AL-BURHĀN: JOURNAL OF QURʾĀN AND SUNNAH STUDIES <p align="justify"><span style="font-family: GentiumAlt; color: #006071;">al-Burhān is a biannual internationally refereed journal which publishes articles in English and Arabic. The journal is managed by the Department of Qurʾan and Sunnah Studies, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences (KIRKHS), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) in collaboration with IIUM Journal Publication Unit, and published online by IIUM Press. The Editorial Committee of the Journal welcomes contributions of papers on any topics related to Qurʾan, Sunnah and Sīrah studies. al-Burhān is intended to provide an avenue for scholars, academics, and researchers from all persuasions and traditions to forward, share and discuss their views, opinions, theories, arguments and all that can adopt the academic language with the purpose of enhancing the discourse of advanced revelation and scriptural knowledge and education. al-Burhān ultimately aims to become one of the leading platforms for knowledge on Islam that will leave a positive impact on the progress of society and the betterment of humanity. The eISSN of al-Burhān is 2600-8386.</span></p> en-US <p align="justify"><strong><span style="color: #c61902; font-family: GentiumAlt;">In general, reusing or reproducing substantial portions of al-Burhān content requires permission. This includes the use of text, figures, tables, multimedia content, and any other material published in any issues of al-Burhān Journal of Qur'an and Sunnah Studies. For some instances, al-Burhān may make its content freely viewable; however, such material may require permission for reuse. To seek permission, please contact the editorial.<br /></span></strong></p> (Editorial Board) (al-Burhan Technical Support) Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 60 THE PROPHET YŪSUF (AS): THE ARCHETYPE OF CHASTITY <p>When Prophet Muḥammad (PBUH) was asked about the noblest person on earth, he responded: “The noble, son of the noble, son of the noble, son of the noble, Yūsuf bin Yaʿqūb bin Isḥāq bin Ibrāhīm.” Born into a house of prophets and messengers—Yūsuf (AS) was destined to carry on the blessed legacy of his noble forefathers. Unlike any other sūrah in the Qurʾān, <em>Sūrah Yūsuf</em> contains the longest sustained story revolving around one personality—Yūsuf (AS). Stories of prophets and messengers are found throughout the Qurʾān, but the story Yūsuf (AS) is concentrated entirely in this <em>sūrah</em>. In addition, the story is presented in a chronological manner highlighting major events in Yūsuf’s (AS) life—from youthhood to prophethood to government. It is important to note that the <em>sūrah</em> contains timeless lessons for all age groups and dynamics. The research presents Yūsuf (AS) as the archetype of chastity and further presents practical lessons for contemporary youth from his noble example.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Zakir Ahmed, Noor Mohammad Osmani Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0800 ISLAMIC ETHICS OF BUSINESS: A MAQĀṢIDIC ANALYSIS <p>Islamic <em>Sharīʽah</em> includes all affairs of human life. An important part of <em>Sharīʽah</em> is related to human transactions. Conducting business is considered an important transaction, which has existed since the beginning of human life and until today. Presently, committing unethical activities in conducting businesses has increased both among Muslims and non-Muslims all over the world. These unethical activities cause a Muslim to lose blessings of Allah <em>Subḥānahū wa Taʽālā</em> (SWT) in his income and make his earnings <em>haram</em>, which leads to unacceptance of his worship by Allah (SWT). It also causes harm to other people. This ultimately will be an important reason for him to be not successful on the Day of Judgment. To make a Muslim successful in this world and the life hereafter, Islam provides rules and guidelines to be followed. Among them are the rules and guidelines for conducting businesses sincerely and righteously. These rules and guidelines are called Islamic ethics of business. These ethics can be divided into two types: first, some attributes which must be possessed by a businessman; second, several forbidden things