IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs <p><a href="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/../pub/kuantan/public/site/images/dr_azlini/a-scientific-journal-published-by-iium-press.png"><strong>IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences </strong></a>(IJOHS) is a <strong>peer-reviewed bi-annual (February and July Issues, from 2021 onwards) international journal</strong> dedicated to publish high quality of scientific research in the field of orofacial sciences, health sciences and interdisciplinary fields, including basic, applied and clinical research.</p> <p>IJOHS is an <strong>open-access journal with NO processing fee and NO publication charges</strong>.</p> <p>IJOHS welcomes the following type of submissions;</p> <ul> <li><em> review articles</em></li> <li><em>original research articles</em></li> <li><em>case reports</em></li> <li><em>technical reports</em></li> <li><em>letter to the editor</em></li> </ul> <p>Areas that are covered include but are not limited to;</p> <ul> <li><em> dental sciences</em></li> <li><em>oral microbiology and immunology</em></li> <li><em>oral maxillofacial and craniofacial surgery and imaging</em></li> <li><em>dental stem cells and regenerative medicine</em></li> <li><em>dental biomaterial</em></li> <li><em>oral maxillofacial genetic and craniofacial deformities</em></li> <li><em>dental public health</em></li> <li><em>health sciences</em></li> </ul> <p><strong>Peer Review Process: </strong>Double-blind</p> <p>Each submission will go through this process:</p> <ul> <li><em>Technical, content, and plagiarism screening</em></li> <li><em>Double-blind review</em></li> <li><em>Revision by the author if required</em></li> <li><em>Editor screening/decision</em></li> <li><em>Acceptance and publication</em></li> </ul> <p><strong>Publisher</strong></p> <p>IIUM Press</p> <p>International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)</p> <p><strong>Copyright Notice</strong></p> <p>The IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences follows the Open Access policy.<br /><br />All articles published with open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read, download, copy, and distribute.<br /><img src="https://journals.iium.edu.my/pub/kuantan/public/site/images/dr_azlini/cc.png" alt="" width="88" height="31" /></p> <p>IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences at <a href="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/index">https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/index</a> is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.<br /><br />Please read through our policies at the following link prior to submission:<br /><a href="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/ethicalstatement">IJOHS Publication Ethics</a><br /><a href="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a><br /><a href="https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/about/privacy">Privacy Statement</a></p> en-US zainulrajion@iium.edu.my (Professor Dr. Zainul Ahmad Rajion) dr_azlini@iium.edu.my (Assoc. Prof. Ts. Dr. Azlini Ismail) Mon, 31 Jul 2023 17:56:16 +0800 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Full mouth rehabilitation of young adults with oligodontia: Two case reports emphasizing implantology, prosthodontics, and restorative intervention https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/167 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Oligodontia, a severe form of hypodontia characterized by the absence of multiple permanent teeth, presents considerable challenges in dental treatment. Successful management of this condition requires early detection and a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach. While the complete restoration of missing teeth is typically postponed until all permanent teeth have erupted or after orthodontic therapy, it is crucial to consider additional factors such as the patient's oral hygiene status, socioeconomic circumstances, and long-term maintenance therapy for achieving optimal treatment outcomes. This case reports showcase the effective treatment of oligodontia in two young male patients: a 17-year-old Chinese individual and a 19-year-old Caucasian individual. These cases serve to emphasize the significance of early diagnosis, multidisciplinary collaboration, and personalized treatment planning in addressing the challenges posed by oligodontia. Although orthodontic intervention was not pursued in the presented cases, it is important to recognize its integral role in the overall treatment of oligodontia. The restoration of missing dentition has a profound positive impact on aesthetics, function, and the overall quality of life. The presented cases underscore the importance of early intervention and sustained motivation throughout the treatment process. By emphasizing the value of early detection, comprehensive teamwork, and individualized treatment approaches, clinicians can strive to achieve optimal outcomes for patients with oligodontia.