• Rufaizal Che Mamat Ph.D. candidate in geotechnical engineering, Centre of Engineering and Built Environment Education Research (PeKA) and Smart and Sustainable Township Research Centre (SUTRA), Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9968-4734
  • Anuar Kasa, Ir. Dr. Centre of Engineering and Built Environment Education Research (PeKA), Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Siti Fatin Mohd Razali, Ir. Dr. Smart and Sustainable Township Research Centre (SUTRA), Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2757-6141




Embankment; Soft ground; stability; Methods of improvement.


This paper presents an exhaustive review of the challenges faced in the construction of road embankments on soft ground and proposes a direction for future development. Frequently used techniques for soft ground improvement are discussed. The factors that contribute to the stability of the road embankment are reviewed by approach, results of past studies, and historical cases. The findings show that settlement, slope stability, and soil bearing capacity are all challenges to constructing the road embankment. Additionally, it is found that geometric data is a key factor in embankment design. Pre-loading with prefabricated vertical drain (PVDs) methods and lightweight fill were found to be widely used techniques in soft ground improvement. The information from this study can be used to develop design guidance systems, numerical modelling, and to give an overview and knowledge to other researchers who are or will conduct research in this field. Finally, future perspectives for research are related to predictions of factors that affect the stability of road embankment with an artificial intelligence approach.

ABSTRAK: Kertas ini membentangkan ulasan kajian menyeluruh mengenai cabaran yang dihadapi dalam pembinaan benteng jalanraya di atas tanah lembut dan mencadangkan ke arah pembangunan kajian masa depan. Teknik-teknik penambahbaikan tanah lembut yang sering digunakan turut dibincangkan. Faktor- faktor yang menyumbang kepada kestabilan benteng jalanraya diulas dengan pendekatan kepada kajian lepas dan sejarah kes. Hasil kajian ini didapati bahawa enapan, kestabilan cerun dan keupayaan galas tanah merupakan cabaran dalam pembinaan benteng jalanraya. Selain itu, ia didapati bahawa data geometri merupakan faktor penting kepada rekabentuk benteng. Kaedah pra pembebanan dengan prefabrikasi saliran menegak (PVDs) dan isian ringan didapati teknik yang popular digunakan dalam pembaikkan tanah lembut masa kini. Maklumat dari kajian ini boleh digunakan untuk membangunkan sistem panduan reka bentuk, pemodelan berangka serta memberi gambaran dan ilmu kepada penyelidik lain yang sedang  atau akan menjalankan kajian dalam bidang ini. Akhir sekali, perspektif masa depan untuk penyelidikan berkaitan ramalan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kestabilan embankment jalanraya dengan pendekatan kepintaran buatan.


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How to Cite

Che Mamat, R., Kasa, A., & Mohd Razali, S. F. (2019). A REVIEW OF ROAD EMBANKMENT STABILITY ON SOFT GROUND: PROBLEMS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVE. IIUM Engineering Journal, 20(2), 32–56. https://doi.org/10.31436/iiumej.v21i1.996



Civil and Environmental Engineering