Knowledge and Compliance Regarding Standard Precautions among Nursing Students at Universiti Sains Malaysia


  • Tuan Nor Atiqah Tuan Anuar School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Norazliah Samsudin School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Nur Syahmina Rasudin School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Norhasmah Mohd Zain School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia



Standard precautions, knowledge, compliance, student nurses


Background: Standard precautions (SP) are important in protecting both patients and healthcare professionals from occupational exposure as well as ensure patient safety. This study aimed to compare the knowledge and compliance regarding SP among diploma and degree nursing students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). Methods: A cross-sectional study has been conducted among 134 nursing students using self-administered questionnaires. Respondents were recruited using a simple random sampling method. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 24 using descriptive and Spearman’s Rank-Order test. Results: The study showed that diploma and degree nursing students had good knowledge regarding SP (mean of 14.7±2.5 and 15.4 ± 2.4) and a high compliance level of SP (mean of 3.6 ± 0.3 and 3.7 ± 0.2 respectively). Washes hand immediately after contacting any blood, body fluid, secretion, excretion, and dirty substances has the highest degree of compliance among diploma nursing students, while washes hands when comes in different contact with different patients has the highest degree of compliance among bachelor degree nursing. Wear protective eye patch or google when performing operations/procedures that might induce spraying of blood, body fluids, secretions, and excretions was the lowest degree of compliance among both bachelor degree and diploma nursing students. There was no significant correlation between the level of knowledge and compliance with SP (p= 0.23) but there is a significant correlation between the duration of practical training and compliance with SP (p=0.02). Conclusion: Nursing students in USM had good knowledge and high compliance regarding SP. Knowledge did not influence compliance with SP but duration of practical training session did influence compliance with SP.


Standard Precautions/Universal Precautions. Ann SBV [Internet]. 2012;1(1):20–2. Available from:

Carr-Locke DL, Soetikno R, Sharaiha RZ. Whatever happened to universal/standard precautions? Gastrointest Endosc. 2020;92(2):399–400.

Melo D de S, Souza ACS e, Tipple AFV, Neves ZCP das, Pereira MS. Nurses’ understanding of standard precautions at a public hospital in Goiania - GO, Brazil. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem [Internet]. 2006;14(5):720–7. Available from:

Chawla S, Verma R, Khanna P. Knowledge and practices regarding standard precautions among health functionaries of peripheral health institutions of Haryana. Int J Community Med Public Heal [Internet]. 2017;4(6):2007. Available from:

IS A. Knowledge, Awareness and Compliance with Standard Precautions among Health Workers in North Eastearn Nigeria. J Community Med Health Educ [Internet]. 2012;02(03). Available from:

Harris SA, Nicolai LA. Occupational exposures in emergency medical service providers and knowledge of and compliance with universal precautions. Am J Infect Control. 2010;

Abubakar SM, Haruna H, Robert Teryila K, Hamina D, Ahmadu I, Babaji M, et al. Assessment of knowledge and practice of standard precautions among nurses working at Federal Medical Centre Gombe, Nigeria. Res J Heal Pharmacol. 2015;

Balami LG, Ismail S, Saliluddin SM, Garba SH. Role of knowledge and attitude in determining standard precaution practices among nursing students. Int J Community Med Public Heal [Internet]. 2017;4(2):560. Available from:

Atalla HR, Aboalizm SE, Shaban HA. Effect of nursing guidelines compliance to infection control among nursing student. IOSR J Nurs Heal Sci. 2016;

Labrague LJ, Rosales RA, Tizon MM. Knowledge and Compliance of Standard Precautions among Student Nurses. Int J Adv Nurs Stud [Internet]. 2012;1(2). Available from:

Sax H, Perneger T, Hugonnet S, Herrault P, Chraïti M-N, Pittet D. Knowledge of Standard and Isolation Precautions in a Large Teaching Hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol [Internet]. 2005;26(3):298–304. Available from:

Luo Y, He GP, Zhou JW, Luo Y. Factors impacting compliance with standard precautions in nursing, China. Int J Infect Dis [Internet]. 2010;14(12):e1106–14. Available from:

Mukthar VK. The Effect of an Educational Intervention on the Standard Precautions among Nurses in Kenya. Biomed J Sci Tech Res [Internet]. 2017;1(4). Available from:

Vaz K, McGrowder D, Crawford T, Alexander-Lindo R, Irving R. Prevalence of injuries and reporting of accidents among health care workers at the University Hospital of the West Indies. Int J Occup Med Environ Health [Internet]. 2010;23(2). Available from:

Gawad A. Assessment of Knowledge about Standard Precautions and Nosocomial Infection among Nurses Working in Hospitals of Sana’a City, Yemen. J Caring Sci Int. 2017;

Pasay JME, Robles CJ, Awa AL, Enguito MRC. Compliance with Standard Precautions Among Hospital Nurses in Ozamiz City, Philippines. J Multidiscip Stud [Internet]. 2015;4(1). Available from:

Aluko OO, Adebayo AE, Adebisi TF, Ewegbemi MK, Abidoye AT, Popoola BF. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of occupational hazards and safety practices in Nigerian healthcare workers. BMC Res Notes. 2016;

Efstathiou G, Papastavrou E, Raftopoulos V, Merkouris A. Factors influencing nurses’ compliance with Standard Precautions in order to avoid occupational exposure to microorganisms: A focus group study. BMC Nurs [Internet]. 2011 Jan 21;10:1. Available from:

ARIF A., SHAH S. I. A. MAACAS. No Title. Biomedica. 2017.

Punia S, Nair S, Shetty RS. Health Care Workers and Standard Precautions: Perceptions and Determinants of Compliance in the Emergency and Trauma Triage of a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Int Sch Res Not [Internet]. 2014 Oct 29;2014:685072. Available from:


Jawaid M, Iqbal M, Shahbaz S. Compliance with standard precautions: A long way ahead. Iran J Public Health. 2009;

Suchitra JB, Lakshmi Devi N. Impact of education on knowledge, attitudes and practices among various categories of health care workers on nosocomial infections. Indian J Med Microbiol [Internet]. 2007;25(3):181. Available from:

Amin TT, Al Noaim KI, Bu Saad MA, Al Malhm TA, Al Mulhim AA, Al Awas MA. Standard precautions and infection control, medical students’ knowledge and behavior at a Saudi university: the need for change. Glob J Health Sci [Internet]. 2013 Apr 21;5(4):114–25. Available from:

Rashmi A, Kundapur R. Factors influencing observation of standard precautions among nursing staff in tertiary care setting in Mangalore. Int J Community Med Public Heal. 2017;

Faiza Ali Nasor Taha. Impact of Universal Precautions Training Program on Nurse Midwives Performance during Labor in Khartoum State—Sudan 2006-2009. J US-China Med Sci. 2014;

Kale M, Gholap M, Shinde M. Knowledge and practices of universal precautions among basic B. Sc. nursing students. Int J Sci Res. 2012;




How to Cite

Tuan Anuar, T. N. A., Samsudin, N., Rasudin, N. S., & Mohd Zain, N. . (2021). Knowledge and Compliance Regarding Standard Precautions among Nursing Students at Universiti Sains Malaysia. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS, 4(1), 10–17.




Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.