Antibiofilm effect of Theobroma cacao (cacao pod) extract on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans biofilm in vitro
Keywords:Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, biofilm, cacao pods
Successful of periodontal treatment is to eradicate biofilm of bacteria. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative bacterium that have been suggested to be the main causes of periodontal disease. Theobroma cacao (cacao pod) is a medicinal plant that has a broad range of pharmacological effects. The aim of this study was to assess the antibiofilm effect of cacao pod extract against A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilm in vitro. A. actinomycetemcomitans were cultured in Brain Heart Infusion broth. Crystal-violet staining in biofilm assays were used to evaluate the cacao pod extract effect on A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 33384 biofilms and 0.2% chlorhexidine-gluconate was used as a positive control. After 24 hours of incubation, the optical density of each well in microtiter plates was measured. The results showed that the biofilm density after incubation with the cacao pod extract was significantly decreased in all concentrations and all incubation times (p<0.05). The most effective concentration for inhibiting biofilm A. actinomycetemcomitans was 100% cacao pod extract and 3 hrs of incubation time (p<0.05) with a 98.9% reduction of biofilm compared to negative control. Cacao pod extract is effective in inhibiting the growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilm.