The Authenticity of Saʿd Ibn Muʿādh’s Judgment: A Response to Contemporary Critics

Authors

  • Fajri Matahati Muhammadin Department of International Law, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
  • Muhammad Jasir Nashrullah Independent Researcher

Keywords:

hadith, sirah, authenticity, sanad, matan

Abstract

Many may wonder why it is necessary to write about the authenticity of such a famous incident recorded in perhaps all books of sīrah and tārīkh. It has been well over a thousand years since Saʿd ibn Muʿādh passed his judgement on Banū Qurayẓah following the Battle of Khandaq; all fighting men should be executed, the women and children should be enslaved. It is perhaps hard to imagine that someone would even question whether such an incident did in fact occur. However, the 20th century witnessed a challenge posed by some contemporary scholars suggesting that Saʿd ibn Muʿādh’s judgement had never happened. If this claim bears any amount of truth, it may be considered as a new revolutionary opinion that has eluded numerous generations of Muslim scholars. This article examines the claim of these contemporary scholars and limits itself to what can be analysed by the means of ʿulūm al-ḥadīth (ḥadīth criticism). While the critics have discussed various aspects about the entire Banū Qurayẓah campaign, this article focuses entirely on the judgment of Saʿd ibn Muʿādh. Two aspects are examined: sanad (chain of narration) and matn (text). The study has discovered that the narration concerning Saʿd ibn Muʿādh’s judgement is indeed authentic and the critics may have missed significant points in passing their judgments.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ahmad, B. (1979). Muhammad and the Jews: A Re-Examination. Vikas Publishing House.

Akkad, M. (1976). The Message. Tarik Film Distributors.

al-Ashfahani, A. N. (n.d.). Hilyatul Auliya. Pustaka Azzam.

al-Baghdādī, ʿAlī ibn Thābit al-Khaṭīb. (2001). Tārīkh Madīnah al-Salam wa Akhbar Muḥaddithiha wa Dhikr Quttaniha al-ʿUlamā’’ min Ghayr Ahliha wa Waridiha’ (Vol. 2). Dar al-Gharb al-Islami.

al-Bukhārī, M. ibn I. (1414). Sahih al-Bukhari (Vol. 1). Dar Ibn Kathir.

al-Bukhārī, M. ibn I. (1997a). Sahih al-Bukhari (Vol. 5). Darussalam.

al-Bukhārī, M. ibn I. (1997b). Sahih al-Bukhari (Vol. 8). Beirut.

al-Bukhārī, M. ibn I. (1997c). Sahih al-Bukhari (Vol. 4). Darussalam.

al-Bukhārī, M. ibn I. (1997d). Sahih al-Bukhari (Vol. 6). Darussalam.

al-Dawoody, A. (2015). al-Sarakhsi’s Contribution to the Islamic Law of War. Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law, 14, 29.

al-Dhahabī, M. ibn A. ibn ʿUthmān I. (1382a). Mīzān al-I’tidāl (Vol. 3). Dār al-Ma’rifah li al-Thibā’ah wa al-Nashr.

al-Dhahabī, M. ibn A. ibn ʿUthmān I. (1382b). Mīzān al-I’tidāl (Vol. 1). Dar al-Ma’rifah li al-Thiba’ah wa al-Nashr.

al-Dhahabī, M. ibn A. ibn ʿUthmān I. (1405a). Siyar Aʿlām al-Nubalā’ (Vol. 10). Mu’assasah al-Risalah.

al-Dhahabī, M. ibn A. ibn ʿUthmān I. (1405b). Siyar Aʿlām al-Nubalā’ (Vol. 7). Mu’assasah al-Risalah.

al-Dhahabī, M. ibn A. ibn ʿUthmān I. (1405c). Siyar Aʿlām al-Nubalā’ (Vol. 12). Mu’assasah al-Risalah.

al-Dhahabī, M. ibn A. ibn ʿUthmān I. (1405d). Siyar Aʿlām al-Nubalā’ (Vol. 14). Mu’assasah al-Risalah.

al-Dhahabī, M. ibn A. ibn ʿUthmān I. (1419). Tadhkirah al-Huffādh (Vol. 1). Dar al-Kutub ’Ilmiya.

