Experiences and Challenges Encounter Among Female Academics During Covid-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review


  • Sumaiyah @ Thandar Soe Jamaludin Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Mohd Said Nurumal Department of Critical Care Nursing, Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Nursyafini Mohd Zahir Gleanagles Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Mohd Danish Fu Mohd Ridzwan Gleanagles Hospital Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Kamil Che Hasan Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Resti Yulianto Sutrisno Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Challenges, Female Academics, Lecturers, COVID-19 pandemic, Job satisfaction, Perceptions and Higher Education


The declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic demonstrated the extent of virus contamination worldwide. The pandemic made people in dilemma. The COVID-19 pandemic gave off a huge impact towards face-to-face or physical learning and the world now is going to virtual online learning and teaching until this pandemic settless down. In the academic sector, academics are challenged by virtual teaching to deliver lectures and determine the most effective method. This systematic review aimed to identify the available studies on experiences and challenges encountered among female academics during Covid-19. Searching the literature was systematically done using the PRISMA flow diagram, and the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study were set prior to the literature search. The quality assessment was conducted by using the CASP and MMAT. There are five themes synthesised from the 21 articles included in this study. Those are experiences encountered by female academics as a mother, challenges encountered by academics as women, impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on academic females, opinions from academicians on Distance Education during Covid-19, and strategies, coping mechanisms and solution to overcome the barriers among female academics. This study recommended for the faculty and university have a serial discussion on how to increase the effectiveness of online teaching. Beforehand, a feedback survey can be given to the female academics to analyse their current condition such as insufficient technology or standardized guidance for them to enhance online teaching. It was advisable to review the calibre and efficacy of the teaching modalities and infrastructure for the academics, even though the university had previously provided the guidelines for online teaching.

Author Biography

Mohd Said Nurumal, Department of Critical Care Nursing, Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia, Pahang, Malaysia




Parlak S, Celebi CO & Oksuz GF. Gender roles during COVID?19 pandemic: The experiences of Turkish female academics. Gender, Work & Organization. 2021;28:461-83.

Gross T. Pandemic makes evident “grotesque” gender inequality in household work. National Public Radio, May 21. https://www.npr.org/2020/05/21/860091230/pandemic-makes-evident-grotesque-gender-inequality-in-household-work. 2020.

Utoft EH. ‘All the single ladies’ as the ideal academic during times of COVID?19? Gender, Work & Organization. 2020;27(5):778-87.

Walters C, Ronnie L, Jansen J, & Kriger S. “Academic guilt”: The impact of the pandemic-enforced lockdown on women’s academic work. Women’s Studies International Forum. 2021; 102522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2021.102522.

Amer M. Combining Academic Career and Motherhood: Experiences and Challenges of Women in Academia. International Research Journal of Social Sciences. 2013; 2(4), 12–15. www.isca.in.

Harden A. Mixed method systematic review: Integrating qualitative and quantitative findings. A publication of the national center for the dissemination of disability research. 2010. Accessed from http://www.ktdrr.org/ktlibrary/articles.

Jamaludin TSS & Chan CM. (2019) Influence of Perceive Social Support or Pre-Operative Support Program on Quality of Life in Patients Awaiting Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) Surgery: Mixed Method Systematic Review. International Journal of Care Scholars. 2 (1).

Critical Appraisal Skills Program. 2021. Accessed from https://casp-uk.net/casp-tools-checklists/.

Hong QN, Gonzalez?Reyes A, Pluye P. Improving the usefulness of a tool for appraising the quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies, the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Journal of evaluation in clinical practice. 2018;24(3):459-67.

Raburu PA. Women Academics ’ Careers In Kenya. Institute of Education MA ( Psychology of Education ) - University of London Institute of Education This thesis is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 2011.

Günçavd? G, Göktürk ? & Bozo?lu O. An Insight into the Challenges Faced by Academic Women with Pre-school Age Children in Academic Life. Universal Journal of Educational Research. 2017; 5(6), 953–959. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2017.050607.