which must be avoided by him. This paper aims to analytically discuss the second type of these ethics and strives to investigate how committing these forbidden things causes to violate different types of <em>maqāṣid</em> (objectives) of <em>Sharīʽah</em>. An important finding of this research paper is that Islamic ethics of business have been prescribed by Allah (SWT) in a way that they maintain significant balance between <em>dīn</em> and <em>dunyā</em> and cause a Muslim to be successful both in this world and next world. &nbsp;</p> Muhammad Amanullah Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0800 TOWARDS EXPLORING MATHEMATICAL FACTS OF SURAH AL-KAWTHAR, THE SMALLEST CHAPTER OF THE HOLY QUR’AN <p>In this study an attempt for understanding a few mathematical facts of a Qur’anic Chapter (i.e. <em>sūrah</em>) is made. The attempt is the combination of both Abjad and Non-abjad approach. For the purpose of this paper, the 108<sup>th</sup> <em>sūrah</em> of the holy Qur’an- <em>sūrah</em> Al-Kawthar is selected. This is the shortest of the 114 <em>sūrah</em>s of the Qur’an. The main aim is to see whether there is any mathematical patterns in the <em>sūrah</em> that reveals uniqueness of the holy book. A possible analysis is done based on very simple and common mathematical operations such as ‘addition’, ‘subtraction’, ‘multiplication’, and ‘division’. Some astonishing outcomes have been discovered which indicates not only the singularity of the <em>sūrah</em> but also proves the impossibility of any human intervention in the Qur’an. These amazing conclusions are derived by human efforts, which are not conclusive, and the Qur’an al-Karim is not in need of such discoveries to prove that it is a divine sacred text. The main purpose of the Qur’an is to guide all mankind towards a blessed and blissful life in this worldly life and also eternal life in hereafter.</p> HMA Mahzuz Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0800 ENSURING QUALITY EDUCATION IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMNET GOALS FROM QUR’AN AND SUNNAH PERSPECTIVE <p>This research paper seeks to examine the fourth Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) which is to “ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men, and women, achieve literacy and numeracy” in the light of the Qurʾān and Sunnah. Literacy and numeracy skills are essential in achieving quality education and having access to acquire such skills is a fundamental human right. In relation to this, the first revelation to Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, was <em>"iqrāʾ,"</em> which signifies the importance of literacy. In this paper, the Islamic perspective on ensuring quality education is described by employing descriptive and analytical methods. The study provides new insights about ensuring quality education for all youth and adults in light of the Qurʾān and Sunnah. Acquiring knowledge is obligatory in Islam; when individuals have access to quality education, they improve their prospects in all avenues of life. Islam encourages the pursuit of knowledge and its application for the benefit of humanity. Every Muslim must be educated in order to fulfill their duties and obligations to Allah and mankind. Providing equitable access to education for all members of society is a central priority of Islam.</p> Ahmad Amin Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0800 أَسْبَابُ النُزُولِ وَإِشْكَالِية تَارِيخِيةِ النَّصِ القُرْآنِي عِنْدَ الحَدَاثِيِّيِن <p>This research deals with a claim of the modernists that the issue of ‘<em>Asbab al-Nuzul’</em> or the causes of revelation indicate the authenticity of the claim of historical phenomenon of the Qur’an. This is one of the basic modernist claims through which they try to misinterpret the Qur’an. The research refuted this claim, which is originated indirectly from the false assertion that the Qur’anic text is originated from human being, and due to sheer ignorance with the term <em>Asbab Nuzul</em> according to modernist scholars. The researchers adopted an analytical, critical and inductive approach to deal with the issue and refute its unfounded claims with clear proofs by following the foundations of <em>shari`ah</em> and logic. The research reached certain important results, which include that the claim of historicality of the Qur’anic text refutes its sacred status; it contradicts with miraculous, universal and everlasting validity status of the Qur’an. This assertion of modernists would lead to condemnation of the authority of the Qur’anic text and its sacredness which is accepted by all Muslims of the world; it also contradicts with sound reason and logic.