methods and machine learning algorithms in order to achieve the best cancer prediction performance using different microarray datasets. In the dimensional reduction phase, a combination of feature selection and feature extraction techniques was proposed. Pearson and Ant Colony Optimization was used to select the most important genes. Principal Component Analysis and Kernel Principal Component Analysis were used to linearly and non-linearly transform the selected genes to a new reduced space. In the cancer identification phase, we proposed four algorithms C5.0, Logistic Regression, Artificial Neural Network, and Support Vector Machine. Experimental results demonstrated that the framework performs effectively and competitively compared to state-of-the-art methods.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Ramalan tumor kanser dan diagnosis pada peringkat awal telah menjadi keperluan dalam kajian kanser, kerana ia membuka peluang peningkatan kejayaan dalam rawatan. Kebelakangan ini, teknologi mikrotatasusunan DNA menjadi alat berkuasa bagi mengenal pasti kanser, di mana ia mampu menganalisa level ekspresi yang pelbagai dan gen-gen yang banyak secara serentak. Dalam data mikrotatasusunan, gen-gen yang banyak ini bakal menentukan ramalan prestasi berbanding analisa melalui rekod-rekod yang sebilangan. Fasa pengurangan dimensi adalah perlu bagi mengawal kakangan “penentuan kedimensian” dataset mikrotatasusunan, sementara itu ia memantapkan lagi keberkesanan kenal pasti kanser. Kajian ini mencadangkan rangka kombinasi kaedah pengurangan dimensi dan algoritma pembelajaran mesin bagi mencapai prestasi ramalan kanser terbaik dengan menggunakan pelbagai dataset mikrotatasusunan. Dalam fasa pengurangan dimensi, kombinasi pemilihan ciri dan teknik pengekstrakan ciri telah dicadangkan, Pengoptimuman Pearson dan Koloni Semut bagi memilih gen yang paling penting, Analisis Komponen Prinsipal dan Analisis Komponen Prinsipal Kernel, bagi menukar gen terpilih yang linear dan tak linear kepada ruang baru yang dikurangkan. Dalam menentukan fasa mengenal pasti kanser, kajian ini mencadangkan empat algoritma iaitu C5.0, Regresi Logistik, Rangkaian Neural Buatan dan Mesin Vektor Sokongan. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan rangka ini adalah berkesan dan kompetitif berbanding kaedah semasa.</p> Mohammed Hamim Ismail El Mouden Mounir Ouzir Hicham Moutachaouik Mustapha Hain Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 1 22 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1447 EDITORIAL https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1719 <p> </p> <div class="WordSection1"> <h2 style="margin: 18.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">CHIEF EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ahmad Faris Ismail, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">TECHNICAL EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Sany Izan Ihsan, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">EXECUTIVE EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">AHM Zahirul Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">ASSOCIATE EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Nor Farahidah Za’bah, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin-left: 0cm; line-height: normal;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">LANGUAGE EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .1pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Lynn Mason, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 6.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">COPY EDITOR</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <h2 style="line-height: 10.75pt; margin: 12.0pt 0cm 6.0pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><a name="OLE_LINK2"></a><span lang="EN-US">Abdullah Al-Mamun, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Abdumalik Rakhimov, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ali Sophian, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Erwin Sulaeman, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Hazleen Anuar, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Konstantin Khanin, University of Toronto, Canada</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ma'an Al-Khatib, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Md Zahangir Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Meftah Hrairi, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mohamed B. Trabia, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mohammad S. Alam, Texas A&amp;M University-Kingsville, United States </span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Mustafizur Rahman, National University Singapore, Singapore</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Ossama Abdulkhalik, Michigan Technological University, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Othman O Khalifa, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Razi Nalim, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Rosminazuin AB. Rahim, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Waqar Asrar, IIUM, Malaysia</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm .55pt .0001pt 13.5pt;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 171.55pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <h1><strong>INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE</strong></h1> <p>Anwar, United States</p> <p>Abdul Latif Bin Ahmad, Malaysia</p> <p>Farzad Ismail, USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia</p> <p>Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</p> <p>Hany Ammar, United States</p> <p>Idris Mohammed Bugaje, Nigeria</p> <p>K.B. Ramachandran, India</p> <p>Kunzu Abdella, Canada</p> <p>Luis Le Moyne, ISAT, University of Burgundy, France</p> <p>M Mujtaba, United Kingdom</p> <p>Mohamed AI-Rubei, Ireland</p> <p>Mohamed B Trabia, United States</p> <p>Syed Kamrul Islam, United States</p> <p>Tibor Czigany, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary</p> <p>Yiu-Wing Mai, The University of Sydney, Australia.