Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering Journal (Formally known as Biological and Natural Resources Engineering Journal) <p><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Introduction</span></strong>: </p> <p>Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering Journal (Formally known as Biological and Natural Resources Engineering Journal) keeps researchers with current and the latest developments in chemical and natural resources-based product as well as the related engineering fields that push the product from the bench to the commercial scale. It is indeed a multidisciplinary research which blends scientists and engineers and promotes hand-in-hand collaboration. The Chemical And Natural Resources Engineering Journal will cover areas such as Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering, Molecular Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Materials, Green Nanotechnology, Bioprocess Engineering, Biomanufacturing, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Food Engineering, Sustainability, Circular Economy, and Green Energy. A manuscript undergoes a double-blind review process. </p> <p>The <em>Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering Journal</em> publishes full-length articles, short communications and welcomes review articles in the fields mentioned above especially those highlighting the latest technology.</p> <p> </p> en-US <p>Copyrights of all materials published in&nbsp;<em>Biological and Natural Resources Engineering Journal&nbsp;</em>are held exclusively by the Journal and their respective author/s. Any reproduction of material from the journal without proper acknowledgment or prior permission will result in the infringement of intellectual property laws.&nbsp;If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the Author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article.</p> (ASSOC. PROF. IR. DR SARINA SULAIMAN) (CNREJ) Wed, 26 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 60 OCCURRENCE AND DIVERSITY OF INDIGENOUS MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN DIFFERENT SUDAN SOILS USING SORGHUM [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] AS A HOST PLANT <p>The mutual relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plants is ancient. However, there are some environmental factors, which affect the occurrence and diversity of this relationship. This study was conducted to investigate the indigenous AMF occurrence and diversity indices at six sites (two sites from Gezira, two from Sennar and one from each of Gedarif and North Kordofan States) which represent four geographical locations in the Sudan in 2016. Three rhizosphere samples from sorghum were taken from each site to estimate soil physical and chemical properties, total spores density, invalid spores percentage and root colonization to evaluate their roles in AMF occurrence and diversity. Results showed that the average total spores density ranged from 418 /100g soil at Gedaref to 1781 /100g soil at North Kordofan. The highest invalid spores percentage was found at Gedaref (21.5%) and the lowest at North Kordofan (12.5%). Root colonization percentage ranged from (11.3%) at Gedaref to (32.1%) at North Kordofan. There was a highly positive correlation between root colonization percentage and total spores density, invalid spores and sand percentage. A highly negative correlation existed between root colonization percentage on one hand and CEC, clay percentage and soil pH on the other hand. Twelve genera and 26 species were morphologically identified and two species were not identified. <em>Rhizophagus, Glomus, Claroideogloms, Funneliformis, Acaulospora, Scutellospora</em> and <em>Entrophospora</em> were dominant genera at all sites. However, <em>Septoglomus</em> and<em> Ambispora </em>were normally distributed genera and <em>Gigaspora</em>, <em>Scelerocystes</em> and<em> Dentiscutata</em> were rare genera. Diversity index detected a normal diversity and richness except for Gedarif having a lower diversity index, and the situation was reversed for North Kordofan, having a higher diversity index. It could be concluded that AMF occurrence and diversity were affected by soil chemical and physical properties. It is recommended to add AMF inoculums to heavy clay soils to increase spore density.</p> Ahmed K. H. Mohammed Ali, Lubna Mohamed Musa Mohamed, Mohamed A. M. Adlan Copyright (c) 2023 Biological and Natural Resources Engineering Journal Wed, 26 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 MODULATION OF THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BOVINE COLLAGEN SCAFFOLD USING VARIATION OF FABRICATION TEMPLATE <p>Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are evolving towards utilising biomaterial or scaffold to regenerate tissue or organ. Scaffold plays a crucial role in the tissue or organ regeneration thus a study for the characterisation for the collagen scaffold need to be carried out. In this study, purified collagen was extracted from bovine tendon legs then the scaffold was fabricated using freeze drying method. The collagen scaffold was dehydrothermally treated and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde and followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. From DSC analysis, the glass transition temperature, Tg for the sample in small pan with dimension 8.5cm×8.5cm×4cm is 60?C and 145?C for both without and with 1.0% glutaraldehyde crosslink respectively. The glass transition temperature for small pan is high which means that it is strong and rigid. Strong and rigid scaffold is needed in order to withstand the harsh condition within human body for the case of intestinal regeneration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy are other techniques that can be used to further characterise collagen scaffold for its surface morphology also for its functional groups.