</p> Nashwan Abdo Khaled Qaid, Younus Ja`far Baqali Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0800 الأحرف السبعة وعلاقتها بالقراءات القرآنية في المصادر الإسلامية المعاصرة <p>This research aims to discover the interpretation of the Seven Letters and their relationship to the different recitations of the Qur’an according to the contemporary scholars in Qur’anic sciences. Limiting this study to the relationship of the seven letters to the different recitations of the Qur’an is based on the fact that the basis of the debate among scholars on the said issue is the meaning of the letters themselves. Accordingly, the researcher will focus on the issue of the seven letters' relationship to the Qur’anic readings only, regardless of its relation to the history of the revelation, writing, collection, and codification of the Qur’an or its relation to the Arabic dialects. The researcher will rely on what contemporary scholars wrote from their books devoted to the sciences of the Qur’an in general, such as the book "<em>Al Muharrar fi ‘Ulum Al Qur’an</em>" by Dr Musaid Al Tayyar, the book "`<em>Ulum al-Qur’an</em>" by Ibrahim Al-Na`mah, and the book "<em>Min Rawa’i` al-Qur’an</em>" by Dr Muhammad Saeed Ramadan Al-Buti (d. 2013), and others. It will depend on the books devoted to the issue of the seven letters, such as the book "<em>Al-AÍruf al-Sab`ah wa Manzilat al-Qira’at minha</em>” by Dia’ Al-Din ‘Itr (died 2010 AD), and the book “<em>Hadith al-Ahruf al-Sab`ah</em>”: a study of its chain of transmission and its text and the differences of scholars in its meaning and its connection to Qur’anic readings, written by Dr Abdul Aziz Al-Qari. Contemporary scholars are selected based on the hypothesis that there is a difference in the way they explain the subject of the seven letters and their relationship to the Qur'anic readings.</p> <p><strong>Keywords &amp; Phrases</strong>: Seven Ahruf- Qirāʼāt- Sciences of Qur’an- Saeed Ramadan Al-Bouti- Dr Abdul Aziz Al-Qari</p> Md. Ershadur Rahaman Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0800 الدخيل المعاصر على التفسير القرآني وأثره: تفسير المراغي نموذجاً <p>The Qur’anic interpretation of al-Maraghi is regarded as one of the contemporary interpretations that focused on elucidating the meanings of the Holy Qur'an while considering the sentiments of the people and society, as it included many digressions that flowed beyond the limits of Tafsir. So, this study aimed to explain the concept of intrusion based on al-Maraghi's interpretation of the Qur’an al-Karim, and then discover the aspects of intrusion in his interpretation. The researchers adopted two approaches to accomplish these objectives: the inductive methodology, to trace the digressions included in al-Maraghi's interpretation, then the analytical methodology to study and discuss the intrusion aspects of al-Maraghi's interpretation, as well as its impact on his interpretation. The study concluded that al-Maraghi lacks a clear understanding of the intrusion in his interpretation; because once he criticizes other interpreters for digressions in their interpretations, he himself commits the same practice. This was evident through his citation from the previous divine books, his detailed analysis while explaining jurisprudential issues, reviewing scientific terminology and issues, and his discussion of social and political issues, which caused him to divert from the main objective of interpretation and opened the avenues for strange opinions contrary to <em>Ijmāʿ</em>, as well as flexibility in amending Quranic terminology. The most significant result of the study is that the main criterion of interpretation is what the predecessors <em>(Salaf)</em> carried out in their interpretations in clarifying the linguistic meaning of the Quranic verses. Additionally, considering the components that interpreters include in their interpretations as an intrusion does not necessarily mean that there are no benefits in it; rather, it may have many advantages, but only within its field and area of expertise.