</p> <p> </p> <h2 style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIMS &amp; SCOPE OF IIUM ENGINEERING JOURNAL</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: 5.6pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US">The <strong>IIUM Engineering Journal</strong>, published biannually (January and July), is a carefully refereed international publication of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). Contributions of high technical merit within the <span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">span </span>of engineering disciplines; covering the main <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">areas </span>of engineering: Electrical and <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">Computer </span>Engineering; Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Automation <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and</span> Mechatronics Engineering; Material and Chemical Engineering; Environmental <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and</span> Civil Engineering; Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Engineering Mathematics and Physics; and Computer Science and Information Technology are considered for publication in this journal. Contributions from <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">other areas </span>of Engineering <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and </span>Applied Science are also welcomed. The <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">IIUM </span>Engineering Journal publishes contributions under <em>Regular papers and Invited review papers</em>. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the specific challenges of the developing world, and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: 5.6pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.55pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">REFEREES’ NETWORK</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-right: 5.9pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: -.05pt; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US">All papers submitted to IIUM Engineering Journal will be subjected to a rigorous reviewing process through a worldwide network of specialized and competent referees. Each accepted paper should have at least two positive referees’ assessments.</span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5.65pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span lang="EN-US">SUBMISSION OF A MANUSCRIPT</span></strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.7pt;"><span lang="EN-US">A manuscript should be submitted online to the IIUM-Engineering Journal website at </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-right: 6.05pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 98%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 9.5pt; line-height: 98%;"><a href="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal">http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal</a>. </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 9.5pt; line-height: 98%;">Further correspondence on the status of the paper could be done through the journal website.</span></p> </div> <div class="WordSection2"> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .1pt;"><em><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 11.5pt;"> </span></em></p> <p class="MsoBodyText"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 113%; margin: 0cm 5.85pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Whilst every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisement herein are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher and the editorial committee accept no liability whatsoever for the consequence of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement.</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 113%; margin: 0cm 5.85pt .0001pt 5.4pt;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;" align="center"><img src="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/../pub/ejournal/public/site/images/zahirul/image001.jpg" alt="" width="231" height="135" /></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;" align="center"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 13.0pt;">IIUM Engineering Journal</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;" align="center"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 9.0pt;">ISSN: 1511-788X E-ISSN: 2289-7860</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;" align="center"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> </div> <p><strong>Published by:</strong></p> <p><strong>IIUM Press</strong>,</p> <p>International Islamic University Malaysia</p> <p>Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia</p> <p>Phone (+603) 6421-5014, Fax: (+603) 6421-6298</p> <p> </p> AHM Zahirul ALAM Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 i i 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1719 FVS-TECHNOLOGY: INTELLECTUAL SEARCH TOOLS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1389 <p>It is enough to have 3 basic stages of the modules in the SPD of a diversified corporate network: (F) - the method of submitting the request, i.e. the method of forming the expression of the information needs of the system user (S) - the function of the correspondence of the electronic resource to the request degree of compliance with the request and the found electronic resource; (V) - method of presenting electronic resources. Combining these three stages for models, methods, and software modules of the AML, is referred to as FSV technology (FSV platform, FSV Framework). FSV technology is an instrumental software platform based on a client-server architecture, integration and modification of models, and methods and algorithms of AML in the information environment of corporate networks. The following architecture has been developed for the FSV technology proposed for the search index in data retrieval systems.