CRITICAL ELEMENTS OF RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM DURING EARLY ISLAMIC CIVILISATION
A CRITICAL STUDY OF SELECT CONCEPTS
Keywords:Anthropomorphism, elucidation, extremism, incarnation, transmigration
This paper reviews the thought of early Muslim sectarians, especially extremists, which generated controversy over the Islamic doctrine of Tawḥīd. Applying qualitative content analysis, the author explores works by Muslim scholars who studied these ideas. Malicious interpretations shaped various dimensions of Islamic thought that still influence contemporary discourse regarding the nature and transcendence of divine power. Among these are  Ḥulūl (incarnation),  Tanāsukh (metempsychosis),  Badā' (appearance, God’s change of mind),  Tashbīh (anthropomorphism), and  Ta’wīl (elucidation). Since these elements quickened Islamic polemics then and even now, the author brings an in-depth analysis highlighting the harm invoked by ideas that deviate from a proper understanding of God’s nature and attributions.