</p> Maher bin Ghazali, Radwan Jamal Elatrash Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0800 أسس بناء الدعوة الجهرية والتعاطي مع تحدياتها الماثلة <p>واجهت الدعوة الجهرية بالإسلام تحديات في سبيل تعطيل المشروع الإسلامي، ومن حيث التوصيف لها فقد بنيت على أمرين اثنين الجهر بها مع الإعراض عن المعادين للإسلام من أجل إيصال صوت الإسلام لكل الناس، مع استيعاب وفهم ردة أفعالهم تجاهها، لذا كان من الطبيعي أن تنشأ نتيجة لذلك مواقف معادية لرسالة الإسلام، فقد واجهت قريش الدعوة الجهرية بالتعذيب والتفاوض والحصار الاقتصادي وتضييق الخناق على أصحاب الدعوة من أجل إخراجهم من البلاد، وسيحاول البحث مناقشة هذه الأبعاد واستراتيجية النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في معالجة هذه المسألة، ولقد وردت هذه الحيثيات في مواضع عديدة في القرآن الكريم كما يتضح من خلال بناء محاور الدراسة، وانتهج البحث المنهج الاستقرائي لمحاولة لملمة أطراف الموضوع من المصادر ذات الصلة، والمنهج التحليلي لفهم مداخلة الموضوع ونتائج المعالجات التي تبناها النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم من أجل استيعاب التحديات وإيصال رسالة الإسلام لمن عارضها وصد عنها، وتتمثل أهمية الموضوع في أنه بناء استراتيجي في سبيل الدعوة إلى الله وكيفية التعامل مع مناهضي رسالة الإسلام عبر الزمان والمكان باعتبار أن أي تحدي يواجه الإسلام والدعوة إليه في مقبل الأيام والسنين لا بد فيه من الاهتداء بأسس مواجهة التحديات في الجهر بالدعوة الإسلامية، وهذا ما يبين مشكلة البحث بقدر تبيينه لأهميته، واشتمل البحث على محاور منها: مفهوم وأسس الدعوة الجهرية، التحديات الماثلة للدعوة الجهرية، الدعوة في الواقع المعاصر تحدياتها وسبل التعاطي معها.</p> <p>الكلمات المفتاحية: الجهرية – التحديات – التعاطي - الأبعاد الاستراتيجية.</p> Ahmed El-Mogtaba Bannga Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0800 مشكلة البطالة عند الشباب الأفغاني وسبل علاجها في ضوء السنة النبوية <p><a name="_Toc99018683"></a><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>This research aims to study the problem of unemployment among young people in Afghanistan and ways to solve it in light of the Sunnah of the Prophet. This phenomenon is a major problem for the Afghan people. The Sunnah of the Prophet charted the best approach in solving the phenomenon of unemployment. The problem of unemployment was addressed through general and special guidelines and principles. Among the general prophetic instructions in this regard are; the prohibition of charity on the rich or the one who is able to work, and the pursuit of a halal livelihood. Among the special prophetic directives in addressing this problem are, encouragement to work, urging certain crafts and professions. The research adopted the inductive methodology for collecting texts from authors, relevant sources, and references. The research also followed the analytical method to analyze the field study results, which aimed to get the experts opinions from university professors and other professionals. The study sample was conducted in Afghanistan and consisted of 173 participants (168 males and 5 females) and data were collected using a questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed through the technique of SPSS. The study concluded with several results, the notable of which include the following: Among the main reasons for the rise in unemployment are the ending of the ongoing wars and pursuing the real Afghan peace plan, which came in the first place with 88.6%. Secondly, the Agricultural development and economy stands with 87.4%. Thirdly, the tourism industry and its role in job creation stands at 77.6%. In light of these results, the Sunnah of the Prophet recommends the effective measures to solve the problem of unemployment; such as job placement, trade, agriculture, adopting various occupations. This is to ensure safety, happiness, and a blessed life for all; to save religion, belief, and morality from possible threats; and to preserve the individual, the family, and society from the corruptions and vices that unemployment may create in life. In light of all this, the study recommends directing students to the suitable disciplines that possess high demand in the job market. The study also recommends that the training centers need to invent useful programs and offer outstanding qualifications that correspond to the needs of the job market.