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Tiga peringkat asas modul adalah cukup dalam pelbagai rangkaian korporat SPD iaitu: (F) - kaedah penyerahan permintaan, kaedah membentuk ungkapan keperluan maklumat pengguna sistem (S) - fungsi surat-menyurat sumber elektronik bagi permintaan tahap pematuhan permintaan dan sumber elektronik yang dijumpai; (V) - kaedah penyampaian sumber elektronik. Gabungan tiga peringkat model, kaedah dan modul perisian AML, dipanggil teknologi FSV (platform FSV, rangka FSV). Teknologi FSV adalah platform perisian instrumen berdasarkan seni bina pelanggan-pelayan, integrasi dan pengubah suaian model, kaedah-kaedah dan algoritma AML dalam persekitaran maklumat dalam rangkaian korporat. Seni bina ini telah di bina bagi teknologi FSV yang dicadangkan bagi indeks carian dalam sistem dapatan data.</p> BAHODIR MUMINOV Ulugbek Bekmurodov Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 118 128 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1389 SOLUTION OF THE REVERSE FLOW REACTOR MODEL USING HOMOTOPY ANALYSIS METHOD https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1398 <p>Methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) is one of the most dangerous greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. A reverse flow reactor is utilized to convert CH<sub>4</sub> to carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) as a means of reducing the effect of global warming. The dynamics of its dependent variables can be stated by a set of convective-diffusion equations. In this article, we examined analytical solutions of temperature dynamics and methane conversion for a 1-D pseudo homogeneous model without refrigeration by using the homotopy analysis method. The results show that temperature and conversion of methane will go to constant when time goes to infinity.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Metana (CH<sub>4</sub>) merupakan salah satu gas rumah hijau paling berbahaya di atmosfera. Reaktor aliran balik telah dipakai bagi menukar CH<sub>4</sub> kepada CO<sub>2</sub> bagi mengurangkan kesan pemanasan global. Dinamik pemboleh ubah bersandar ini dapat diterangkan melalui satu set persamaan konvektif-difusi. Artikel ini akan mengkaji penyelesaian analisis dinamik suhu dan penukaran metana bagi model 1-D pseudo-homogen tanpa penyejukan dengan menggunakan kaedah analisis homotopi. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa suhu dan penukaran metana akan berterusan dengan masa tak terhingga.</p> Suharsono Suharsono Sri Wulandari Aang Nuryaman Mustofa Usman Wamiliana Wamiliana Jamal Daoud Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 129 137 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1398 RELIABLE ITERATIVE METHODS FOR SOLVING 1D, 2D AND 3D FISHER’S EQUATION https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1413 <p>In the present paper, three reliable iterative methods are given and implemented to solve the 1D, 2D and 3D Fisher’s equation. Daftardar-Jafari method (DJM), Temimi-Ansari method (TAM) and Banach contraction method (BCM) are applied to get the exact and numerical solutions for Fisher's equations. The reliable iterative methods are characterized by many advantages, such as being free of derivatives, overcoming the difficulty arising when calculating the Adomian polynomial boundaries to deal with nonlinear terms in the Adomian decomposition method (ADM), does not request to calculate Lagrange multiplier as in the Variational iteration method (VIM) and there is no need to create a homotopy like in the Homotopy perturbation method (HPM), or any assumptions to deal with the nonlinear term. The obtained solutions are in recursive sequence forms which can be used to achieve the closed or approximate form of the solutions. Also, the fixed point theorem was presented to assess the convergence of the proposed methods. Several examples of 1D, 2D and 3D problems are solved either analytically or numerically, where the efficiency of the numerical solution has been verified by evaluating the absolute error and the maximum error remainder to show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed methods. The results reveal that the proposed iterative methods are effective, reliable, time saver and applicable for solving the problems and can be proposed to solve other nonlinear problems. All the iterative process in this work implemented in MATHEMATICA<sup>®</sup>12.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Kajian ini berkenaan tiga kaedah berulang boleh percaya diberikan dan dilaksanakan bagi menyelesaikan 1D, 2D dan 3D persamaan Fisher. Kaedah Daftardar-Jafari (DJM), kaedah Temimi-Ansari (TAM) dan kaedah pengecutan Banach (BCM) digunakan bagi mendapatkan penyelesaian numerik dan tepat bagi persamaan Fisher. Kaedah berulang boleh percaya di kategorikan dengan pelbagai faedah, seperti bebas daripada terbitan, mengatasi masalah-masalah yang timbul apabila sempadan polinomial bagi mengurus kata tak linear dalam kaedah penguraian Adomian (ADM), tidak memerlukan kiraan pekali Lagrange sebagai kaedah berulang Variasi (VIM) dan tidak perlu bagi membuat homotopi sebagaimana dalam kaedah gangguan Homotopi (HPM), atau mana-mana anggapan bagi mengurus kata tak linear. Penyelesaian yang didapati dalam bentuk urutan berulang di mana ianya boleh digunakan bagi mencapai penyelesaian tepat atau hampiran. Juga, teorem titik tetap dibentangkan bagi menaksir kaedah bentuk hampiran. Pelbagai contoh seperti masalah 1D, 2D dan 3D diselesaikan samada secara analitik atau numerik, di mana kecekapan penyelesaian numerik telah ditentu sahkan dengan menilai ralat mutlak dan baki ralat maksimum (MER) bagi menentukan ketepatan dan kecekapan kaedah yang dicadangkan. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan kaedah berulang yang dicadangkan adalah berkesan, boleh percaya, jimat masa dan boleh guna bagi menyelesaikan masalah dan boleh dicadangkan menyelesaikan masalah tak linear lain. Semua proses berulang dalam kerja ini menggunakan MATHEMATICA<sup>®</sup>12.