Silver nanoparticle biogenically synthesised by Psychotria malayana Jack: Physicochemical, cytotoxic and antimicrobial characterisations
Keywords:silver nanoparticles, P. malayana Jack, flavonoids, cytotoxic, antimicrobial
Introduction: Silver nanoparticles are targeted for antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties to combat antimicrobial resistance and chemoresistance. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle method is widely used because it is environmental-friendly using biological substances as reducing and stabilising agents. Psychotria malayana Jack is rich with a wide range of phytochemicals that able to synthesise silver nanoparticle. Methods: The leaves of P. malayana Jack was extracted with ethanol-water solvent via ultrasound assisted extraction and the extract was analysed using liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The extract was then added to silver nitrate solution for 24 hours. The formation of AgNPs-PM was analysed using UV-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, zeta particle size and zeta potential analysis. The synthesised AgNPs-PM were tested for their cytotoxicity on human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) and human epithelial breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colourimetric assay. For antibacterial activity, the nanoparticles were tested on Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus using disc diffusion method. Results: AgNPs-PM were successfully synthesised using P. malayana Jack extract. LC-MS analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, amino acids and heterocyclic compounds . An attempt in cytotoxic activity test showed that at concentrations between 12.5 µg/ml to 400 µg/ml of AgNPs-PM, no cytotoxic activity was observed. Whereas, in antibacterial assay, 2 mg/ml AgNPs-PM tested on the bacterial strains showed weak inhibition on their growth. Conclusion: AgNPs-PM has been successfully synthesised and characterised. However, the AgNPs-PM possess low bioactivities of cytotoxic and antibacterial activities.
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