</p> Abdul karim Wasimi, Nashwan Abdo Khaled Qaid Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0800 KNOWLEDGE, SINCERITY AND EXCELLENCE <p><strong>EDITORIAL: </strong></p> <p>Knowledge is an excellent gift of Allah SWT for mankind and jinn. All humankind compete each other in achieving excellence. This is a natural process. From the Day One of human creation, Allah SWT gifted Adam, peace be upon him, with all needed knowledge, skills and names. Human superiority was established by Allah SWT through excellent knowledge skills which the Angels were not gifted with. Hence Allah SWT commanded all angels to show their respect towards Adam by prostrating before him. All of them immediately obeyed the command of Allah except Iblis, who showed arrogance and pride against Adam, and did not obey the command of Allah SWT. Hence, he was cursed and expelled from the Heavens.</p> <p>This shows that knowledge alone does not guarantee success. Sincerity is an indispensable criterion in learning knowledge and achieving excellence in the present life and the life hereafter. Iblis had pride in his nature, and believed that he was the supreme creation of Allah SWT, and all other creation should show signs of respect towards him. How could he bow down before a man of clay! His arrogance led him to be strayed.</p> <p>Undoubtedly, the knowledge brings us closer to Allah SWT, leads us to success in all our jobs. Knowledge confirms honour and dignity in our life. True knowledge will ultimately save us from the Hell-fire. (Qur’an, al-Mulk 67:10). A knowledgeable person and un-knowledgeable person can never be equal. The learned ones would realize the signs of Allah and devote their life and time to secure the ultimate pleasure of Allah SWT. (Qur’an, Zumar 39:9). Allah praised the knowledgeable people by saying that the learned ones alone are truly conscious of their Lord. (Qur’an, Fatir 35:28).</p> <p><strong>A man who denounced the Signs of Allah</strong></p> <p>In <em>Surah al-A`raf</em> (9: 175-177), Allah SWT recorded the evil behavior of an extremely unlucky man, who was gifted with abundance of knowledge from his Lord, received all favors from Allah SWT, but at the end of his journey in life, he succumbed to Satanic temptations, and surrendered to the temporal worldly gains, destroying his eternal blissful life in Hereafter. By knowledge, he was fully aware that eternal life in Hereafter was awaiting him, and worldly life could never be compared with eternal life. This knowledge and abundance of divine favors did not save him. Allah SWT resembled him like a dog panting and breathing quickly out of search for eating and fulfilling sexual thirsts.</p> <p>This is the beauty of Qur’an that Allah SWT does not mention the specific names of the corrupt people, who were destroyed and became the slaves of Satan and temptations rejecting the divine favors. Now, the Qur’anic interpreters named him as <strong>Bal`am bin Ba`ura’</strong>, a man during the time of the Prophet Moses, peace be upon him, who was said to be gifted with ‘<em>Mustajab ad-da`wah’</em>, means, all his prayers were immediately answered by Allah SWT.</p> <p>Other scholars named <strong>Umaiyyah bin Abi as-Salt</strong> (d. 5AH), as the man intended in the <em>ayah</em>. He was from Ta’if, a poet philosopher, a believer in Allah SWT in <em>Jahiliyyah</em> [pre-Islamic phase], never worshipped idols, a great scholar of that time, who had the knowledge of previous divine books and all existing knowledge. All his writings and poetries support <em>Tawhid</em>, oneness of Allah SWT. He knew that there will come a final Prophet, and expecting by heart to be that promised prophet. When he came to know that Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, already started mission in Makkah, he became upset and jealous. His earlier belief in oneness of God, and profound knowledge did not save him. His pride and internal desire to be a prophet destroyed him. The prophets were chosen by Allah SWT alone, not based on someone’s desire and expectation.