Orthodontic pain – the state of the evidence


  • Joo Ming Cheong Department of Orthodontics, Kulliyyah of Dentistry, International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Siti Marponga Tolos Department of Computational and Theoretical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia




orthodontics, pain, pain perception, pain management


Pain is a common side effect of orthodontic treatment. An understanding of its mechanism, implications and subsequent management is essential for any orthodontist to improve patient compliance and satisfaction with treatment. This paper provides a comprehensive review and state of the evidence on orthodontic pain from the viewpoint of clinicians and patients – clinical features, its pathways, factors influencing pain perception, and finally the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of orthodontic pain.



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How to Cite

Cheong, J. M., & Tolos, S. M. . (2022). Orthodontic pain – the state of the evidence. IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences, 3(2), 203–211. https://doi.org/10.31436/ijohs.v3i2.155