Chlorella vulgaris logistic growth kinetics model in high concentrations of aqueous ammonia


  • Azlin Suhaida Azmi International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Noor Illi Mohamad Puad
  • Amanatuzzakiah Abdul Halim
  • Faridah Yusof Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Suzana Yusup Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia.



aqueous ammonia, Chlorella vulgaris


ABSTRACT: The ability of microalgae to utilize CO2 during photosynthesis and grow rapidly shows their potential in CO2 bio-fixation to capture and store the gas. However, CO2 capture by this biological approach is very slow compared to chemical reaction-based processes such as absorption using amine or aqueous ammonia. Integration between chemical (aqueous ammonia) and biological (microalgae) aspects might enhance the capturing process and at the same time the microalgae can assimilate CO2 for beneficial bioproduct formation. Thus, it is important to assess the growth of the microalgae in various concentrations of ammonia with CO2 supply. Hence, the main objective of this study is to investigate Chlorella vulgaris growth and its kinetics in aqueous ammonia. To achieve that, C. vulgaris was cultivated in various concentrations of aqueous ammonia between 0 to 1920 mg/L at room temperature (i.e. 27 °C) and supplied with 15% (v/v) of CO2 under illumination of 3500 lux of white fluorescent light. Result shows that the maximum growth capacity (Xmax) of C. vulgaris is deteriorating from 1.820 Au to 0.245 Au as the concentration of aqueous ammonia increased. However, no significant change in maximum specific growth rate (µmax) was observed. The growth data was then fitted into the logistic growth model. The model coefficient of determination (R2) is decreasing, which suggests modification of the model is required.

ABSTRAK: Keupayaan alga-mikro untuk menggunakan CO2 semasa proses fotosintesis dan pembiakannya yang pesat menunjukkan potensi dalam penggunaan dan penyimpanan gas ketetapan-biologi. Walau bagaimanapun, penggunaan CO2  melalui cara ini adalah sangat perlahan berbanding proses tindak balas kimia melalui penyerapan amina ataupun cecair  ammonia. Percampuran antara tindak balas kimia (cecair ammonia) dan tindak balas biologi, memungkinkan penambahan proses percampuran dan pada masa sama alga-mikro akan menyerap CO2 bagi kepentingan pembentukan hasil biologi. Dengan itu, adalah sangat penting untuk mengawasi pertumbuhan alga-mikro dalam pelbagai ketumpatan ammonia bersama kandungan CO2. Oleh itu, objektif utama penyelidikan ini adalah untuk menyiasat pertumbuhan Chlorella vulgaris dan proses kinetik dalam cecair ammonia. Bagi memperoleh hasil tersebut,  C. vulgaris telah dikulturkan pada ketumpatan cecair berbeza antara 0 ke 1920 mg/L pada suhu bilik (iaitu 27 °C) dan dibekalkan dengan 15% (v/v) CO2 di bawah cahaya putih flurosen  3500 lux. Keputusan menunjukkan kapasiti pertumbuhan terbanyak (Xmax) C. vulgaris telah berkurang daripada 1.820 Au kepada 0.245 Au apabila ketumpatan cecair ammonia dikurangkan. Walau bagaimanapun, tiada perubahan ketara pada kadar pertumbuhan (µmax) dapat dilihat. Data kadar pertumbuhan kemudiannya dikemas kini pada model pertumbuhan logistik. Model pekali penentu (R2) telah direndahkan di mana cadangan untuk mengubah model adalah diperlukan.


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Author Biographies

Azlin Suhaida Azmi, International Islamic University Malaysia

Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Noor Illi Mohamad Puad

Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Amanatuzzakiah Abdul Halim

Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


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How to Cite

Azmi, A. S., CHE AZIZ, N. A., Mohamad Puad, N. I., Halim, A. A., Yusof, F., & Yusup, S. (2018). Chlorella vulgaris logistic growth kinetics model in high concentrations of aqueous ammonia. IIUM Engineering Journal, 19(2), 1–9.



Chemical and Biotechnology Engineering

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