</p> <p><strong>A Qur’anic scribe turned apostate</strong></p> <p>In an authentic <em>hadith</em> in Bukhari (n. 3617) and Muslim (n. 2781), it is narrated by Anas bin Malik, may Allah SWT be pleased with him, that a Christian man from Bani Najjar accepted Islam, who had the knowledge of the previous divine books. He learnt and memorized <em>Surah al-Baqarah</em> and <em>Aal ‘Imran</em> from the Qur’an, which made him a respectable person from among the companions of the Prophet. He was assigned the job of scribe or writer of the Qur’anic revelation. Later he turned apostate and joined his Christian folks. Not only that, he claimed that Muhammad did not know anything except what he wrote for him. By this claim, he became famous to his Christian folks. When he died and graved, the earth threw his dead body out of the surface. They tried to put him onto different graves a second and third time, but again he was thrown out. This shows that the man rejected the <em>aayat</em> of Allah SWT which he learnt, and falsely publicized against the Prophet and the Qur’an. He was immediately punished by the earth, and the punishment in Hereafter is more severe awaiting for all anti-Qur’anic people.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Anti-Qur’anic people in the current age</strong></p> <p>Not only the time of Prophet Moses or Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon them, the chain of the people who denounce the signs of Allah, after they were gifted with it, prolong day after day. There are people who do not want to believe in Allah SWT, or do not want to accept Prophet Muhammad as the Final messenger of Allah, or there are plenty of them who denounce the divine <em>shari`ah</em> as a whole or part of it, or try to insert their false interpretation to the Qur’anic <em>aayat</em> and <em>shari`ah</em>, and assert that this should be changed from time to time.</p> <p><strong>Mirza Gulam Ahmad Qadiyani (1835-1908)</strong></p> <p>Born in Qadiyan of Punjab in a religious family, was a religious devotee, well educated, had profound knowledge of the Qur’an and strong influence on the masses. At the age of 50, when he noticed that the people respect him wholeheartedly, he declared to be ‘Promised Messiah’ and ‘Awaited Mahdi’. He also declared to be the Prophet of his time. His profound knowledge alone could not save him. Ultimately, succumbed to personal desires, positions, name and fame and sacrificed his religion for worldly gains. Astonishingly, his graveyard was named by his blind followers as <em>‘Beheshti Maqbarah’</em> [Gardens of Heaven Graveyard]. If they were aware of unseen information of <em>al-Ghayb</em>, and what the false prophet of Qadiyan was facing in his <em>‘alam al-Barzakh</em> [intermediate world between <em>dunya’</em> and Hereafter], they could have named it the opposite.</p> <p><strong>Rashad Khalifa (1935-1990)</strong></p> <p>Born in Egypt, an Egyptian American scientist, from a religious Sufi family, migrated to America in 1959 to further his education. He settled there. To teach his daughters the Qur’an, he attempted to translate the Qur’an. Then he discovered the miraculous number 19 in the Qur’an. He computed the whole Qur’an and propagated the numerical miracles in the Qur’an. He received due recognition and warmth welcome from all over the Muslim world. This made him proud. Then his satanic desires took over, claimed to be the promised Prophet for whom Allah SWT has taken pledge or <em>Mithaq</em> from all prophets. (Qur’an, Aal ‘Imran 3: 81). His profound knowledge did not lead him to guidance. Rather it led him to worldly achievements for which he destroyed his eternal life in hereafter, which Allah SWT has informed to all mankind through all divine Prophets. At the end, he was killed in 1990 by an Afro-American man.</p> <p>It is evident that knowledge alone will not lead one to success. Allah SWT loves His slaves to mark excellence in the field of knowledge and science with humility. Intention should be pure to serve humanity in order to secure pleasure of Allah SWT. If satanic temptations overpower us, we get proud, and the pride may lead us to ultimate destruction.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Noor Mohammad Osmani</strong></p> <p>Editor-in-chief</p> <p>December 2022</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Dr. Noor Mohammad Osmani Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0800