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Chu Seng Boon, Huay Shuan Ooi Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/167 Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Digital and clinical approach to quantifying periodontal tissue changes after crown lengthening surgery: A case series pilot study https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/196 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Crown lengthening surgery is a common periodontal procedure carried out to increase the amount of tooth exposure for aesthetic or restorative purposes. It is crucial for clinicians to understand the effect of crown lengthening surgery on the periodontal tissues to prevent relapse or over treatment. Even though various clinical parameters have been used by researchers in the past to quantify the amount of suprastructure exposed, the use of digital technology has not been widely adopted. The aim of this case series was to evaluate the changes in periodontal tissue after crown lengthening surgery with both clinical and digital approaches. This case series included five patients who underwent surgery at the Postgraduate Periodontics Clinic at the University of Otago over the period of six months. Clinical parameters such as probing depth, gingival recession, keratinised tissue height, plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation, crown height, gingival phenotype, and bone height were measured with a customised probing stent at baseline and 1-, 3-, and 6-month post-surgery. Digital impressions were also taken along with the clinical parameters to measure the volumetric changes. Most significant changes were observed in crown exposure, gingival recession and bone levels, followed by probing depth reduction for treated sites. Minimal changes were seen for the width of keratinised tissues, plaque levels and gingival scores. Volumetric changes were only significantly reduced after 6 months of healing. This case series found that crown lengthening resulted in an increase in tooth exposure and a reduction in tissue volume. Volumetric changes measured through sequential digital impressions were also comparable to clinical findings.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Rayner Goh, Samantha C. Smith, Momen Atieh, Andrew Tawse-Smith Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/196 Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Dentinogenic ghost cell tumour: A case report https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/193 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>A 23-year-old Malay female patient presented with a history of pain and swelling over right maxilla. Imaging showed a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with areas of radiopacity in the right maxilla. The lesion was initially thought to be a unicystic ameloblastoma. However, histopathology of the excised lesion proved otherwise with a final diagnosis given as dentinogenic ghost cell tumour. The clinical presentation of the case, subtypes of DGCT, similarities with ameloblastoma, and treatment modalities are discussed in this paper.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Adelaide Kwong Jifang, Ramizah Rozaimee Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/193 Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Prosthetic rehabilitation on patient with orbital defect: A customised approach https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/207 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Loss of eye leads to significant psychological trauma which necessitate rehabilitation. Restoring eye defects with prostheses will uplift psychological status of such patients by re-establishing the facial structures and appearance, eventually returning them to their normal life. Even though prefabricated orbital prostheses are available, the lack of proper fitting indirectly affect comfort and aesthetics. Custom-made orbital prosthesis is still preferred due to its conformity which correspond to individual defect and the ability for shade personalization. This article elaborates the technique of fabrication of a custom-made orbital prosthesis in giving a life-like appearance to the patient.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Rostam Iffendi Idris, Tengku Fazrina Tengku Mohd Ariff Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/207 Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Demographic of orthognatic cases seen in Kulliyyah of Dentistry IIUM https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/199 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Orthognathic treatment is a combination of orthodontics and surgery, aimed to restore functional occlusion and the facial aesthetics. KOD orthognathic team has been established since 2018. There was no published demographic profile of the orthognathic patients referred. This study aimed to enumerate the demographic data and correlations for the orthognathic cases seen in KOD, IIUM from 2018 until December 2020. A total of 28 patients were referred for consultation. One patient was excluded as no referral letter was attached. Data were obtained from patients’ case notes, photos and study models. Data collected were then categorized into patients’ demographic profiles, clinical features, patients’ psychological status and treatment. The demographic pattern and correlations were analysed using SPSS version 25.0. Out of 27 patients, most patients were females (66.7%), Malay (55.6%) and within the age group of 21 to 30 years old (44.4%) and originated from Pahang (88%). Majority of patients presented with Class III skeletal base discrepancy (66.7%), facial asymmetry (76.0%), increased vertical dimension (51.9%), shifted chin point (83.3%), Class III incisal relationship (70.4%), reversed overjet (70.4%), reduced overbite (56.0%) and crossbite (77.7%). Significant relationships were found between skeletal base discrepancy with incisal relationship, overjet, crossbite, canine relationships and right molar relationship. 