</p> Othman Mahdi Salih Majeed AL-Jawary Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 138 166 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1413 ENERGY AND STRUCTURE STATES OF LOW-LYING BANDS IN 156Gd https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1497 <p>The experimental results of the literary and electronic nuclear database for <sup>156</sup>Gd were summarized and analyzed. Inertial parameters of rotating core were determined using the Harris method. The theoretical values of energy and wave functions were calculated within the framework of a phenomenological model that takes into account Coriolis mixing of state rotational bands. The calculated energy values were compared with existing experimental data, which were in good agreement.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Hasil dapatan kajian melalui eksperimen pangkalan data nuklear dan elektronik bagi <sup>156</sup>Gd diringkaskan dan dianalisis. Parameter inersia putaran berputar ditentukan menggunakan kaedah Harris. Nilai teori fungsi tenaga dan gelombang dikira dalam kerangka model fenomenologi yang mengambil kira campuran Coriolis pada band putaran keadaan. Nilai pengiraan tenaga dibandingkan dengan data eksperimen memberikan persetujuan yang baik.</p> P.N. Usmanov E.K. Yusupov Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 167 174 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1497 MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF RIDE SPLITTING SERVICE WITH RESOURCE SHARING SCHEME ON RIDE SOURCING (ONLINE TAXI) SERVICES IN JAKARTA https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1520 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> This study aims to solve the increasing number of vehicles for ride-sourcing or online taxi service on the road and the operational issues in those services by developing an optimization model of ride-splitting services in the online taxi with a resource sharing (sharing platform) scheme. Ride-splitting service is a ride-sourcing service where one vehicle can serve two or more request customers at a similar time. Meanwhile, the resource-sharing scheme interlinks drivers from different platforms in providing services to the customers. That is, a driver from platform X can serve customers from platform Y and vice versa, with a predetermined profit sharing. We formulate the optimization problem as a new modified weighted bipartite matching and solve the problem using a greedy heuristic method. Based on the simulation, the proposed model can generate higher overall profit for all vehicles serving passengers, use fewer vehicles, and lower passengers’waiting time.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> <em> </em>Kajian ini bertujuan menyelesaikan­ jumlah penambahan kenderaan angkutan-berpusat atau servis teksi dalam talian di atas jalan raya dan isu operasi dalam perkhidmatan dengan membangunkan model pengoptimuman pada servis angkutan-pecahan bagi teksi dalam talian dengan skim perkongsian sumber (platform bersama). Servis angkutan-pecahan adalah servis angkutan-berpusat di mana satu kenderaan menyediakan perkhidmatan kepada dua atau lebih permintaan pengguna pada satu-satu masa. Manakala, perkongsian sumber menghubungkan pemandu dengan platform berlainan dalam menyediakan servis untuk penumpang. Iaitu, pemandu platform X boleh mengangkut penumpang platform Y dan sebaliknya, dengan menentukan terlebih dahulu keuntungan bersama. Kajian ini diformulasi dengan pengoptimuman masalah sebagai perubahan terbaru dalam menilai kesesuian kedua-dua pihak dan menyelesaikan masalah menggunakan kaedah heuristik rakus. Berdasarkan simulasi ini, model yang dicadangkan dapat menghasilkan keuntungan keseluruhan lebih tinggi bagi semua kenderaan perkhidmatan, dengan mengurangkan jumlah kenderaan dan masa menunggu penumpang. </p> Helen Burhan Sutanto Soehodho Nahry Nahry Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 175 190 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1520 THE HARMONIC COMPOSITION OF CURRENT IN ZERO-WORKING WIRE WITH NON-LINEAR LOAD https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1569 <p>The purpose of this study was experimental investigations and a study of the nature of the change in the main harmonic components of the current in the neutral working wire of a three-phase four-wire network with a voltage of 0.38 kV. The study of the amplitude-phase-frequency characteristics of currents flowing in an electric network with a predominant non-linear load is one of the most urgent tasks, the solution of which will increase the efficiency of electric power transmission and eliminate the negative consequences due to the current flow in a zero-working wire in the network at 0.38 kV. To study the effect of load changes on the amplitude-phase-frequency characteristics of currents in the linear and zero working wires at the input of the load node, measurements were carried out by certified electrical measuring instruments namely, the “Resource-UF2M” and “Hioki 3196”. With these devices, the phase voltages at the input to the load node were measured. The analysis of the results obtained for the load node whose power was formed mainly by a lighting system with fluorescent and LED lamps and a system of office electrical receivers (computers, copiers, printers, scanners, etc.) was performed. It can be concluded that a current comparable to the currents of the linear wires of the network flows from the load node with the predominant nonlinear power receivers through the zero-working wire. At the same time, in the zero-working wire of the network, the third harmonic current prevails over the main frequency currents.