• Noorini Izzati Mohamad Mazuki Department of Chemical Engineering and Process, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4780-4391
  • Teow Yeit Haan Research Centre for Sustainable Process Technology (CESPRO), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan,
  • Abdul Wahab Mohammad Research Centre for Sustainable Process Technology (CESPRO), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia




Sewage reclamation, Single disinfection unit, Integrated disinfection system, Water reuse, Escherichia coli


Selection of suitable disinfection technology is necessary with regards to wastewater reclamation goals. In this work, the performance of various disinfection technologies - single disinfection units and integrated disinfection systems - on local sewage was studied for non-potable reuse. Disinfection units used as stand-alone units include ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, chlorination, microfiltration (MF), and ultrafiltration (UF). The integrated disinfection system consists of UV or chlorination as the primary disinfection unit incorporated with either MF, UF, multi-media or granular activated carbon as pre-treatment. The performance of these disinfection units and integrated processes were evaluated based on the percentage of removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, phosphorus, Escherichia coli, and trihalomethane in bench-scale disinfection systems. The single unit of PES20kDa membrane and the integrated disinfection system of UF-Cl showed the most effective treatment among single disinfection units and integrated systems, respectively. The results showed that almost all disinfection units and integrated disinfection processes were useable for restricted and unrestricted area non-potable applications according to United State Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) water reuse guidelines and managed to fulfil Singapore grey water quality for recycling.

ABSTRAK: Pemilihan teknologi penyahjangkitan kuman yang sesuai adalah perlu selaras dengan matlamat pemulihgunaan air buangan. Kajian ini adalah tentang prestasi pelbagai teknologi penyahjangkitan kuman - unit tunggal penyahjangkitan kuman dan sistem penyahjangkitan kuman bersepadu pada air sisa kumbahan tempatan dikaji bagi penggunaan semula air minuman. Unit  tunggal penyahjangkitan kuman yang digunakan mempunyai penyahjangkitan kuman ultraungu (UV), pengklorinan, mikro penurasan (MF), dan ultra penurasan (UF). Manakala, sistem penyahjangkitan kuman bersepadu terdiri daripada UV atau pengklorinan sebagai unit penyahjangkitan kuman utama yang digabungkan bersama samada dengan MF, UF, multi-media atau karbon teraktif berbutir sebagai proses pra-rawatan. Prestasi unit tunggal penyahjangkitan kuman dan proses-proses bersepadu dinilai berdasarkan pada peratus penyingkiran keperluan oksigen biokimia, permintaan oksigen kimia, jumlah pepejal terampai, nitrogen ammonia, nitrogen nitrat, fosforus, coli Escherichia, dan trihalometana dalam sistem penyahjangkitan kuman berskala-makmal. Unit tunggal penurasan ultra membran PES20kDa dan sistem penyahjangkitan kuman bersepadu UF-Cl menunjukkan masing-masing paling efektif dalam rawatan unit tunggal dan sistem penyahjangkitan kuman bersepadu. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa hampir semua unit tunggal penyahjangkitan kuman dan proses penyahjangkitan kuman bersepadu boleh diguna pakai bagi aplikasi terhad dan tidak terhad  mengikut garis panduan penggunaan semula air sisa rawatan yang ditetapkan oleh Agensi Pelindungan Alam Sekitar Amerika Syarikat (US EPA) dan kualiti kitar semula air sisa Singapura.


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Author Biography

Abdul Wahab Mohammad, Research Centre for Sustainable Process Technology (CESPRO), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

Chemical Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


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How to Cite

Mohamad Mazuki, N. I., Teow, Y. H., & Mohammad, A. W. (2020). A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR SEWAGE RECLAMATION: A FOCUS ON THE DISINFECTION PROCESS. IIUM Engineering Journal, 21(2), 80–99. https://doi.org/10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1245



Civil and Environmental Engineering