Recycling and Disposal of Lithium Battery: Economic and Environmental Approach

Ataur Rahman

Abstract


The adoption of Lithium-ion battery technology for Electric Vehicle/Hybrid electric vehicle has received attention worldwide recently. The price of cobalt (Co) and lithium (Li) has increased due to the production of EV/HEV.  The used lithium battery is the valuable source of active metals (Co, Li, and Al) and the optimal way of extract these metals from this waste is still studied. The focus of this paper is to recovering active metals by using a hydro-metallurgical method in laboratory scale with 48.8 Wh battery to reveal the economic and environment benefits. Calcination on extracted active metals as pre-thermal treatment has been conducted at 700°C to remove the organic compounds from the surface of active metals. The experiment has been conducted and the result shows that the recovery of active metals (cathode) is 41% of cell cathode and an anode is 8.5% of the cell anode materials, which are 48.8% and 23.4% of the cathode and anode cell material price, respectively. By recycling the battery active metals about 47.34%, the emission can be reduced by 47.61% for battery metal production and 60.7% for transportation of used battery disposal. The total emission can be controlled about 52.85% by recycling the active metals on battery production.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Viktor Ekermo.(2009). Recycling opportunities for Li-ion batteries from hybrid electric vehicles: Master of Science Thesis in Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Industrial Materials Recycling Göteborg, Sweden, 2009. http://www.chalmers.se/chem/EN/divisions/indstrial-recycling/finished-projects/recycling-opportunities.

Birkholz, M. (2006). Thin Film Analysis by X-Ray Scattering. WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

William Tahil (2010). How Much Lithium does a LiIon EV battery really need?- Meridian International Research France- http://www.meridian-int-res.com/

Linda Gaines, (2009). Lithium Ion Battery Recycling Issues”, Linda Gaines, Argonne National Laboratory, 21/5/09.

Lain MJ, (2001). Recycling of lithium ion cells and batteries. J Power Sources 97–98:736–738.

Li L, Ge J, Wu F, Chen R, Chen S and Wu B, (2010). Recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries using organic citric acid as leachant. J Hazard Mater 176:288–293 (2010).

Georgi-Maschler,T., Friedrich, B., Weyhe, R, Heegn,H., Rutz, M (2012). Development of a recycling process of Li-ion batteries. Journal of Power Source, Vol. (207), 175-182.

Dorella G and Mansur MB. (2007) A study of the separation of cobalt from spent Li-ion battery residues. J Power Sources 170:210–215.

Zhu S, He W, Li G, Zhou X, Zhang X and Huang J, (2012). Recovery of Co and Li from spent lithium-ion batteries by combination method of acid leaching and chemical precipitation. Trans Nonferrous Metal Soc China 22:2274–2281.

Sravya Kosaraju. (2012). Investigation of HEV Li-ion batteries for lithium recovery. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.

Alexandre Chagnes and Beata Pospiech. (2013). A brief review on hydrometallurgical technologies for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 2013; 88: 1191-1199.

Liang Sun, and Keqiang Qiu, (2011). Vacuum pyrolysis and hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Hazardous Material 194, 378-384.

Contestabile M, Panero S and Scrossati B, (1999). A laboratorary scale lithium battery recycling process. J Power Sources 83:75–78.

Zhang P, Yokoyama T, Itabashi O, Suzuki T and Inoue K, (1998). Hydrometallurgical process for recovery of metal values from spent lithium-ion secondary batteries. Hydrometallurgy 47:259–271.

Ferreira, D.A, Prados LM, Majusted and Mansur MB, (2009) Hydrometallurgical separation of aluminium, cobalt, copper and lithium from spent Li-ion batteries. J Power Sources 187:238–246.

Scrosati B and Garche J., (2010). Lithium batteries: status, prospects and future. J Power Sources 195:2419–2430.

Tao Zhang, Yaqun He, Linhan Ge, Rusan Fu, Xia Zhang, Yajun Huang. (2013) Characteristics of wet and dry crushing methods in the recycling process of spent lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Power Sources 240, 766-771.

F.Ferella,I. De Michelis and F.Veglio, (2011). Process for the recycling of alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries," Journal of Power Sources, vol. 183, no. 2, pp. 805-811.