al-Dhahabī, M. ibn A. ibn ʿUthmān I. (1422a). Siyar Aʿlām al-Nubalā’ (Vol. 5). Mu’assasah al-Risalah.

al-Dhahabī, M. ibn A. ibn ʿUthmān I. (1422b). Siyar Aʿlām al-Nubalā’ (Vol. 9). Mu’assasah al-Risalah.

al-Dhahabī, M. ibn A. ibn ʿUthmān I. (1422c). Siyar Aʿlām al-Nubalā’ (Vol. 6). Mu’assasah al-Risalah.

al-Dhahabī, M. ibn A. ibn ʿUthmān I. (1422d). Siyar Aʿlām al-Nubalā’ (Vol. 4). Mu’assasah al-Risalah.

al-Dhahabī, M. ibn A. ibn ʿUthmān I. (1422e). Siyar Aʿlām al-Nubalā’ (Vol. 11). Mu’assasah al-Risalah.

al-Dhahabī, M. ibn A. ibn ʿUthmān I. (1422f). Siyar Aʿlām al-Nubalā’ (Vol. 8). Mu’assasah al-Risalah.

al-Jarjānī, ʿAbd Allah ibn ʿAdī. (1988). al-Kāmil fī Ḍuʿafā’ al-Rijāl (Vol. 6). Dar al-Fikr.

al-Maḥallī, J. al-D., & al-Suyūṭī, J. al-D. (2007). Tafsīr al-Jalālayn (G. bin M. ibn Talal (ed.)). Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought.

al-Mubarakfuri, S. (1996). The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Noble Prophet. Dar-us-Salam Publications.

al-Munajjid, M. S. (2006). Faḍl al-Ṣaḥābah Riḍwān Allah ʿAlayhim. Islamqa.Info. https://islamqa.info/ar/answers/83121/فضل-الصحابة-رضوان-الله-عليهم

al-Nasāʾī, A. ’Abd A.-R. (2007a). Sunan al-Nasāʾī (Vol. 5). Darussalam.

al-Nasāʾī, A. ’Abd A.-R. (2007b). Sunan al-Nasāʾī (Vol. 4). Darussalam.

al-Naysābūrī, M. ibn al-Ḥajjāj. (2007). Sahih Muslim (Vol. 5). Darussalam.

al-Qardhawi, Y. (2010). Fiqih Jihad. Mizan.

al-Qaththan, S. M. (2005). Pengantar Studi Ilmu Hadits. Pustaka al-Kautsar.

al-Qurthubi, S. I. (2015). Tafsir al-Qurthubi (Vol. 14). Pustaka Azzam.

al-Shammarī, F. ibn F. (n.d.). Ṣaḥīḥ Akhbār Ṣiffīn wa al-Nahrawān wa-ʿĀmm al-Jamāʿah (Vol. 1). Dar al-Kutub ’Ilmiyah.

al-Shathri, S. bin N. (1426). Sharḥ al-Manẓumatu al-Saʿdiyah Fî al-Qawāʿid al-Fiqhiyyah (2nd ed.). Dar Kanuz Ishbiliya.

al-Sijistānī, A. D. S. ibn al-A. (2008a). Sunan Abū Dawud (Vol. 3). Darussalam.

al-Sijistānī, A. D. S. ibn al-A. (2008b). Sunan Abū Dawud (Vol. 5). Darussalam.

al-Ṭabrānī, A. al-Q. S. ibn A. (n.d.). Muʿjam al-Ṣaghīr (Vol. 1). Dar al-Kutub al-’Ilmiyyah.

al-Ṭabarī, M. ibn J. (1378a). Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī (Vol. 2). Dar al-Turath.

al-Ṭabarī, M. ibn J. (1378b). Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī (Vol. 1). Dar al-Turath.

al-Tirmidhī, M. ibn ʿĪsā al-S. (2007). Jami al-Tirmidhi (Vol. 3). Darussalam.