</p> Nur Amnatasha Amerai Khan, Munira Shahbuddin, Mohd Fauzi Busra Copyright (c) 2023 Biological and Natural Resources Engineering Journal Wed, 26 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO AND CUCUMBER UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS <p>Organic fertilizers are derived mainly from animal matter, human excreta or crop residues, while chemical fertilizers are defined as any inorganic material of wholly or partially synthetic origin, that is added to the soil to sustain plant growth. This study was designed to compare between a commercial organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizers and their effects on growth and yield of tomato and cucumber under greenhouse conditions . The experiment was conducted in the cropping season of 2016/2017 at the University of Gezira. The experiment consist of four treatments viz. control , inorganic fertilizers, organic fertilizers (commercial organic fertilizer,<em> Elkhaseeb</em> ,of only cow manure) and a combination between organic and inorganic fertilizers. The soil of the experimental site is a riverain silt loam soil .The experiment for the two vegetable crops was arranged in a split plot design with three replications, and two factors, commercial &nbsp;organic fertilizer (OM) and chemical fertilizers (MN) which include nitrogen in the form of urea and phosphorus in the form of triple superphosphate. Foliar fertilization of micronutrients with Ca and B, was used for all treatments. Commercial organic fertilizer: OM &nbsp;was added at the rate of 15 tons /ha and nitrogen was added as urea at 86 kg/ha (2N) . Phosphorus was applied as triple superphosphate at 43 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha (1P). &nbsp;Tomato seedlings of cultivar Termis were transplanted on the ninth of February,2017 whereas cucumber seeds, variety Leader were planted on &nbsp;the first of February,2017.The results showed that the effect of combination of&nbsp; inorganic fertilizers and organic fertilizers is significantly higher than application of either fertilizer alone. The combination resulted in 417.65 kg /ha of tomatoes and 823.53 kg / ha of cucumber. Application of the commercial organic fertilizer alone gave 261.4kg / ha in tomatoes, while in cucumber it gave732.03 kg /ha. Inorganic fertilizers alone gave 256.84 kg/ha in tomatoes and 447.7kg/ha in cucumber. This lead to a recommendation that application of combined fertilizers (organic+ inorganic) is the best practice for tomato and cucumber under greenhouse conditions, than any of the two fertilizers alone. &nbsp;</p> Rania E. Mohamed, Lubna Mohamed Musa Mohamed, Eltayeb. M Abdelmalik Copyright (c) 2023 Biological and Natural Resources Engineering Journal Wed, 26 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 OPTIMIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FREE AND CROSS-LINKED ENZYMES AGGREGATE FROM SOLID-STATE FERMENTED MATERIALS <p>The fermentation process is well known which can lead to a selective strain that produces a large-scale optimum enzyme. In this study, the enzymes used were thermophilic resistant and obtained from solid-state fermented material. However, another technique was approached in this research to obtain higher stability of enzymes. Cross-linked Enzyme Aggregate (CLEA) technology was applied to provide higher tolerance of enzymes under harsh industrial environments. The enzymes assayed were protease, cellulase, xylanase, and pectinase. Maximizing the extraction of enzymes and optimizing the overall process before the immobilization was significant. Moreover, free, and immobilized enzymes were characterized to evaluate their stability and reusability. While the face-centered central composite design (FCCCD) under the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the immobilized enzymes. The influence of independent parameters i.e., the concentration of (precipitant) acetone, (cross-linker) glutaraldehyde, and (additive) bovine serum albumin, (BSA) were studied. This was followed by the further characterization of free and CLEA enzymes based on the optimum pH and temperature rooted in the stability and reusability of CLEA enzymes. Overall, the result obtained from optimization showed that CLEA-enzymes have a high recovery at 60% glutaraldehyde, 60% acetone, and 2.25mg/ml BSA for all the selected enzymes. In conclusion, the results gained from the characterization of free and immobilized enzymes showed higher resistance at a temperature of 60°C for free enzymes and 65°C for CLEA-enzymes. On the other side, the pH value was found at pH 8 for protease, xylanase, and pectinase, and pH 7 for cellulase. The application of CLEAs influenced the pH value, where pH 10 for xylanase and protease, pH9 for pectinase, and cellulase had the same pH of 7 as the free and immobilized cellulase.&nbsp; Overall, the activity was found to be 28.24% after six cycles.</p> S. Hadj arab, MD. Alam, F.Yusof, A.A.M Elgharbawy Copyright (c) 2023 Biological and Natural Resources Engineering Journal Wed, 26 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 THE EFFECT OF ACID MODIFICATION ON ADSORPTION OF ORTHO-NITROPHENOL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY MULTI WALL CARBON NANOTUBES AND CONICAL CARBON NANOFIBERS: CHARACTERIZATION, MODELLING AND PERFORMANCE <p>This study examined the absorption of ortho-nitrophenol onto Conical carbon nanofibers (CCNFs) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MCNTs). The properties of the CNTs and CNFs were analyzed using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller for surface area analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The study investigated the effectiveness of hydrochloric acid-activated the surface of both CNTs and CNFs in removing 2-NitroPhenol ions from an aqueous solution. The Central-Composite design of RSM was employed to study the impact of solution pH, agitation speed, adsorption time, and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption process and then optimize these parameters for the removal of 2-NP. The results of the optimization revealed that the best conditions for removing 2-Nitro Phenol were pH 6.6, for 68.0 minutes, at 80 rpm agitation and 108mg of absorbent. Additionally, the effect of the initial concentration was evaluated, and the adsorption capacity of the nano-activated carbon adsorbents was calculated. The study found that multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a high surface area are more effective than Conical carbon nanofibers (CCNFs) in reducing 2-NP from an aqueous solution, making MWCNTs a potentially useful material in the fight against environmental pollution.</p> Hamza Asmaly, Nassereldeen Kabbashi, MD Zahangir Alam, Ma’an Al-Khatib, Adam Sulaman Copyright (c) 2023 Biological and Natural Resources Engineering Journal Wed, 26 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 A REVIEW ON ROSMARINIC ACID RICH EXTRACT FOR SKIN REGENERATION THROUGH RAPAMYCIN SIGNALING PATHWAY <p>Rosmarinic acid is a phenolic compound procured from the species of the Boraginaceae and the Lamiaceae subfamily Nepetoideae. Rosmarinic acid has numeral of biologically stimulating properties. Rosmarinic acid is a chemical constituent which is a major compound found in <em>Orthosiphon aristatus</em> leaves and it is about 5-10% w/w in the ethanolic extract of the leaves. The skin is the largest organ of a human body and it is frequently impacted by a variety of environmental conditions, such as skin infections, skin oxidation, wounds, UV radiation exposure and skin aging. In both physiological and pathological conditions, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) / protein kinase B (AKT) enzyme aids in the preservation and repair of the epidermis, dermis, and hair follicles layer of the skin. PI3K/Akt manages cell proliferation, differentiation, migration as well as angiogenesis and metabolism. This review paper compiles, summarizes and considers on skin regenerative and wound healing.</p> Rosnani Hasham, Nagainthini Maniarasu, Khairunadwa Jemon, Nurriza Abd Latif, Hasnah Bahari Copyright (c) 2023 Biological and Natural Resources Engineering Journal Wed, 26 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 HALALAN TOYYIBAN FLANKED BY RELIGION, REGULATION AND GLOBALIZATION <p><strong>ABSTRACT: </strong>Nowadays food production and nutrition are among the biggest challenges. Globalization has drawn attention to inequalities in access to food and issues of food quality. It has also increased awareness about the importance of healthy and sustainable production of safe and wholesome nutrition. The Islamic term ‘Halal’ means ‘fit’ or ‘proper’ and signifies foods conforming to Muslim dietary law. <em>Halalan Toyyiban</em> products are subject to elaborate Islamic law, rules that have warranted the new products globalization regulations. Kosher stands as mandatory for Jew's dietary law almost the same as halal for Muslims. The growing importance of food quality and safety standards in international markets is influencing the production and marketing conditions of farmers worldwide. This article shows how halal regulation works in the traditional and new biotechnology used in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and medicinal products. The existing studies on halal production of foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and regulation have emerged mostly from within business studies and the food sciences, the broader institutional picture and the personal relationships between certifiers and businesses that frame these procedures are not yet fully understood in some places or for some products. However, based on empirical research and interaction with traditional and modern biotech companies, food producers, slaughterhouses, and governmental organisations and authorities, in Malaysia, one may be able to provide and guarantee that when Malaysian governmentality warrants a product as ‘halal’ and thereby helps to format standardise the market.</p> Mohamed Elwathig Saeed Mirghani, Amal Elgharbawy, Babatunde, Wan Syibrah Hanisah Wan Sulaiman Copyright (c) 2023 Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering Journal Wed, 26 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800 CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION USING COMBINED CLEANER PRODUCTION STRATEGY AND CARBON EMISSION PINCH ANALYSIS IN AN OFFSET PRINTING PLANT <p>In this study, Cleaner Production (CP) strategy and Carbon Emission Pinch Analysis (CEPA) were used to reduce carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emission generated in printing industry. CP audit was conducted in a printing premise to quantify the consumption of materials and energy, waste generated and other aspect such as safety and productivity. The amount of CO<sub>2</sub> emission generated from the operations and activities in the premise was estimated to identify key issues. Subsequently, CP options were identified to overcome the issues. Feasibility studies were conducted for each option identified to evaluate the reduction of CO<sub>2</sub> emission and monetary returns. The study revealed that a total of 0.8 kg CO<sub>2 </sub>emission was generated per kg of paper processed, where electricity consumption was the main contributor. A total of eight CP options were identified and evaluated to reduce CO<sub>2</sub> emission generated from the electricity consumption and solid waste generation. Implementations of the suggested CP options are expected to potentially reduce the CO<sub>2</sub> emission to 0.7 tons CO<sub>2</sub>/kg of processed paper, which is a reduction of 78%. The CEPA study also demonstrated that a saving of 211,194 kWh/month of electricity and a reduction of CO<sub>2</sub> emission of 141.5 tons/month (68%) from the total emission of 209 tons/month could be achieved. There are four CP options can be implemented without any cost incurred, with expected CO<sub>2</sub> emission reduction of 96.5 tons/month. Hence, the case study proves that it is possible to reduce CO<sub>2</sub> emission in printing premise by implementing CP and CEPA.</p> Razuana Rahim, Raja Shazrin Shah Raja Ehsan Shah, Sarina Sulaiman, Ramli Abd Rahman Copyright (c) 2023 Biological and Natural Resources Engineering Journal Wed, 26 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0800