Rahman, Ataur., Farhan, Shuimi., Ahmed, Helmi., Hawlader, MNA, (2014). Development of evaporative battery cooling system for EVs/HEVs. International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System, Inderscience, Vol.8(2), pp: 233-240.

L. Gaines and R. Cuenza (2000). Costs of Lithium­Ion­Batteries for Vehicles (Report ANL/ESD­42) (Argonne, IL: Argonne National Laboratory, 2000).

Raymond Chang (2005). Physical chemistry for the bioscience, University Science Book, Sausalito California (www.uscibooks.com)

CODEFF Data research on lithium within the REdUSE Project Partners Countries, (2011). http://www.reduse.org/en/blog/lithium-extraction-chilean-north.

Rahman, Ataur., Fadhilah, Razzak., Rafia, Afroz., Mohiuddin, AKM., Hawlader, MNA. (2015). Power generation from waste of IC engines. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, Vol.51(2015), pp. 382-395.

IRENA.ORG. (2012) http://costing.irena.org/charts/electric-vehicles.aspx: retrieving date 18/10/2015.

CE, Accumateriaal verwerkt, onderzoek naar de milieulast van accu’s voor electrische en hybride auto’s, December 2000

UNEP and the Secretariat of the Basel Convention, Minimizing hazardous wastes: a simplified guide to the Basel convention, September 2002.

UNEP and the Secretariat of the Basel Convention, Technical Guidelines for the Environmentally Sound Management of Waste Lead-acid Batteries, Basel Convention series, SBC No. 2003/9.

Habashi, F. (1997). Principle of Extractive metallurgy. Vol.IV: Lithium. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 1997.

Paulino, J.F., Busnardo, N.G., Afonco, J.C. (2008). Recovery of valuable elements from spent lithium batteries. Journal of Hazardous Materials. Vol.150, 843-849.

Willard W. Pulkrabek (2004). Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engines. Second Edition, Pearson Education, Inc.

J.Dunn, L Gaines, Sullivan, M.Q. (2012). The impact of recycling on cradle to gate energy consumption and green gas emissions of automobile lithium-ion batteries. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 12704-12710.

Olubambi, P.A, Borode, J.O, Sdlovu, S (2006). Sulphuric acid leaching of zinc and copper from Nigerian Complex Sulphide Ore in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metalurgy, Vol.106, 765-770.

ADEBAYO, A.O., IPINMOROTI, K.O., and AJAYI, O.O (2003). Dissolution Kinetics of Chalcopyrite with Hydrogen Peroxide in Sulphuric acid Medium. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly, vol. 17(3), pp. 213–218.

Xia, Z.D., Xie, X.Q., Shi, Y.W., Lei, Y.P., Guo, F. (2008). Recycling cobalt from spent lithium ion battery, Mater. Sci., 2(3): 281–285.

Li J., Zha,O.R., He, X. (2009). Preparation of LiCoO2 cathode materials from spent lithium-ion batteries, Ionics , Springer Berlin,Vol.15,No.1,111-113.

Contestabile, M., Panero, S., Scrosati, B.(1999). A laboratory-scale lithium battery recycling process 1, Journal of Power Sources 83, 75–78.

Nan, J., Han D., Zuo, X. (2005). Recovery of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries with chemical deposition and solvent extraction, Journal of Power Sources 152, 278–284.

N. J. Dudney,1 B. J. Neudecker,1 and J. B. Bates (2015). Rechargeable thin-film batteries with LiMnO2O4 and LiCoO2 cathodes. http://web.ornl.gov/~webworks/cpr/pres/107776_.pdf.

Kang, J., Senanayake, G., Sohn, J., Shin, S.M.(2010). Recovery of cobalt sulfate from spent lithium ion batteries by reductive leaching and solvent extraction with Cyanex 272, Hydrometallurgy 100, 168–171.

Lupi, C., Pasquali, M.: Electrolytic nickel recovery from lithium-ion batteries, Minerals Engineering 16 (2003) 537–542.

Xu, J., Thomas, H.R., Francis, R.W., Lum, K., Wang J., Liang, B, (2008). A review of processes and technologies for the recycling of lithium-ion secondary batteries, Journal of Power Sources 177, 512–527.




ISSN:    1511-788X
E-ISSN: 2289-7860


Creative Commons License
IIUM Engineering Journal by http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/index is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License