Guy B & Arthur B. Academic motherhood during COVID-19: Navigating our dual roles as educators and mothers. Gender, Work and Organization. 2020; 27(5), 887–899. https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12493.

Parlak S, Celebi Cakiroglu O & Oksuz Gul F. Gender roles during COVID-19 pandemic: The experiences of Turkish female academics. Gender, Work and Organization. 2021; 28(S2), 461–483. https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12655.

Ali R & Ullah H. Lived experiences of women academics during the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. Asian Journal of Social Science. 2021; 49(3), 145–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajss.2021.03.003.

Bazeley P. Defining'early career'in research. Higher Education. 2003;45(3):257-79.

Yildirim T M & Eslen-Ziya H. The differential impact of COVID-19 on the work conditions of women and men academics during the lockdown. Gender, Work and Organization. 2021; 28(S1), 243–249. https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12529.

O’connell C & McKinnon M. Perceptions of barriers to career progression for academic women in stem. Societies. 2021; 11(2), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc11020027.

Munroe-farrington BI. Strategies for Bahamian Women in Higher Education to Overcome Challenges to Success. 2021.

Kerr DE. Academic Gladiators: experiences of black women associate professors and their perceptions of full professorship. 2021.

Mahlaula MV. Black African Women Academics at Gauteng Universities: Experiences, Challenges and Aspirations for the Future: University of Johannesburg (South Africa); 2019.

Oshagbemi T. Gender differences in the job satisfaction of university teachers. Women in Management Review. 2000; 15(7), 331–343. https://doi.org/10.1108/09649420010378133.

Casacchia M, Cifone MG, Giusti L, Fabiani L, Gatto R, Lancia L, Cinque B, Petrucci C, Giannoni M, Ippoliti R, Frattaroli AR, Macchiarelli G & Roncone R. Distance education during COVID 19: an Italian survey on the university teachers’ perspectives and their emotional conditions. BMC Medical Education. 2021; 21(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-021-02780-y.

Akour A, Al-Tammemi AB, Barakat M, Kanj R, Fakhouri HN, Malkawi A & Musleh G. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and emergency distance teaching on the psychological status of university teachers: A cross-sectional study in Jordan. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,. 2020; 103(6), 2391–2399. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0877.

Walters C, Ronnie L, Jansen J, Kriger S, editors. “Academic guilt”: The impact of the pandemic-enforced lockdown on women's academic work. Women's Studies International Forum; 2021: Elsevier..

Akso?an M & Duman MÇ. A research on academician opinions on distance education in the COVID-19 process. Naturengs. 2020:38-49.

Rudhumbu N, Parawira W, Bhukuvhani C, Nezandoyi J, Majoni C, Chikosha F, Zvokuomba K & Chingwanangwana B. Insight into online teaching behaviour of lecturers in Zimbabwean universities during the COVID-19 era and beyond: issues and challenges. International Journal of Information and Learning Technology. 2021; 38(5), 518–539. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJILT-07-2021-0104.

Gabster BP., van Daalen K, Dhatt R & Barry M. Challenges for the female academic during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet. 2020; 395(10242), 1968–1970. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31412-4.

Riley LH. A Narrative Inquiry of Work-Life Balance Among Faculty Mothers in Higher Education: Mercer University; 2021.

Günçavd? Ö, Kayam SS. Unravelling the structure of Turkish exports: Impediments and policy. Journal of Policy Modeling. 2017;39(2):307-23.

Essien A. Utilisation Of E-Learning Among Nigerian University Lecturers in The Covid-19 Era. Global and local distance education. 2021; 7(2).




How to Cite

Jamaludin, S. @ T. S., Nurumal, M. S., Mohd Zahir, N. ., Mohd Ridzwan, M. D. F., Che Hasan, M. K., & Resti Yulianto Sutrisno. (2023). Experiences and Challenges Encounter Among Female Academics During Covid-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS, 6(1), 92–118. Retrieved from https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijcs/index.php/ijcs/article/view/292

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>