An overview of the hospitals’ antimicrobial stewardship programs implemented to improve antibiotics’ utilization, cost and resistance patterns


  • Ovais Ullah Shirazi Department of Pharmacy Practice, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang
  • Norny Syafinaz Ab Rahman Department of Pharmacy Practice, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang
  • Che Suraya Zin Department of Pharmacy Practice, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang



Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) Program, Interventions, utilization patterns of antibiotics, cost patterns of antibiotics; infection control, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) Study designs, Antimicrobial Stewardwish (AMS) Program, interventions, utilization patterns of antibiotics, cost patterns of antibiotics, infection control, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) study design


Introduction: The high reliance of the physicians and surgeons on the antibiotics since their discovery has led to an irrational antibiotic utilization which not only has raised the incidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) but also increased the cost of treatment with antibiotics as high use of antibiotics has been found related to the occurrence of certain nosocomial infections which need extra antibiotic courses to be cured. In order to overcome these antibiotic utilization related problems an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) program being the set of various persuasive, restrictive and structural interventions is considered an effective tool to rationalize the in-patient antimicrobial utilization worldwide.

Method: The focus of this review is on the interventions that are being implemented during the in-patient AMS programs and have been described effective in controlling the antibiotic utilization, their cost of treatment and an overall infection control. The literature containing the information about various AMS interventions effecting the utilization and cost patterns along with the impact on AMR was searched in various databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Ovid (Medline) and Scopus. The categorical sorting of the published data is based on various AMS interventions such as the guideline development, formulary restriction (pre-authorization), educative interventions, clinical pathway development and prospective (post prescription) audit. Considering the objectives of the study such as the goal to curb overutilization of antibiotics, control of their cost of treatment for in-patients and infection control the sorted literature is presented in three different tables describing the AMS impact on the said outcomes.

Results: The post AMS changes in utilization patterns are described as fall of antibiotics defined daily doses (DDD) and days of therapy (DOT) which resulted in the reduction of the cost of treatment with antibiotics. The reduction of the cost of treatment with antibiotics also resulted due to the AMS impact on the control of various nosocomial and multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections.

Conclusion:  It has been concluded that the AMS program if implemented under the supervision of an expert AMS team mainly comprising of an infectious disease (ID) physician, clinical pharmacists and microbiologists with considerable support by the hospital authorities could be a highly efficient tool of the pharmacovigilance for rationalizing the in-patient antimicrobial practice.


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How to Cite

Shirazi, O. U., Ab Rahman, N. S. ., & Zin, C. S. . (2022). An overview of the hospitals’ antimicrobial stewardship programs implemented to improve antibiotics’ utilization, cost and resistance patterns. Journal of Pharmacy, 2(1), 16–30.



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