al-Zayd, Z. bin ʿAbd al-K. (2004). Muqaddimah fī al-Qānūn al-Duwalī al-Insānī fī al-Islām. The International Committee of the Red Cross, Kuwait Delegation.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (n.d.). al-Iṣābah Fī Tamyīz al-Ṣaḥābah (Vol. 7). Dar al-Kutub al-’Ilmiyyah.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (1326a). Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (Vol. 9). Dā’irah al-Maʿārif al-Niẓamiyah.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (1326b). Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (Vol. 4). Dā’irah al-Maʿārif al-Niẓamiyah.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (1326c). Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (Vol. 3). Dā’irah al-Maʿārif al-Niẓamiyah.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (1326d). Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (Vol. 6). Dā’irah al-Maʿārif al-Niẓamiyah.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (1326e). Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (Vol. 7). Dā’irah al-Maʿārif al-Niẓamiyah.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (1326f). Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (Vol. 1). Dā’irah al-Maʿārif al-Niẓamiyah.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (1326g). Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (Vol. 10). Dā’irah al-Maʿārif al-Niẓamiyah.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (1326h). Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (Vol. 8). Dā’irah al-Maʿārif al-Niẓamiyah.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (1326i). Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (Vol. 11). Dā’irah al-Maʿārif al-Niẓamiyah.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (1379a). Fatḥ al-Bārī fī Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (Vol. 7). Dar al-Ma’rifah.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (1379b). Fatḥ al-Bārī fī Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (Vol. 11). Dar al-Ma’rifah.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (1390). Līsān al-Mīzān (Vol. 4). Mu’assasah al-A’lami li al-Mathbu’at.

al-ʿAsqalānī, I. Ḥajar. (1406). Taqrib al-Tahdhib. Dar al-Rashid.

Alajmi, A., & El-Sharawy, M. (2010). The Examination of Isnād Validity in Early Islamic History Sources: “Sa’d ibn Mu’ādh’s Judgment of Banū Qurayẓa” as a Case Study. Anaquel de Estudios Árabes, 21, 7–34.

Ali, H. (2012). Omar (series). MBC Group.

Amrullah, H. A. A. (n.d.). Tafsir al-Azhar (Vol. 4). Pustaka Nasional PTE Ltd.

Arafat, W. N. (1976). New Light on the Story of Banū Qurayza and the Jews of Medina. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 108(2), 100–107.

As-Sallabi, ʿAli Muhammad. (2007a). ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb: His Life and Times (N. al-Khattab (trans.); Vol. 1). International Islamic Publishing House.

As-Sallabi, ʿAli Muhammad. (2007b). ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān: Dhun Noorayn (N. Khattab (trans.)). Darussalam.

As-Sallabi, ʿAli Muhammad. (2010). ’Ali ibn Abi Tālib (N. al-Khattab (trans.); Vol. 1). International Islamic Publishing House.

Donner, F. M. (1980). Barakat Ahmad. Muhammad and the Jews: A Re-Examination. Review of Middle East Studies, 14(1), 43–44.

Ghouri, S. A. M. (2015). Asas-Asas Berinteraksi Dengan al-Sunnah al-Nabawiyyah. Darul Syakir Enterprise.

Ghouri, S. A. M. (2017). Pengenalan Ilmu Mustalah al-Hadith. Darul Syakir Enterprise.

Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Y. I. ʿAbd A. (1412). al-Istî’āb fi Ma’rifah al-Aṣḥāb (Vol. 2). Dar al-Jayl.

Ibn Athīr, ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad. (1417). al-Kāmil fi al-Tārīkh (Vol. 6). Dar al-Kitab al-ʿArabi.

Ibn Ḥanbal, A. (1421). Musnad Imām Aḥmad (S. al-Arnawth (Taḥqīq) (ed.); Vol. 10). Mu’assasah al-Risalah.

Ibn Isḥāq, M. (1998). The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ihsaq’s Sirat Rasul Allah. Oxford University Press.

Ibn Kathīr, I. (1408). al-Bidāyah wa al-Nihāyah (Vol. 3). Dar Ihya al-Turath al-ʿArabi.

Ibn Katsir, I. (2016a). Shahih Tafsir Ibnu Katsir (S. al-Mubarakfuri (ed.); Vol. 4). Pustaka Ibnu Katsir.

