Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

Kh S Karimov, Muhammad Abid

Abstract


ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C) inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were also included in the calculations. The biogas digester consisted of a methane tank with built-in solar reverse absorber heater to harness the radiant solar energy for heating the slurry comprising of different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc.). The methane tank was initially filled to 70% of its volume with organic wastes from the GIK institute’s sewage. The remaining volume was filled with sewage and cow dung from other sources. During a three month period (October-December, 2009) and another two month period (February-March, 2010), the digester was investigated. The effects of solar radiation on the absorber, the slurry’s temperature, and the ambient temperature were all measured during these investigations. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung in the slurry resulted in retention times of four and two weeks, respectively. The corresponding biogas produced was 0.4 m3 and 8.0 m3, respectively. Finally, this paper also elaborates on the upgradation of biogas through the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapour, and also the process of conversion of biogas energy into electric power

ABSTRAK: Kajian ini membentangkan rekabentuk, fabrikasi dan penyelidikan tentang pencerna biogas dengan pemanas solar ringkas. Sebagai pemanas solar, ia dilengkapkan dengan penyerap pemanas beralik. Suhu maksimum(50oC) di dalam tangki metana telah diambil sebagai parameter utama rekabentuk pencerna. Dengan menggunakan persamaan tenaga seimbang untuk jisim statik cecair yang dipanaskan; parameter penebat haba tangki metana telah dikira. Pencerna biogas terdiri dari tangki metana yang dilengkapkan dengan penyerap pemanas beralik untuk menggunakan tenaga solar bagi memanaskan sluri yang disediakan dari bahan buangan organik yang berbeza (najis, sampah, sisa makanan,etc). Tangki metana telah diisi sehingga 70% isipadu buangan oraganik dari institut GIK, pertamanya adalah sampah dan keduanya adalah najis lembu. Pencerna telah dikaji bagi tempoh tiga bulan (Oktober-Disember, 2009) dan dua bulan (Februari-Mac, 2010). Kejadian radiasi solar terhadap penyerap, suhu sluri dan suhu ambien telah diukur. Didapati suhu penahanan adalah empat minggu dan dua minggu masing-masing dengan menggunakan sampah sahaja dan sampah dengan najis lembu, dan kuantiti biogas dihasilkan adalah masing-masing 0.4 m3 and 8.0 m3. Sebagai tambahan, skema peningkatan biogas untuk peranjakan karbon dioksida, hidrogen sulfida dan wap air dari biogas dan penukaran tenaga biogas kepada tenaga elektrik juga dibincangkan.

KEYWORDS:  solar biogas; digester; methane tank; reverse absorber; built-in heater; solar energy

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ISSN:    1511-788X
E-ISSN: 2289-7860


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