VISUAL FUNCTIONS IN PEDIATRICS, ADULTS AND ELDERLY IN BANDAR INDERA MAHKOTA, KUANTAN, PAHANG: A COMPARISON STUDY
Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the comparison of visual acuity, color discrimination ability, stereopsis and pupil responses in pediatrics, adults and elderly.
Methodology: Fifteen pediatrics (mean age: 7.40 Â± 1.99 years old), fifteen adults (22.67 Â± 1.03) and fifteen elderly (64.20 Â± 3.35) that live in Bandar Indera Mahkota, Kuantan were enrolled in this study. Their visual acuity, color discrimination and stereopsis were assessed using logMAR chart, Farnsworth D-15 (percentage of correct caps arrangement) and TNO stereo test respectively. Their pupil reflexes (mm) in both photopic and scotopic condition, and rates of pupil responses which are velocity from mydriasis to miosis (mm/s) were measured using Oculus Keratograph 5M.
Results: There are significant reduction in visual acuity, color discrimination ability and stereopsis in elderly group (p< 0.05). It is also revealed that elderly had diminished pupil reflexes in scotopic condition and reduced pupil velocity compared to adults and pediatrics (p< 0.05). However, for pupil reflexes in photopic condition (miosis), there are no significant difference between pediatrics, adults and elderly (p> 0.05).
Conclusion: This study indicates that visual acuity, color discrimination ability and stereopsis are inversely proportional to increase of age which might be due to physiological lenticular deterioration and changes in cortical activity which induced by changes in levels of neurotransmitters. Diminished pupil responses in old age might be caused by senile miosis which mediated by reduction in sympathetic input. These age-related physiological changes will cause reduction in quality of life of elderly and affect their mobility.