• Razuana Rahim University of Malaya
  • Raja Shazrin Shah Raja Ehsan Shah Galaxy Tech Solutions (KL) Sdn Bhd
  • Sarina Sulaiman International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Ramli Abd Rahman Department of Environment Malaysia


CO2 emission, printing process, cleaner production audit, cleaner production options, carbon emission pinch analysis


In this study, Cleaner Production (CP) strategy and Carbon Emission Pinch Analysis (CEPA) were used to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission generated in printing industry. CP audit was conducted in a printing premise to quantify the consumption of materials and energy, waste generated and other aspect such as safety and productivity. The amount of CO2 emission generated from the operations and activities in the premise was estimated to identify key issues. Subsequently, CP options were identified to overcome the issues. Feasibility studies were conducted for each option identified to evaluate the reduction of CO2 emission and monetary returns. The study revealed that a total of 0.8 kg CO2 emission was generated per kg of paper processed, where electricity consumption was the main contributor. A total of eight CP options were identified and evaluated to reduce CO2 emission generated from the electricity consumption and solid waste generation. Implementations of the suggested CP options are expected to potentially reduce the CO2 emission to 0.7 tons CO2/kg of processed paper, which is a reduction of 78%. The CEPA study also demonstrated that a saving of 211,194 kWh/month of electricity and a reduction of CO2 emission of 141.5 tons/month (68%) from the total emission of 209 tons/month could be achieved. There are four CP options can be implemented without any cost incurred, with expected CO2 emission reduction of 96.5 tons/month. Hence, the case study proves that it is possible to reduce CO2 emission in printing premise by implementing CP and CEPA.


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How to Cite

Rahim, R., Raja Ehsan Shah, R. S. S., Sulaiman, S., & Abd Rahman, R. (2023). CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION USING COMBINED CLEANER PRODUCTION STRATEGY AND CARBON EMISSION PINCH ANALYSIS IN AN OFFSET PRINTING PLANT. Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering Journal (Formally Known As Biological and Natural Resources Engineering Journal), 7(1), 100–111. Retrieved from