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Tujuan kajian ini adalah penyelidikan eksperimental dan kajian mengenai sifat perubahan komponen harmonik utama arus dalam wayar kerja neutral rangkaian empat wayar tiga fasa dengan voltan 0.38 kV. Kajian mengenai ciri-ciri frekuensi-amplitud-fasa arus yang mengalir dalam rangkaian elektrik dengan beban bukan linear yang dominan adalah salah satu tugas yang paling mendesak, penyelesaiannya akan meningkatkan kecekapan penghantaran tenaga elektrik dan menghilangkan akibat negatif yang disebabkan ke arus semasa dalam wayar sifar bekerja di rangkaian pada 0.38 kV. Untuk mengkaji kesan perubahan beban pada ciri frekuensi-fasa frekuensi arus dalam wayar linier dan sifar pada input nod beban, pengukuran dilakukan oleh alat pengukur elektrik yang disahkan iaitu, "Resource-UF2M" dan "Hioki 3196". Dengan peranti ini, voltan fasa pada input ke simpul beban diukur. Analisis hasil yang diperoleh untuk simpul beban yang kekuatannya dibentuk terutama oleh sistem pencahayaan dengan lampu pendarfluor dan LED dan sistem penerima elektrik pejabat (komputer, mesin fotokopi, pencetak, pengimbas, dll.). Dapat disimpulkan bahawa arus yang setanding dengan arus wayar linier rangkaian mengalir dari nod beban dengan penerima kuasa bukan linier yang dominan melalui wayar sifar. Pada masa yang sama, dalam wayar sifar rangkaian, arus harmonik ketiga berlaku berbanding arus frekuensi utama.</p> Igor Yudaev Evgeny Rud Mikhail Yundin Tamara Ponomarenko Aleksandra Isupova Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 191 200 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1569 ROBUST TUNING OF POWER SYSTEM STABILIZER PARAMETERS USING THE MODIFIED HARMONIC SEARCH ALGORITHM https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1276 <p>Power System Stabilizer is used to improve power system low frequency oscillations during small disturbances. In large scale power systems involving a large number of generators, PSSs parameter tuning is very difficult because of the oscillatory modes’ low damping ratios. So, the PSS tuning procedure is a complicated process to respond to operation condition changes in the power system. Some studies have been implemented on PSS tuning procedures, but the Harmony Search algorithm is a new approach in the PSS tuning procedure. In power system dynamic studies at the first step system total statues is considered and then the existed conditions are extended to the all generators and equipment. Generators’ PSS parameter tuning is usually implemented based on a dominant operation point in which the damping ratio of the oscillation modes is maximized. In fact the PSSs are installed in the system to improve the small signal stability in the system. So, a detailed model of the system and its contents are required to understand the dynamic behaviours of the system. In this study, the first step was to linearize differential equations of the system around the operation point. Then, an approach based on the modified Harmony Search algorithm was proposed to tune the PSS parameters.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penstabil Sistem Kuasa digunakan bagi meningkatkan sistem kuasa ayunan frekuensi rendah semasa gangguan kecil. Dalam sistem kuasa berskala besar yang melibatkan sebilangan besar penjana, penalaan parameter PSS adalah sangat sukar kerana nisbah corak ayunan redaman yang rendah. Maka, langkah penalaan PSS adalah satu aliran rumit bagi mengubah keadaan operasi sistem kuasa. Beberapa kajian telah dilaksanakan pada prosedur penalaan PSS, tetapi algoritma Harmony Search merupakan pendekatan baru dalam prosedur penalaan PSS. Dalam kajian sistem kuasa dinamik ini, langkah pertama adalah dengan memastikan status total sistem dan keadaan sedia ada diperluaskan kepada semua penjana dan peralatan. Parameter penalaan generator PSS biasa dilaksanakan berdasarkan titik operasi yang dominan di mana nisbah corak ayunan redaman dimaksimumkan. Malah PSS dipasang di dalam sistem bagi meningkatkan kestabilan isyarat kecil dalam sistem. Oleh itu, model terperinci sistem dan kandungannya diperlukan bagi mengenal pasti perihal sistem dinamik. Kajian ini, dimulai dengan melinear sistem persamaan pembezaan pada titik operasi. Kemudian, pendekatan berdasarkan algoritma Harmony Search yang diubah suai telah dicadangkan bagi penalaan parameter PSS.</p> Hiba Zuhair Abdul Kareem Husam Hasan Mohammed Ameer Aqeel Mohammed Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 47 57 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1276 PASSIVELY Q-SWITCHED YTTERBIUM-DOPED FIBER LASER EMPLOYING SAMARIUM OXIDE AS SATURABLE ABSORBER https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1396 <p>The rapid developments in transition metal dichalcogenide materials as a saturable absorber (SAs) have been demonstrated to be an effective method for generating Q-switched fiber laser. This work, reports on the generation of Q-switched fiber laser in the 1-micron region using samarium oxide (Sm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) saturable absorber (SA). The Sm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> thin film SA was fabricated in-</p> <p>The rapid developments in transition metal dichalcogenide materials as saturable absorbers (SAs) have been reported to be efficient materials for generating Q?switched fiber lasers. In this paper, we report on the use of samarium oxide (Sm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) saturable absorber (SA) for 1-micron Q-switched fiber laser generation. The Sm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> thin film SA was constructed in-house through which the Sm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> powder was mixed and stirred in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution. It was then integrated into the ytterbium-doped fiber laser (YDFL) ring cavity, hence producing a sequence of Q-switched pulsed lasers at 1062.49 nm wavelength. The stable pulse train appeared from 69.97 to 111.1 kHz between the applied pump power of 57 mW to 96 mW. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 38.56 dB was recorded at the 57 mW pump power, whereas the pulse energy raised until 15.21 nJ at 96 mW. These results showed that the Sm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> could be a favourable SA material to iniatiate Q-switched ytterbium-doped pulsed fiber laser.