Fabrication of Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) post and core using indirect digitalisation technique


  • Nurul Jannah Zulkefle Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, 47000, Sungai Buloh Selangor & Ministry of Health, Malaysia
  • Nor Faharina Abdul Hamid Centre of Restorative Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, 47000, Sungai Buloh Selangor
  • Tengku Fazrina Tengku Mohd Ariff Centre of Restorative Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, 47000, Sungai Buloh Selangor
  • Zuryati Ab Ghani School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150 Kota Bharu Kelantan, Malaysia




computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, core, post


The advancement of digital technology in dentistry signifies an opportunity for the clinician to explore novel techniques in fabricating post and core. Conventional custom-made post and core is constructed in the laboratory with very limited material either gold, nickel-chromium or cobalt-chromium. Apart from higher modulus elasticity compared to dentin, the colour of the conventional custom-made post and core was also unaesthetic making it inferior to be used with all ceramic crown. This article describes post and core fabrication technique using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology with acrylic resin pattern build-up and indirect digitalisation method. The same procedure for custom-made metal post and core was adopted in this case to capture the anatomical shape of the root canal before digital technology was incorporated in the fabrication of post and core manufacture using CAD/CAM. With the CAD/CAM approach, an increased in quality, productivity, workflow efficiency and consistency of prosthetic rehabilitation may be obtained. It also enables clinicians to fabricate post and core using tooth colour material with better physical properties and improved mechanical qualities to achieve the best result in restoring endodontically treated teeth.


3Shape (2013). 3Shape Releases CAD Solution for Post and Core Restorations. Retrieved 17 July 2013, from https://www.3shape.com/en/press/2013/cadsolution-for-post-and-core-restorations

Akkayan, B. and T. Gülmez (2002). Resistance to fracture of endodontically treated teeth restored with different post systems. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 87(4), 431-437.

Alghazzawi, T. F. (2016). Advancements in CAD/CAM technology: Options for practical implementation. Journal of Prosthodontic Research, 60(2),72-84.

Ausiello, P., Rengo, S., Davidson, C. L. and Watts, D. C. (2004). Stress distributions in adhesively cemented ceramic and resin-composite Class II inlay restorations: a 3D-FEA study. Dental Materials, 20(9),862-872.

Awad, M. A. and Marghalani, T. Y. (2007). Fabrication of a custom-made ceramic post and core using CAD-CAM technology. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 98(2),161-2.

Bittner, N., Hill, T. and Randi, A. (2010). Evaluation of a one-piece milled zirconia post and core with different post-and-core systems: An in vitro study. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 103(6),369-379.

Eid, R., Juloski, J., Ounsi, H., Silwaidi, M., Ferrari, M. and Salameh, Z. (2019a). Fracture resistance and failure pattern of endodontically treated teeth restored with computer-aided design/computeraided manufacturing post and cores: A pilot study. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, 20(1), 56-63.

Eid, R. Y., Koken, S., Baba, N. Z., Ounsi, H., Ferrari, M. and Salameh, Z. (2019b). Effect of fabrication technique and thermal cycling on the bond strength of CAD/CAM milled custom fit anatomical post and cores: an in vitro study. Journal of Prosthodontics, 28(8), 898-905.

Fokkinga, W. A., Kreulen, C. M., Le Bell-Rönnlöf, A. M., Lassila, L. V., Vallittu, P. K. and Creugers, N. H. (2006). In vitro fracture behavior of maxillary premolars with metal crowns and several postand-core systems. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 114(3),250-256.

Fraga, R., Chaves, B., Mello, G. and Jr, J. S. (1998). Fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots after restoration. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation (11),809-813.

Garcia, P.P., da Costa, R.G., Garcia, A.V., Gonzaga, C.C., da Cunha, L. F., Rezende, C.E.E., and Correr, G.M. (2018). Effect of surface treatments on the bond strength of CAD/CAM fiberglass posts. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry, 10(6), 591-7.

Gonzaga, C. C. and Correr, G. M. (2017). CAD/CAM postand-core using different esthetic materials: Fracture resistance and bond strengths. American Journal of Dentistry,30(6),299-304.

Kalyoncuo?lu, E., Ural, Ç., H. Aydemir, H., Aslan, M. A. and Balkaya, V. (2015). Effect of 1-piece post and core fabrication techniques on fracture strength. Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials, 13(3),253-258.

Kanduti, D., Korat, L., Kosec, T., Legat, A., Ovsenik, M., Kopa?, I. (2021). Comparison Between Accuracy of Posts Fabricated Using a Digital CAD/CAM Technique and a Conventional Direct Technique. International Journal of Prosthodontics, 34(2): 212-220.

Khaledi, A., Sheykhian, S. and Khodaei, A. (2015). Evaluation of retention of two different cast postcore systems and fracture resistance of the restored teeth. Journal of Dentistry Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 16(2),121-128.