Ibn Katsir, I. (2016b). Shahih Tafsir Ibnu Katsir (S. al-Mubarakfuri (ed.); Vol. 7). Pustaka Ibnu Katsir.

Ibn Mājah, M. ibn Y. (2007). Sunan Ibn Mājah (Vol. 3). Darussalam.

Ibn Rushd. (2000). The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer (I. A. N. Khan (trans.); Vol. 1). Garnet Publishing.

Ibn Saʿd, M. (1994). Ṭabaqāt al-Kubrā (Vol. 2). Dar al-Fikr.

Iffah, U. (2016). Pandangan Orientalis Terhadap Sunnah: Telaah Kritis atas Pandangan Goldziher. Jurnal Kontemplasi, 4(1), 195–216.

Islam, M. A., & Hamzah, M. O. U. (2016). Respect for the Dead: From The Perspective of International Humanitarian Law and Islam. The International Committee of the Red Cross.

Kirazli, S. (2019). Re-Examining the Story of Banū Qurayẓah Jews in Medina with a Reference to the Account of Ibn Isḥāq. Australian Journal of Islamic Studies, 4(1), 1–17.

Maḥmūd, ʿAbd al-Ghanī ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd. (2000). Ḥimāyah Ḍaḥāyā al-Nizāʿāt al-Musallaḥah fī al-Qānūn al-Duwalī al-Insānī wa al-Sharīʿah al-Islāmiyyah. The International Committee of the Red Cross, Cairo Delegation.

Maurer, P. (2016). International Conference on Islam and IHL - Statement by the ICRC. ICRC. https://www.icrc.org/en/document/speech-icrc-president-international-conference-islam-and-ihl

Mohd Kamal, M. H. (2019). Principles of Distinction, Proportionality and Precautions under the Geneva Conventions: the Perspective of Islamic Law. In B. U. Khan & M. J. H. Bhuiyan (Eds.), Revisiting the Geneva Conventions: 1949-2019. BRILL and Martinus Nijhoff.

Muhammadin, F. M. (2019). Did Saʿd ibn Muʿādh Apply Jewish Law to Banū Qurayẓah? UGM Staff Web. http://fajrimuhammadin.staff.ugm.ac.id/2019/12/09/did-sad-ibn-muadh-apply-jewish-law-to-Banū-qurayẓah/

Munir, M. (2010). Debates on the Rights of Prisoners of War in Islamic Law. Islamic Studies, 49(4), 463–492.

Munir, M. (2011a). Some Reflections on the Story of Banū Qurayzah: A Re-Evaluation of Ibn Ishaq’s Account. Islamabad Law Review, 1(2), 7–28.

Munir, M. (2011b). The Protection of Civilians in War: Non-Combatant Immunity in Islamic Law. Hamdard Islamicus, 34(October-December), 7–39.

Nemoy, L. (1982). Barakat Ahmad’s" Muḥammad and the Jews". The Jewish Quarterly Review, 72(4), 324–326.

Noor, U. M. (2019). Did al-Bukhari Act Upon Dha’if Hadith? UGM Staff Web. https://fajrimuhammadin.staff.ugm.ac.id/2019/12/06/did-al-bukhari-act-upon-dhaif-hadith/

Rahman, M. S. (2016). Kajian Matan dan Sanad Hadits dalam Metode Historis. Jurnal Ilmiah al-Syir’ah, 8(2).

Saad, J., & Rabiu, A. A. (2019). Assessing Goldziher’s Claim of Fabrication of Hadith by the Companions of the Prophet. al-Burhān: Journal of Qurʾan and Sunnah Studies, 3(2), 34–51.

Downloads

Published

2021-02-17

How to Cite

Muhammadin, Fajri Matahati, and Muhammad Jasir Nashrullah. 2021. “The Authenticity of Saʿd Ibn Muʿādh’s Judgment: A Response to Contemporary Critics”. AL-BURHĀN: JOURNAL OF QURʾĀN AND SUNNAH STUDIES 5 (1). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.:17-38. https://journals.iium.edu.my/al-burhan/index.php/al-burhan/article/view/169.

Issue

Section

Articles