Nurses' Perspectives on Family Involvement in Intensive Care


  • Bong Xiao Rou PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam
  • Armah Tengah School of Health Sciences, Politeknik Brunei
  • Yusrita Zolkefli PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam



involvement, family, qualitative, critical care, presence


Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore how nurses perceive the role of the family while caring for the patients admitted in intensive care of Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha (RIPAS) Hospital, Brunei. Methods: An exploratory, qualitative design was used to explore nurses' insights on the inputs of family in intensive care. Ten nurses who fit the inclusion criteria were invited using a purposive sampling method. They were individually interviewed and were audio-recorded with the consent of the nurses. These interviews were coded and thematically analysed. Results: Three major themes emerged from the study, including importance of family presence, concern over patient safety and question about family readiness. Conclusion: The results of this study concluded that the family role is expressed through their 'presence' in intensive care which is significant in patient care. The study also identified concern over patient safety and query into the family readiness to get involved in the intensive care.  

Author Biography

Armah Tengah, School of Health Sciences, Politeknik Brunei

Head of School of Health Sciences, Politeknik Brunei


Mackintosh N, Davis R, Easter A, Rayment-Jones H, Sevdalis N, Wilson S et al. Interventions to increase patient and family involvement in escalation of care for acute life-threatening illness in community health and hospital settings. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017; 10.

Olding M, Mcmillan SE, Reeves S, Schmitt MH, Puntillo K, Kitto S. Patient and family involvement in adult critical and intensive care settings: a scoping review. Health Expectations. 2015; 19(6):1183–202.

Fateel EE, Oneill CS. Family members’ involvement in the care of critically ill patients in two intensive care units in an acute hospital in Bahrain: The experiences and perspectives of family members’ and nurses’ - A qualitative study. Clinical Nursing Studies. 2015; 4(1).

Bhalla A, Kaur P, Kaur S, Suri V. Involvement of the family members in caring of patients an acute care setting. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 2014; 60(4):382.

Khosravan S, Mazlom B, Abdollahzade N, Jamali Z, Mansoorian MR. Family Participation in the Nursing Care of the Hospitalized Patients. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2014; 16(1).

White DB. Toward Shared Decision Making at the End of Life in Intensive Care Units. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2007; 167(5):461.

Duran CR, Oman KS, Abel JJ, Koziel VM, Szymanski D. Attitudes Toward and Beliefs about Family Presence: A Survey of Healthcare Providers, Patients’ Families, and Patients. American Journal of Critical Care. 2007; 16(3):270–9.

Al-Mutair AS, Plummer V, Obrien A, Clerehan R. Family needs and involvement in the intensive care unit: a literature review. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2013; 22(13-14):1805–17.

Turner K, Anderson, WG, Lipshut, A, Cimino J, Pathak C, Schell-Chaple H, Gropper M. ICU Clinician Perspectives on Involvement of Family Members in the Care of Critically Ill Patients. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2016; 193.

Hetland B, Hickman R, Mcandrew N, Daly B. Factors Influencing Active Family Engagement in Care Among Critical Care Nurses. AACN Advanced Critical Care. 2017; 28(2):160–70.

Engström B, Uusitalo A, Engström Å. Relatives’ involvement in nursing care: A qualitative study describing critical care nurses’ experiences. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing. 2011; 27(1):1–9.

Nayeri ND, Gholizadeh L, Mohammadi E, Yazdi K. Family Involvement in the Care of Hospitalized Elderly Patients. Journal of Applied Gerontology. 2013; 34(6):779–96.

Siminoff LA. Incorporating patient and family preferences into evidence-based medicine. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. 2013; 13(S3).

Keer R-LV, Deschepper R, Francke AL, Huyghens L, Bilsen J. Conflicts between healthcare professionals and families of a multi-ethnic patient population during critical care: an ethnographic study. Critical Care. 2015; 19(1).

Hunter JD, Goddard C, Rothwell M, Ketharaju S, Cooper H. A survey of intensive care unit visiting policies in the United Kingdom. Anaesthesia. 2010; 65(11):1101–5.

Rippin A. Evidence-Based Design: Structuring Patient- and Family-Centered ICU Care. The AMA Journal of Ethic. 2016; 18(1):73–6.

McConnell B, Moroney T. Involving relatives in ICU patient care: critical care nursing challenges. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2015; 24(7-8):991–8.

Patton MQ. Qualitative research & evaluative methods: Integrating theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publication Inc., 2015

Graneheim UH & Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today, 2004; 24(2):105-112

Graneheim UH, Lindgren BM & Lundman B. Methodological challenges in qualitative content analysis: A discussion paper. Nurse Education Today, 2017; 56: 29-34

Polit DF & Beck CT. Study guide for essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for nursing practice. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer, 2018.

Boyle B. The critical role of family in patient experience. Patient Experience Journal. 2015;2(2):4–6.

Mitchell M, Chaboyer W, Burmeister E, Foster M. Positive effects of a nursing intervention on family-centered care in adult critical care. American Journal of Critical Care. 2009;18(6):543–52; quiz 553.

Marzband R, Hosseini S, Hamzehgardeshi Z. A Concept Analysis of Spiritual Care Based on Islamic Sources. Religions. 2016; 7(6):61.

Smith, M, Saunders R, Stuckhardt L. Engaging patients, families, and communities. Best care at lower cost: the path to continuously learning health care in America. 2013, National Academies Press

Hardin SR. Engaging Families to Participate in Care of Older Critical Care Patients. Critical Care Nurse. 2012; 32(3):35–40.




How to Cite

Bong Xiao Rou, Tengah, A., & Zolkefli, Y. (2021). Nurses’ Perspectives on Family Involvement in Intensive Care . INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARE SCHOLARS, 4(1), 3–9.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>