EVALUATION OF THE ROUTING METIRC W-METRIC USED WITH RPL PRTOCOL IN LLNS

  • Rosminazuin Ab. Rahim International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Abdallah Awad International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Aisha Hassan Abdalla Hashim International Islamic University Malaysia
  • ALIZA AINI MD RALIB
Keywords: Packet Delivery Ratio, Routing, queue backlog

Abstract

ABSTRACT: The current de-facto routing protocol over Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLN) developed by the IETF Working Group (6LOWPAN), is named as Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy networks (RPL). RPL in the network layer faces throughput  challenges due to the potential  large networks, number of nodes, and that  multiple  coexisting applications  will  be  running  in  the  same physical layer.  In this study, a node metric for RPL protocol based on the node’s Queue Backlogs is introduced, which leads to a better throughput performance while maintaining the delay and the ability to use with different network applications. This metric depends on the length of Packet Queue of the nodes with the consideration of other link and node metrics, like ETX or energy usage, leading to better load balancing in the network. To implement and evaluate the proposed metric compared to other RPL metrics, ContikiOS and COOJA simulator are used. Extensive simulations have been carried out in a systematic way resulting in a detailed analysis of the introduced metric namely W-metric, expected transmission count (ETX) and objective function zero (OF0) that uses hop-count as a routing metric. The analysis and comparison are based on five performance parameters, which are throughput, packet delivery ratio (PDR), latency, average queue length, and power consumption. Simulation results show that the introduced W-metric has a good performance compared to other RPL metrics with regards to performance parameters mentioned above. At the same time, the results show that its latency performance is comparable with other RPL routing metrics. In a sample simulation of 500 seconds with 25 nodes and with nodes sending packets periodically to the network root at a rate of 1 packet per 4 seconds, W-metric showed a very efficient throughput of 5.16 kbps, an increase of 8.2% compared to ETX. Results showed that it has a packet delivery ratio of 93.3%, which is higher compared to 83.3% for ETX and 74.2% for OF0. Average queue length of 0.48 packet shows improvement of 15.8% better than ETX. In addition, it exhibits an energy consumption of 5.16 mW which is 2.1% less than ETX. Overall, W-metric appears to be a promising alternative to ETX and OF0 as it selects routes that are more efficient by working on load balancing of the network and by considering the link characteristics.

ABSTRAK: Protokol penghalaan de-facto semasa ke atas Rangkaian Kekuatan Rendah dan Lossy yang dibangunkan oleh Kumpulan Kerja IETF (6LOWPAN), dinamakan Protokol Penghalaan untuk Kekuatan Rendah dan Rugi (RPL). RPL dalam lapisan rangkaian menghadapi cabaran throughput berikutan jangkaan rangkaian besar, bilangan nod dan aplikasi berganda bersama akan diproses dalam lapisan fizikal yang sama. Dalam kajian ini, satu metrik nod untuk protokol RPL berdasarkan pada Backend Queue node diperkenalkan, yang membawa kepada prestasi yang lebih baik sambil mengekalkan kelewatan dan keupayaan untuk digunakan dengan aplikasi rangkaian yang berbeza. Metrik ini bergantung pada panjang Packet Queue dari node dengan pertimbangan metrik lain dan nodus lain, seperti ETX atau penggunaan tenaga, yang mengarah kepada keseimbangan beban yang lebih baik dalam rangkaian. Untuk melaksanakan dan menilai metrik yang dicadangkan berbanding metrik RPL lain, ContikiOS dan COOJA simulator telah digunakan. Simulasi meluas telah dijalankan dengan cara yang sistematik yang menghasilkan analisis terperinci mengenai metrik yang diperkenalkan iaitu W-metrik, kiraan penghantaran dijangkakan (ETX) dan fungsi objektif sifar (OF0) yang menggunakan kiraan hop sebagai metrik penghalaan. Analisis dan perbandingan adalah  berdasarkan lima parameter prestasi, iaitu throughput, nisbah penghantaran paket (PDR), latency, panjang panjang antrian, dan penggunaan kuasa. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahawa W-metrik yang diperkenalkan mempunyai prestasi yang lebih baik berbanding dengan metrik RPL lain berkaitan dengan parameter prestasi yang dinyatakan di atas. Pada masa yang sama, hasil menunjukkan bahawa prestasi latency W-metrik adalah setanding dengan metrik penghalaan RPL yang lain. Dalam simulasi sampel 500 saat dengan 25 nod dan dengan nod yang menghantar paket secara berkala ke akar rangkaian pada kadar 1 paket setiap 4 saat, W-metrik menunjukkan keluaran yang sangat efisien iaitu 5.16 kbps, peningkatan sebanyak 8.2% berbanding ETX. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa ia mempunyai nisbah penghantaran paket 93.3%, yang lebih tinggi berbanding 83.3% untuk ETX dan 74.2% untuk OF0. Purata panjang giliran 0.48 packet menunjukkan peningkatan 15.8% lebih baik daripada ETX. Di samping itu, ia mempamerkan penggunaan tenaga sebanyak 5.16 mW iaitu 2.1% kurang daripada ETX. Secara keseluruhan, W-metrik nampaknya menjadi alternatif yang berpotensi menggantikan ETX dan OF0 kerana ia memilih laluan yang lebih cekap dengan bekerja pada keseimbangan beban rangkaian dan dengan mempertimbangkan ciri-ciri pautan.

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Author Biographies

Rosminazuin Ab. Rahim, International Islamic University Malaysia

Assistant Professor at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia. She is especially keen on MEMS research (simulation and fabrication) - pieoresistive/ piezoelectric sensor, energy harvester, etc. Her Research Interests are MEMS/CMOS Technology, Finite Element Simulation and Microfabrication Process

Abdallah Awad, International Islamic University Malaysia
Received his B.Sc. degree in Computer Systems Engineering from Birzeit University 2014.  His research interests are in modelling and simulation, design and control aspect of networking and internet of things (IoT).
Aisha Hassan Abdalla Hashim, International Islamic University Malaysia
Full Professor at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia. Her research interests Data Communication and Computer Networking, ASIC Design, Computer Architecture and Grid Computing, Open Sources & Operating Systems

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Published
2018-12-01
How to Cite
Ab. Rahim, R., Awad, A., Hashim, A., & MD RALIB, A. (2018). EVALUATION OF THE ROUTING METIRC W-METRIC USED WITH RPL PRTOCOL IN LLNS. IIUM Engineering Journal, 19(2), 80 - 89. https://doi.org/10.31436/iiumej.v19i2.840
Section
Electrical, Computer and Communications Engineering