Time Perspective, Hope and Self-Regulation among Preparatory Year University Students: Exploring the Connections


  • Iman Osman Mukhtar Ahmed Kulliyyah of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia




Time perspective, Time orientations, Hope, Self-regulation, Foundation students


This study aimed to investigate the relationship between time perspective, hope and self-regulation among foundation year students at a Malaysian public university. A survey questionnaire on the three constructs was completed by 118 Malay students aged between 18 to 21. The findings showed a significant positive correlation between the future time perspective and self-regulation (r = 0.251, p = 0.007). However, the association is a weak one. Likewise, a significant relationship was found between hope and two of the temporal orientations, i.e., the future orientation (r = 0.399, p = 0.001) and the past positive at r = 0.271, p = 0.003., which is also considered a weak relationship. However, no significant association was observed between the past positive time perspective and students’ self-regulation. On the contrary, the past negative and present-fatalistic time orientations have a significant negative relation with hope at r = - 0.308, p = 0.001 and r = - 0.207, p = 0.028, respectively. A similar result was obtained for the association between self-regulation and the PN orientation at r = - 0.290, p = 0.002. It was also found that hope and students’ self-regulation are strongly correlated (r = 0.268, p = 0.004). In essence, the results imply that students with a high future time orientation are likely to have high levels of hope and self-regulation. Therefore, time perspective, especially the future orientation, and self-regulation skills could be important intervention factors for addressing students’ academic obstacles. The findings of this study are beneficial for counselors, educators, and supervisors in designing intervention programs to help students become more positive and optimistic individuals.


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How to Cite

Ahmed, I. O. M. . (2021). Time Perspective, Hope and Self-Regulation among Preparatory Year University Students: Exploring the Connections. IIUM Journal of Educational Studies, 9(3), 80–96. https://doi.org/10.31436/ijes.v9i3.410