57.1% agreed to orthognathic surgery, 32.1% opted for orthodontic treatment alone whilst 10.7% refused any treatment. It is hoped that this baseline demographic data may aid in the management and resource planning for this team in the future.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> Noraini Abu Bakar, Nur Arafiqah Amat, Siti Hajjar Nasir Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/199 Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 The effect of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis biofilm formation: A preliminary study https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/204 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</em> are Gram-positive and lactic acid-producing bacteria. Meanwhile, <em>Candida albicans </em>and <em>Candida tropicalis </em>are opportunistic fungi that cause oral candidiasis. This study aimed to determine the effect of LGG on the biofilm formation of <em>C. tropicalis </em>and<em> C. albicans </em>with the hypothesis that LGG inhibits the biofilm of the yeasts. C. albicans ATCC MYA-4901 and C. tropicalis ATCC 13803 were standardised to 1x106 cells to form a mono-species biofilm. <em>L. rhamnosus </em>GG (LGG) was standardised to 1x10<sup>7</sup> cells, equivalent to absorbance 0.5 at OD620nm. The microorganisms were cultivated in nutrient broth in a 96-well plate and incubated at 37°C for 24 h and 48 h. Co-culture biofilm was developed by combining <em>Candida </em>spp. with LGG in the same well at a similar concentration as the mono-culture. Crystal violet assay was conducted to assess the biofilm biomass with absorbance measured at OD<sub>620nm</sub> wavelength. After 24 hours, polymicrobial biofilms of <em>C. albicans</em> with LGG decreased by 37.1 ± 9.2%. At 48 hours, it further decreased to 44.7 ± 5.9%. For <em>C. tropicalis</em>, co-culture biofilms with LGG decreased by 16.3 ± 5.9% and 35.7 ± 7.6% after 24 h and 48 h incubation, respectively. LGG<em> significantly reduced C. albicans biofilm compared to C. tropicalis</em> (<em>P&lt;</em>0.05). In conclusion, LGG has antibiofilm activity against <em>C. albicans </em>and <em>C. tropicalis. </em>However, further study is needed to conclude the effect against other species strains.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Aalina Mohd Fuad, Wan Nur Akma Wan Mazlan, Ridhwan Abdul Wahab, Nurrul Shaqinah Nasruddin, Mohd Hafiz Arzmi Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/204 Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Prevalence and orthodontic management of missing permanent maxillary lateral incisor at a referral centre in Sabah https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/212 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>This was a cross-sectional study of the prevalence and orthodontic management of developmental missing permanent maxillary lateral incisor of patients referred for orthodontic treatment from year 2010 to 2020. The dental records of written case notes, radiographs, and study models that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected using systematic sampling and were assessed retrospectively. Sample were taken from every five dental records. Dental records that did not fulfil the inclusion criteria were substituted. Data taken were the demographic data, side of the missing maxillary lateral incisor, and the orthodontic management. All variables were analysed descriptively. The differences between orthodontic open space and orthodontic close space with respect of unilateral and bilateral missing permanent maxillary lateral incisor were tested using Fisher’s exact test. From the total of 291 samples, there were 11 (3.78%) patients presented with missing permanent maxillary lateral incisor. The mean age of the patients was 17.46 ± 1.52 years. All 11 patients were females. There were six (54.55%) patients presented with bilateral missing permanent maxillary lateral incisor, while five (45.45%) were unilateral. From the unilateral group, there were three (27.27%) patients presented with right side missing permanent maxillary lateral incisor. Six (54.55%) patients were treated with orthodontic open space, while five (45.45%) patients were treated with orthodontic close space. In conclusion, the prevalence of missing permanent maxillary lateral incisor was 3.78%. All patients were females. More patients presented with bilateral missing permanent maxillary lateral incisor. The treatments provided were orthodontic open space and orthodontic close space.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Jin Han Lee Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/212 Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Molecular docking study of hyaluronic acid against interleukin-6 (7DC8 protein) in COVID-19 patients with periodontitis https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/219 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new disease caused by a <em>coronavirus</em>, namely SARS-CoV-2. This virus was entered inside the host by angiotensin-converting enzyme receptors (ACE2). Recent evidence suggests that sulcus fluid in the periodontal pockets of patients with periodontitis may be a source of SARS-CoV-2 and a potential reservoir for increasing oral viral load in patients with confirmed COVID-19. ACE-2 is expressed in stratified squamous epithelium mainly on the dorsal tongue and gingiva. The gingival sulcular epithelium is the entry point for SARS-CoV-2 into the periodontal pocket epithelium through the<em> gingival crevicular fluid </em>(GCF). Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a high molecule of heavy polysaccharide (<em>glycosaminoglycan</em>) which has several functions, such as anti-inflammatory and accelerated wound healing. It could decrease the levels of several cytokines. This study aims to analyze the interaction of HA against the IL-6 coronavirus receptor in periodontitis through a molecular docking study using MOE 2015.10 software with IL-6 receptor (7DC8) as the protein model to predict the binding of HA with 10 poses. The 7DC8 protein was prepared by adding charge and the validation method was performed with RMSD &lt;2Å which indicates this method is valid. The results of this study showed that there are interaction between HA and the IL-6 receptor via amino acid residue interaction at the Leucine 98 (bond energy -0.7 kcal/mol), Serine 52 (bond energy -1.7 kcal/mol), Glycine 53 (bond energy -1.5 kcal/mol), and Glycine 299 (bond energy -1.6 kcal/mol). HA has an interaction with coronavirus at the IL-6 receptor of periodontitis based on <em>molecular docking</em> study and can potentially be used as a therapeutic option in COVID-19 with periodontitis. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid has the potential as an anti-inflammatory drug of choice in COVID-19 patients with periodontitis.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Ade Ismail, Syafirudin Aulia Azhar Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/219 Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Anti-MRSA activity of Stereospermum fimbriatum’s stem bark extracted using subcritical and supercritical carbon dioxide https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/221 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Antibiotic resistance is a major challenge in healthcare, and this is further worsened by the presence of the dreadful Methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA) infection. This has urged scientists to find new effective antimicrobial drugs. Earth is enriched with natural resources such as plants that have been used traditionally to cure diseases. <em>Stereospermum fimbriatum</em> or “Chicha” had been used traditionally to treat several illnesses such as stomachache, earache, itchy skin, and postpartum illness. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the antibacterial potential of <em>S. fimbriatum’s </em>stem bark against MRSA. Subcritical (Sub-CO<sub>2</sub>) and supercritical carbon dioxide (Sup-CO<sub>2</sub>) extractions were used to extract the stem bark, with and without the addition of co-solvent (ethanol). The antimicrobial assay was carried out using disc diffusion (200, 400 and 600 µg/disc), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests. There was no anti-MRSA activity observed on both the Sub-CO<sub>2</sub> and Sup-CO<sub>2 </sub>extracts without 10% ethanol. The most potent anti-MRSA was observed by the Sup-CO<sub>2 </sub>extract with 10% ethanol with the MIC value of 500 µg/mL. Therefore, the use of ethanol (10 %) in the extraction increased the antibacterial activity of the <em>S. fimbriatum</em>’s extract against MRSA. These research findings could potentially facilitate future investigations into the utilization of green extraction methods to uncover promising antibacterial agents that can effectively target MRSA, a formidable pathogen. Future studies on the other parts of <em>S. fimbriatum</em>, its potential toxicity, and the possible mechanisms of action are needed to investigate its promising therapeutic values on MRSA infections.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Anis Fadhlina, Hassan Ibrahim Sheikh Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/221 Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Pressurised putty technique: A technical report https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/215 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>The surface detail reproducibility of conventional putty impressions is hindered by high viscosity and low flowability. In the plastic industry, injection moulding application utilizes an influx of pressure to achieve better flowability. Leveraging this concept, this technical report investigated the impact of pressure on surface detail reproducibility and structural homogeneity, featuring the pressurised putty technique. Surface detail reproducibility and structural homogeneity of three techniques (non-pressurised, putty &amp; light body wash and pressurised) were visually assessed and differences in surface detail reproducibility were observed among all techniques. Whilst a pressurised clear-based putty index presented a more uniform glassy finish. The outlined technique suggests a simplistic and cost-effective way of improving a putty index, which may benefit many clinicians in terms of prosthodontic success.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Joshua Ee Xin Ong Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/215 Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Application of 2017 new classification of periodontal diseases and conditions: A commentary https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/246 Mohd Nor Hafizi Mohd Ali Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/ijohs/article/view/246 Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800