ما بعد الإنسان وما بعد الإنسانوية: مقدمة في المفاهيم الاتجاهات النقدية
(Posthuman and Posthumanism: An Introduction to Concepts and Critical Trends)
This paper presents an overview of posthumanism that offers a revision of modern humanist discourse. This movement is based on Western ideas that have formed since the Enlightenment and have focused on human dignity and human centrality in the universe. Posthumanism finds faults in the humanist discourse that have led to unforeseen consequences such as wars, exploitation of Third World peoples, abuse of women’s rights, East-West dichotomy and racism. The paper focuses on three general trends within posthumanism; critical philosophical, biological, and technological trends. The first, critical philosophical trend, addresses theoretical and critical foundational issues such as the influence of feminism, cultural studies and postcolonialism on the philosophical framework of posthumanism. The second, biological trend, places humans in their biological context to reform their perceptions on the roles of humans on planet Earth with other creatures. The third, technological trend, focuses on the effect of technology on humans in various fields such as communication and medicine, and examines the relation between humans and technology and how humanity can achieve its next evolutionary jump because of technology. The paper also highlights the role of literature and the function of criticism in these three trends of posthumanism.
Key words: Posthumanism, humanism, criticism, feminism, postcolonialism, technology.