Libonati, A., Di Taranto, V., Gallusi, G., Montemurro, E. and Campanella, V. (2020). CAD/CAM customized glass fiber post and core with digital intraoral impression: a case report. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry, 12,17-24.

Machado, J., Almeida, P., Fernandes, S., Marques, A., and Vaz, M. (2017). Currently used systems of dental posts for endodontic treatment. Procedia Structural Integrity, 5,27-33.

Manhart, J. (2009). Fiberglass reinforced composite endodontic posts. Endodontic Practice, 16,6-20.

Martinez-Insua, A., Da Silva, L., Rilo, B. and Santana, U. (1998). Comparison of the fracture resistances of pulpless teeth restored with a cast post and core or carbon-fiber post with a composite core. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 80(5),527-532.

Mattison, G., Delivanis, P., Thacker, R. and Hassel, K. (1984). Effect of post preparation on the apical seal. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 51(6),785-9.

Morgano, S. M. and Brackett, S. E. (1999). Foundation restorations in fixed prosthodontics: Current knowledge and future needs. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 82(6), 643-657.

Abdul Hamid N. F., Ahmad R. (2022). Computer-aided Design/Computer-aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) machines with scanning and milling capabilities for fabricating custom posts and cores: a narrative review. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences, 18(2),1-7.

Oguz, B. A., Egilmez, F., Ergun, G. and Cekic, I. N. (2019). Surface treatment effects on bond strength of CAD/CAM fabricated posts to root canal dentin. American Journal of Dentistry, 32(3): 113-117.

Pang, J., Feng, C., Zhu, X., Liu, B., Deng, T., Gao, Y., Li, Y. and Ke, J. (2019). Fracture behaviors of maxillary central incisors with flared root canals restored with CAD/CAM integrated glass fiber post-andcore. Dental Material Journal, 38(1),114-9.

Pinto, A., Arcuri, L., Carosi, P., Nardi, R., Libonati, A., L. Ottria, L. and V. Campanella, V. (2017). In vitro evaluation of the post-space depth reading with an intraoral scanner (IOS) compared to a traditional silicon impression. Oral & Implantology ,10(4), 360-368.

Pontius, O. and Hutter, J. W. (2002). Survival rate and fracture strength of incisors restored with different post and core systems and endodontically treated incisors without coronoradicular reinforcement. Journal of Endodontics, 28(10),710-715.

Shofu. (2017). SHOFU Block, SHOFU Disk HC Ceramic Based Aesthetic CAD/CAM Restorative. Retrieved 6 July 2021, from https://www.shofu.de/wpcontent/uploads/2017/03/SHOFU-Block-HCBRO-UK-2017-03.pdf.

Sipahi, C., Toksoy, F., Ayyildiz, S. and Özcan, M. (2011). Effect of physical and physicochemical surface treatment methods on the tensile strength of CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia posts and cores luted to root canals. The International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, 31(5),64-67.

Soares, L. P., de Souza, P. G., Garcia, C. and Barino, B. (2014). Designing a custom-made post and core using CAD/CAM technology’s CEREC system. Canadian Journal of Restorative Dentistry & Prosthodontics, 7(3),40-48.

Spina, D. R. F., da Costa, R. G., Correr, G. M. and Rached, R. N. (2018). Scanning of root canal impression for the fabrication of a resin CAD-CAM-customized post-and-core. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 120(2),242-245.

Streacker, A. B. and Geissberger, M. (2007). The milled ceramic post and core: A functional and esthetic alternative. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 98(6), 486-487.

Ting-shu, S. and Jian, S. (2015). Intraoral digital impression technique: a review. Journal of Prosthodontics, 24(4),313-321.

Vinothkumar, T. S., Kandaswamy, D. and P. Chanana, P. (2011). CAD/CAM fabricated single-unit allceramic post–core–crown restoration. Journal of Conservative Dentistry, 14(1),86-89.

Yuzbasioglu, E., Kurt, H., Turunc, R. and Bilir, H. (2014). Comparison of digital and conventional impression techniques: evaluation of patients’ perception, treatment comfort, effectiveness and clinical outcomes. BMC Oral Health, 14(1),1-7.

Zahnfabrik, V. (2021). Vita Enamic. Product specifications. Retrieved 6 July 2021, from http://vikadent.lt/download/vita/VITA_1780E_ENAMIC_PS_EN_V02.pdf




How to Cite

Zulkefle, N. J. ., Abdul Hamid, N. F., Tengku Mohd Ariff , T. F. ., & Ab Ghani, Z. (2022). Fabrication of Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) post and core using indirect digitalisation technique . IIUM Journal of Orofacial and Health Sciences, 3(2), 212–218. https://doi.org/10.31436/ijohs.v3i2.139