• Mohammad Reza Parsaei Shiraz University of Technology
  • Ahmad Reza Parnian Shiraz University of Technology
  • Samaneh Miri Rostami Shiraz University of Technology
  • Reza Javidan Shiraz University of Technology




ABSTRACT:  The wide address space provided by Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) lets any thing to be identified uniquely. consistency of the modified version of IPv6 protocol stack with smart objects, facilitated the Internet interconnection of the networks of smart objects and introduced Internet of things. A smart object is a small micro-electronic device that consists of a communication device, a small microprocessor and a sensor or an actuator. A network made of such devices is called low-power and lossy network. RPL routing protocol that is consistent to IPv6, is designed to be used in these kinds of networks. Load balancing is not considered in the RPL design process. Whenever RPL is used in large scale low-power and lossy networks some nodes will suffer from congestion and this problem severely degrades network performance. In this paper, we consider solutions provided to tackle RPL load balancing problems. Load balancing algorithms and protoclos are evaluated through simulation. We evaluate IETF RPL implementation and LB-RPL method with Contiki OS Java (COOJA) simulator. They are assessed comprehensively through metrics such as Packet delivery Ratio, Average End to End delay, and Gateway Throughput. LB-RPL improves RPL in terms of Packet delivery Ratio and throughput but increases Average End to End delay. Simulations results show that RPL load balancing needs extensive works to be performed yet.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Mohammad Reza Parsaei, Shiraz University of Technology

Department of Computer Engineering and Information Technology

Ahmad Reza Parnian, Shiraz University of Technology

Department of Computer Engineering and Information Technology

Samaneh Miri Rostami, Shiraz University of Technology

Department of Computer Engineering and Information Technology

Reza Javidan, Shiraz University of Technology

Faculty member, Department of Computer Engineering and Information Technology


[1] S. M. Mazinani, J. Chitizadeh, M. H. Yaghmaee, M. T. Honary, and F. Tashtarian. “New Clustering Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks,” IIUM Engineering Journal. Vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 51-69, 2010.
[2] A. Arshad, S. Khan, A. Z. Alam, F. I. Ahmad, and R. Tasnim, R. “A Study on Health Monitoring System: Recent Advancements,” IIUM Engineering Journal. Vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 87-99, 2014.
[3] M. R. Parsaei and A. R. Parnian, “IPv6 based routing in building automation network,” In 2015 2nd International Conference on Knowledge-Based Engineering and Innovation (KBEI). pp. 1025-1031, 2015.
[4] J. T. Adams, “An introduction to IEEE STD 802.15. 4,” In 2006 IEEE Aerospace Conference, IEEE, 2006, pp. 1-8.
[5] S. Deering and R. Hinden, “Internet protocol, version 6 (IPv6) specification,” 1998.
[6] Y. Ismail, and S. M. Sarif. “Availability Of Literature On Engineering Ethics In The Internet,” IIUM Engineering Journal. Vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 219-229, 2012.
[7] G. Montenegro, N. Kushalnagar, J. Hui, and D. Culler, “Transmission of IPv6 packets over IEEE 802.15. 4 networks,” RFC 4944, 2007.
[8] T. Winter, “RPL: IPv6 routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks”, RFC 6550, March 2012.
[9] Z. Shelby and C. Bormann, “6LoWPAN: The wireless embedded Internet,” John Wiley & Sons, Vol. 43, 2011.
[10] J. Ko, et al. “Connecting low-power and lossy networks to the internet,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 96-101, 2011
[11] A. Brandt and G. Porcu, “Home automation routing requirements in low power and lossy networks”, RFC 5826, April 2010.
[12] J. Martocci, et al. “Building automation routing requirements in low power and lossy networks,” IETF Request for Comments RFC 5867, June 2010.
[13] K. Pister, P. Thubert, S. Dwars, and T. Phinney, “Industrial routing requirements in low-power and lossy networks,” RFC 5673, 2009.
[14] M. Dohler, T. Watteyne, T. Winter, and D. Barthel, “Routing requirements for urban low-power and lossy networks,” RFC 5548, 2009.
[15] J. Moy, OSPF version 2, 1997.
[16] D. Oran, OSI IS-IS intra-domain routing protocol, 1990.
[17] T. Clausen and P. Jacquet, “Optimized link state routing protocol (OLSR),” RFC 3626, 2003.
[18] J. Tripathi and J. C. De Oliveira, “Quantifying load imbalance: A practical implementation for data collection in low power lossy networks,” InInformation Sciences and Systems (CISS), 2013 47th Annual Conference on IEEE, March 2013, pp. 1-6.
[19] P. Kulkarni, S. Gormus, and Z. Fan, “Tree Balancing in Smart Grid Advanced Metering Infrastructure Mesh Networks,” In Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom), 2012 IEEE International Conference on IEEE. November 2012, pp. 109-115.
[20] X. Liu, et al. “Load balanced routing for low power and lossy networks” In 2013 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) IEEE, April 2013, pp. 2238-2243.
[21] A. Dunkels, B. Gronvall, and T. Voigt, “Contiki-a lightweight and flexible operating system for tiny networked sensors,” In Local Computer Networks, 2004. 29th Annual IEEE International Conference on IEEE, November 2004, pp. 455-462.
[22] The contiki operating system. Available: http://www.contiki-os.org/index.html.
[23] R. K. Jain, “Art of Computer Systems Performance Analysis Techniques For Experimental Design Measurements Simulation And Modeling,” John Wiley, 2015.



How to Cite

Parsaei, M. R., Parnian, A. R., Miri Rostami, S., & Javidan, R. (2017). RPL LOAD BALANCING IN INTERNET OF THINGS. IIUM Engineering Journal, 18(2), 137-150. https://doi.org/10.31436/iiumej.v18i2.702



Electrical, Computer and Communications Engineering

Most read articles by the same author(s)