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Perkembangan pesat dalam bahan logam peralihan <em>dichalcogenide</em> sebagai bahan penyerap boleh larut (SAs) telah dilaporkan sebagai kaedah yang berkesan bagi menjana laser fiber <em>Q-switched</em>. Kajian ini menggunakan <em>samarium</em> oksida (Sm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) <em>saturable absorber</em> (SA) bagi menjana laser gentian <em>Q-switched</em> <em>1-Micron</em>. Filem nipis Sm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> SA telah dihasilkan melalui campuran serbuk Sm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> ke dalam cecair polivinil alkohol (PVA) dalam persekitaran makmal<em>.</em> Kemudian, ia diintegrasi ke dalam rongga gelang laser gentian <em>dop-</em><em>ytterbium </em>(YDFL), lalu menghasilkan denyut laser <em>Q-switched</em> stabil pada jarak gelombang 1062.49 nm. Denyutan stabil muncul dari 69.97 kepada 111.1 kHz pada kuasa pam yang dikenakan antara 57 mW hingga 96 mW. Nisbah isyarat-hinggar (SNR) pada 38.56 dB telah direkodkan pada pam kuasa 57 mW, sementara denyut tenaga ditingkatkan kepada 15.21 nJ pada 96 mW. Keputusan menunjukkan Sm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> merupakan bahan SA penggalak yang memuaskan bagi menjana denyut laser gentian <em>dop-ytterbium </em><em>Q-switched</em>.</p> <p>house. It was integrated into the ytterbium-doped fiber laser (YDFL) ring cavity, hence producing a stable passively Q-switched laser operating at 1062.49 nm wavelength. Stable pulse train appeared from 69.97 to 111.1 kHz at the tunable pump power of 57 mW to 96 mW. The pulse energy of up to 15.21 nJ and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 38.56 dB for the fundamental frequency were recorded. The results showed that the Sm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> could be a favourable SA material for the broadband generation of Q-switched fiber laser.</p> Muhamad Khairul Nizam Mohd Rusdi Afiq Arif Aminuddin Jafry Nur Farhanah Zulkifli Farina Saffa Mohamad Samsamnun Mohamad Badrol Hisyam Mahyuddin SULAIMAN WADI HARUN Mohd Shahnan Zainal Abidin Norazlina Saidin Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 58 67 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1396 AUTOMATIC FACIAL REDNESS DETECTION ON FACE SKIN IMAGE https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1495 <p>One facial skin problem is redness. On site examination currently relies on examination through direct observations conducted by doctors and the patient's medical history. However, some patients are reluctant to consult with a doctor because of shame or prohibitive costs. This study attempts to utilize digital image processing algorithms to analyze the patient's facial skin condition automatically, especially redness detection in the face image. The method used for detecting red objects on face skin for this research is Redness method. The output of the Redness method will be optimized by feature selection based on area, mean intensity of the RGB color space, and mean intensity of the Hue Intensity. The dataset used in this research consists of 35 facial images. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are used to measure the detection performance. The performance achieved 54%, 99.1%, and 96.2% for sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, according to dermatologists. Meanwhile, according to PT. AVO personnel, the performance achieved 67.4%, 99.1%, and 97.7%, for sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively. Based on the result, the system is good enough to detect redness in facial images.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Salah satu masalah kulit wajah adalah kemerahan muka. Pemeriksaan di lokasi kini bergantung pada pemeriksaan melalui pemerhatian langsung yang dilakukan oleh doktor dan sejarah perubatan pesakit. Namun, sebilangan pesakit enggan berunding dengan doktor kerana rasa malu atau kos yang terhad. Kajian ini cuba membuat sistem pengesanan kemerahan wajah yang dapat menganalisis keadaan wajah, terutama kemerahan, melalui gambar kulit wajah. Kaedah yang digunakan untuk mengesan objek merah pada kulit wajah bagi penyelidikan ini adalah kaedah Kemerahan. Keluaran kaedah Kemerahan akan dioptimumkan dengan pemilihan ciri berdasarkan luas, intensiti min RGB, dan intensiti min Hue Intensity. Set data yang digunakan dalam penyelidikan ini terdiri daripada 35 gambar wajah. Nilai pengesahan yang digunakan adalah kepekaan, kekhususan, dan ketepatan. Hasil yang diperoleh berdasarkan pakar dermatologi masing-masing adalah 54%, 99.1%, dan 96.2% untuk kepekaan, kekhususan, dan ketepatan. Sementara itu, PT. Selain itu, menurut kakitangan AVO 67.4%, 99.1%, dan 97.7%, bagi kepekaan, kekhususan, dan ketepatan, masing-masing. Berdasarkan dapatan kajian ini, sistem ini cukup baik bagi mengesan kemerahan pada gambar wajah.</p> Izzati Muhimmah Nurul Fatikah Muchlis Arrie Kurniawardhani Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 68 77 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1495 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHM FOR THE SENTIMENT ANALYSIS OF INDONESIA’S 2019 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1532 <p>In 2019, citizens of Indonesia participated in the democratic process of electing a new president, vice president, and various legislative candidates for the country. The 2019 Indonesian presidential election was very tense in terms of the candidates' campaigns in cyberspace, especially on social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Google+, Tumblr, LinkedIn, etc. The Indonesian people used social media platforms to express their positive, neutral, and also negative opinions on the respective presidential candidates. The campaigning of respective social media users on their choice of candidates for regents, governors, and legislative positions up to presidential candidates was conducted via the Internet and online media. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to conduct sentiment analysis on the candidates in the 2019 Indonesia presidential election based on Twitter datasets. The study used datasets on the opinions expressed by the Indonesian people available on Twitter with the hashtags (#) containing "Jokowi and Prabowo." We conducted data pre-processing using a selection of comments, data cleansing, text parsing, sentence normalization and tokenization based on the given text in the Indonesian language, determination of class attributes, and, finally, we classified the Twitter posts with the hashtags (#) using Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC) and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) to achieve an optimal and maximum optimization accuracy. The study provides benefits in terms of helping the community to research opinions on Twitter that contain positive, neutral, or negative sentiments. Sentiment Analysis on the candidates in the 2019 Indonesian presidential election on Twitter using non-conventional processes resulted in cost, time, and effort savings. This research proved that the combination of the SVM machine learning algorithm and alphabetic tokenization produced the highest accuracy value of 79.02%. While the lowest accuracy value in this study was obtained with a combination of the NBC machine learning algorithm and N-gram tokenization with an accuracy value of 44.94%.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Pada tahun 2019 rakyat Indonesia telah terlibat dalam proses demokrasi memilih presiden baru, wakil presiden, dan berbagai calon legislatif negara. Pemilihan presiden Indonesia 2019 sangat tegang dalam kempen calon di ruang siber, terutama di laman media sosial seperti Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Google+, Tumblr, LinkedIn, dll. Rakyat Indonesia menggunakan platfom media sosial bagi menyatakan pendapat positif, berkecuali, dan juga negatif terhadap calon presiden masing-masing. Kampen pencalonan menteri, gabenor, dan perundangan hingga pencalonan presiden dilakukan melalui media internet dan atas talian. Oleh itu, kajian ini dilakukan bagi menilai sentimen terhadap calon pemilihan presiden Indonesia 2019 berdasarkan kumpulan data Twitter. Kajian ini menggunakan kumpulan data yang diungkapkan oleh rakyat Indonesia yang terdapat di Twitter dengan hashtag (#) yang mengandungi "Jokowi dan Prabowo." Proses data dibuat menggunakan pilihan komentar, pembersihan data, penguraian teks, normalisasi kalimat, dan tokenisasi teks dalam bahasa Indonesia, penentuan atribut kelas, dan akhirnya, pengklasifikasian catatan Twitter dengan hashtag (#) menggunakan Klasifikasi Naïve Bayes (NBC) dan Mesin Vektor Sokongan (SVM) bagi mencapai ketepatan optimum dan maksimum. Kajian ini memberikan faedah dari segi membantu masyarakat meneliti pendapat di Twitter yang mengandungi sentimen positif, neutral, atau negatif. Analisis Sentimen terhadap calon dalam pemilihan presiden Indonesia 2019 di Twitter menggunakan proses bukan konvensional menghasilkan penjimatan kos, waktu, dan usaha. Penyelidikan ini membuktikan bahawa gabungan algoritma pembelajaran mesin SVM dan tokenisasi abjad menghasilkan nilai ketepatan tertinggi iaitu 79.02%. Manakala nilai ketepatan terendah dalam kajian ini diperoleh dengan kombinasi algoritma pembelajaran mesin NBC dan tokenisasi N-gram dengan nilai ketepatan 44.94%.</p> GA Buntoro R Arifin GN Syaifuddiin A Selamat O Krejcar F Hamido Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 78 92 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1532 MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM WITH A CLIENT-SERVER MODEL BASED ON INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1596 <p>Safety and comfort are needs for all human beings. Meanwhile, the crime rate is increasing. Therefore, a remote monitoring and control system is needed. This research offers a home monitoring and control system with a client-server model using NodeMCUESP-12E. The equipment design can be used to monitor the condition of the house through sensors installed in each room. Home monitoring includes motion detection using a motion sensor, detection of the condition of the house door using a magnetic sensor, and remote door locking using a solenoid. The system can be operated offline or online using an Android smart phone. The communication model used for client-server over the transport layer protocol is User Datagram Protocol (UDP), so the server can communicate simultaneously on two clients. The fastest average response time is 0.653 seconds. The communication model between a server and a cloud uses Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) so that the data sent or received by the server through the internet is more reliable. The cloud used is Firebase which has real-time database facilities and historical data. When online, sensor response time average is the fastest on an android at 3.898 seconds, response time control is the fastest average on a client at 7.157 seconds and the control response time average is the fastest on an android at 9.495 seconds.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Keselamatan dan keselesaan merupakan keperluan penting untuk manusia. Sementara itu kadar jenayah pula kian meningkat. Oleh itu, kita perlu pemantauan jarak jauh dan sistem kawalan. Kajian ini merupakan sistem kawalan dan pemantauan rumah dengan model pelanggan-pelayan menggunakan NodeMCUESP-12E. Peralatan yang dibina boleh digunakan bagi mengawasi keadaan rumah melalui sensor yang dipasang dalam setiap bilik. Pemantauan rumah adalah termasuk pengesan gerakan menggunakan sensor gerakan, pengesan keadaan pintu rumah menggunakan sensor magnet, dan pengunci pintu jarak jauh menggunakan solenoid. Sistem ini boleh digunakan secara luar atau dalam talian menggunakan telefon pintar Android. Model komunikasi yang digunakan pada pelanggan-pelayan menggunakan protokol lapisan pengangkutan adalah Protokol Datagram Pengguna (UDP), oleh itu pelayan dapat berkomunikasi secara terus dengan dua pelanggan pada purata masa respon terlaju sebanyak 0.653 saat. Model komunikasi antara pelayan dan awan adalah menggunakan Protokol Kawalan Penghantaran (TCP), dengan harapan data dapat dihantar dan diterima oleh pelayan melalui internet dengan lebih kebolehpercayaan. Awan yang digunakan adalah Firebase yang mempunyai kelengkapan pengkalan data waktu nyata dan data sejarah. Melalui keadaan dalam talian, purata masa sensor bertindak balas adalah paling laju pada Android sebanyak 3.898 saat, purata kelajuan kawalan masa bertindak balas pada pelanggan adalah 7.157 saat dan purata masa kawalan tindak balas adalah paling laju pada Android sebanyak 9.495 saat.