The Acceptance of Effeminates During the Prophet’s Time According to the Ḥadīth

Authors

  • Abdul Rasydan Bin Mohamad Rusli Faculty of Quran and Sunnah Studies, Islamic Science University of Malaysia (USIM).
  • Ahmad Sanusi Bin Azmi Faculty of Quran and Sunnah Studies, Islamic Science University of Malaysia (USIM).

Keywords:

sīrah, ḥadīth, effeminates, acceptance of others, transvestites

Abstract

An effeminate is a male who acts in a manner of the opposite sex. The Qurʾān records that acts of homosexuality existed since the era of Prophet Lūṭ PBUH. During Prophet Muhammad’s time, there were effeminates present who lived amongst the Muslim society. The act of transvestism, however, is forbidden in Islam. Allah and His Messenger provided us with guidelines on interacting with such behaviours. Furthermore, Islam also enlightens us on the status of this group of Muslims. Thus, this research explains the ḥadīths of Prophet Muhammad SAW and its directives in relation to effeminates. This research also thoroughly discusses the fiqh of the ḥadīths from the scholars’ point of view. The researchers only discuss ḥadīths that are considered as ṣaḥīḥ and ḥasan. In conducting this research, the qualitative content analysis method was employed. This research will explain the acceptance of Prophet Muhammad PBUH and his companions towards the effeminates. It also elaborates the understanding of the ḥadīths according to the scholars. The researchers found that there are sixteen ḥadīths related to the effeminates, from which fourteen ḥadīths are ṣaḥīḥ and two ḥadīths are ḍaʿīf.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

al-Qurʾān al-Karīm.

Abū Dāwūd, Sulaymān ibn al-Ashʿath. al-Sunan. Beirut: Dar al-Risalah al-‘Alamiyah, 2009.

al-Bukhārī, Muḥammad ibn Ismail. al-Jāmiʿ al-Saḥīḥ al-Musnad al-Mukhtaṣar min Ūmūr Rasūl Allah wa Sunanihi wa Ayyāmihi. Cairo: al-Maktabah al-Salafiah, 2009.

al-Dāruquṭnī, ʿAlī ibn ʿUmar. al-ʿIlāl al-Wāridah fī al-Aḥādīth al-Nabawiyyah. Riyadh: Dar Ibn al-Jawzi, 2006.

al-Mubarākfūrī, Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. Tuḥfat al-Aḥwadhī bi Sharḥ Sunan al-Tirmidhī. Cairo: Dar al-Ḥadīth, 2000.

al-Nawawī, Yaḥyā ibn Sharaf. al-Minhāj Sharḥ Saḥīḥ Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj. Cairo: Muassasah Qurtubah, 1994.

al-Tirmidhī, Muḥammad ibn ‘Isa al-Sulami. al-Jāmiʿ. Beirut: Dar al-Garb al-Islami, 1996.

Ibn al-Jawzī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʿAlī. al-Mawḍūʿāt min al-Aḥādīth al-Marfūʿāt. Riyadh: Adwa’ al-Salaf, 1997.

Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī. Fatḥ al-Bārī fī Sharḥ Saḥīḥ al-Bukhārī. Riyadh: al-Maktabah al-Salafiyyah, 1997.

Ibn Ḥanbal, Aḥmad. al-Musnad. Cairo: Dar al-Hadith, 1995.

Ibn Ḥibbān, Muḥammad al-Tamīmī. Saḥīḥ Ibn Ḥibbān. Beirut: Dar al-Ma’rifah, 2009.

Ibnu Mājah, Muḥammad ibn Yazīd. al-Sunan. Cairo: Dar al-Hadith, 1998.

Michael B. J. & Kiira T, “What many transgender activists don’t want you to know: and why you should know it anyway,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 50, no. 4 (2017): 521.

Muslim, Ibn al-Ḥajjāj al-Naysabūrī. al-Musnad al-Saḥīḥ al-Mukhtaṣar min al-Sunan. Riyadh: Dar Taybah, 2006.

Oxford Learner Dictionaries, “Effeminate,” accessed May 25, 2020. https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/effeminate?q=effeminate.

Rowson, E. K. “The Effeminates of Early Medina.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 111 (4), 671–693. doi: 10.2307/603399

Syed Azharul Asriq. Nabi Lut melawan LGBT, Nabi Syuib melawan kapitalis. Selangor: Must Read Sdn Bhd, 2017.

Downloads

Published

2021-02-17

How to Cite

Abdul Rasydan Bin Mohamad Rusli, and Ahmad Sanusi Bin Azmi. 2021. “The Acceptance of Effeminates During the Prophet’s Time According to the Ḥadīth”. AL-BURHĀN: JOURNAL OF QURʾĀN AND SUNNAH STUDIES 5 (1). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.:39-52. https://journals.iium.edu.my/al-burhan/index.php/al-burhan/article/view/200.

Issue

Section

Articles