</p> FX Arinto Setyawan Sri Ratna Sulistiyanti Sri Purwiyanti Helmy Fitriawan Adam Rabbani Adnan Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 93 102 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1596 PREDICTING TRUST IN A SOCIAL NETWORK BASED ON STRUCTURAL SIMILARITIES USING A MULTI-LAYERED PERCEPTRON NEURAL NETWORK https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1622 <p>Although research on social networks is progressing rapidly, the positive and negative effects of this area should be evaluated. One of the problems is that social networks are very broad and anyone can have influence on them. This matter can cause the issue of people with different beliefs. Therefore, determining the amount of trust to various resources on social networks, and especially resources for which there is no previous history on the web, is one of the main challenges in this field. In this paper, we present a method for predicting trust in a social network by structural similarities through the neural network. In this method, the web of trust data set is converted to a structural similarity data set based on the similarity of the trustors and trustees first. Then, on the created data set, a part of the data set is considered as the training data and it is trained based on the multilayer perceptron neural network and then the trained neural network is tested based on the test data. In the proposed method, the MSE value is less than 0.01, which has improved more than 0.02 compared to previous methods. Based on the obtained results, the proposed method has provided acceptable accuracy.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Walaupun kajian tentang rangkaian sosial adalah sangat pesat, kesan positif dan negatif dalam ruang lingkup ini perlu dinilai. Masalah rangkaian sosial adalah sangat luas dan sesiapa sahaja boleh terpengaruh. Perkara ini akan menyebabkan manusia dengan pelbagai isu kepercayaan. Oleh itu, menentukan nilai kepercayaan melalui pelbagai sumber dalam rangkaian sosial, terutama sumber-sumber yang tidak mempunyai sejarah lepas dalam web, adalah salah satu cabaran dalam bidang ini. Kajian ini membentangkan jangkaan kepercayaan dalam rangkaian sosial melalui persamaan struktur dengan menggunakan rangkaian neural. Kaedah ini ditentukan dengan menukar set data web kepercayaan kepada struktur set data hampir sama berdasarkan kesamaan pemegang dan pemberi amanah. Kemudian, sebilangan set data yang telah dibina ini dipertimbangkan sebagai data latihan dan ia dilatih berdasarkan rangkaian neural perseptron berbagai lapisan dan kemudian rangkaian neural yang terlatih ini diuji berdasarkan data ujian. Dalam kaedah yang dicadangkan ini, nilai MSE adalah kurang daripada 0.01, di mana telah diperbaiki kepada 0.02 lebih daripada kaedah-kaedah sebelum ini. Berdasarkan dapatan kajian, didapati kaedah yang dicadangkan ini menunjukkan ketepatan yang boleh diterima.</p> Amir Hossein Danesh Hossein Shirgahi Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM Press http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 22 1 103 117 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1622 EFFECT OF FERRO ELECTRIC THICKNESS ON NEGATIVE CAPACITANCE FET (NCFET) https://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1814 <p>Conventional Field Effect Transistor (FET) are well known to require at least 60mV/decade at 300K change in the channel potential to change the current by a factor of 10. Due to this, 60mV/decade becomes the bottleneck of this day transistor. A comprehensive study of the Negative Capacitance Field Effect Transistor (NCFETis presented. &nbsp;This paper shows the effect of ferroelectric material in MOSFET structure by replacing the insulator in the conventional MOSFET. It should be possible to obtain a steeper subthreshold swing (SS) compared to the one without a ferroelectric material layer, thus breaking the fundamental limit on the operating voltage of MOSFET. &nbsp;27% of the subthreshold slope reduction is observed by introducing ferroelectric in the dielectric layer compared to the conventional MOSFETs. Hence, the power dissipation in MOSFET can be mitigated and shine to a new technology of a low voltage/low power transistor operation.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Transistor Kesan Medan Konvensional (FET) terkenal memerlukan sekurang-kurangnya 60mV / dekad pada 300K perubahan pada saluran yang berpotensi untuk mengubah arus dengan faktor 10. Oleh kerana itu, 60mV / dekad menjadi hambatan transistor hari ini. Kajian komprehensif mengenai Negative Capacitance Field Effect Transistor (NCFETis dikemukakan. Makalah ini menunjukkan kesan bahan ferroelektrik dalam struktur MOSFET dengan mengganti penebat dalam MOSFET konvensional. Sebaiknya dapatkan swing swing subthreshold (SS) yang lebih curam berbanding dengan satu tanpa lapisan bahan ferroelektrik, sehingga melanggar had asas pada voltan operasi MOSFET. 27% pengurangan cerun subthreshold diperhatikan dengan memperkenalkan ferroelektrik di lapisan dielektrik berbanding dengan MOSFET konvensional. Oleh itu, pelesapan daya dalam MOSFET dapat dikurangkan dan bersinar dengan teknologi baru operasi transistor voltan rendah / kuasa rendah.</p> Muhaimin Bin Mohd Hashim AHM Zahirul Alam Naimah Binti Darmis Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-01-30 2020-01-30 22 1 339 346 10.31436/iiumej.v22i1.1814