Reflective Practice of Experiential Learning Visit to Drug Rehabilitation Centres improved Pharmacy Curriculum Prospects and Services in promoting Community Engagement
Keywords:Reflective practice, experiential learning, pharmacy students, community engagement, substance use disorders
Background: Reflective practice has been proven effective in improving students' learning outcomes from various health disciplines, including pharmacy. As healthcare providers, pharmacists have frequent contact with vulnerable patients with risky behaviours thus require appropriate attitudes and positive perceptions to ensure equal services. These intangible components require self-reflection of individual learning processes. This study aimed to investigate the view of pharmacy students towards an experiential learning opportunity at drug rehabilitation centres via a reflective practice approach. Methods: Pharmacy students from International Islamic University Malaysia participated in a reflective practice exercise following a visit to drug rehabilitation centres in Pahang, Malaysia, in 2018. A total of 43 of the 69 students consented for their reflective writings to be analysed for this research. Thematic content analysis was conducted, and emerging themes were identified. Results: Students reflected on several themes, which were 1) sense of responsibility and volunteerism, 2) perspective on pharmacy knowledge application, 3) professional and societal engagement, 4) understanding people's behaviour 5) personal inadequacy. Conclusion: Pharmacy students have effectively utilised a reflective practice approach to address specific issues and needs of the local community related to substance use disorders which were beneficial to improve the curriculum and encourage community engagement activities.
Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (1985). Promoting Reflection in Learning: A Model. Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. London, Kogan Page; New York, Nicols Pub; 18–40.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.
Brooman, S., & Darwent, S. (2012). A positive view of first-year undergraduate reflective diaries: Focusing on what students can do. Reflective Practice, 13(4), 517-531. doi:10.1080/14623943.2012.670618
Elliott H. (1997). The use of diaries in sociological research on health experience. Sociological Research Online 1997;2. Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/ 2/2/7.html
Ganesh, A., & Ganesh, G. (2010). Reflective writing by final year medical students: lessons for curricular change. The National Medical Journal of India, 23(4): 226-230.
Fink, L. D. (2013). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. John Wiley & Sons.
Hughes, J. A., Cleven, A. J., Ross, J., Fuentes, D. G., Elbarbry, F., Suzuki, M., ... & Faro, S. J. E. (2019). A comprehensive reflective journal-writing framework for pharmacy students to increase self-awareness and develop actionable goals. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 83(3).https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6554
Hj. Ebil, S., Salleh, S.M. & Shahrill, M. (2020). The use of E-portfolio for self-reflection to promote learning: a case of TVET students. Education and Information Technologies, 25, 5797–5814. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10248-7
International Pharmaceutical Federation. (2018). FIP Statement of Policy - The role of pharmacists in reducing harm associated with drugs of abuse. Retrieved from www.fip.org/statements
Keating, D., McWilliams, S., Hynes, C., Clarke, M., & Strawbridge, J. (2019). Pharmacy Students' Reflections on an Experiential Learning Visit to a Psychiatric Hospital. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 83(5), 6784. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6784
Kember, D., McKay, J., Sinclair, K., & Wong, F.K.Y. (2008). A four?category scheme for coding and assessing the level of reflection in written work, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(4): 369-379. doi: 10.1080/02602930701293355
Kilgour, P., Reynaud, D., Northcote, M. T., & Shields, M. (2015). Role-playing as a tool to facilitate learning, self-reflection and social awareness in teacher education. International Journal of Innovative Interdisciplinary Research, 2(4), 8-20.
Lie, D., Shapiro, J., Cohn, F., & Najm W. (2010). Reflective practice enriches clerkship student's cross-cultural experiences. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25:S119-S125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-009-1205-4.
Livingston, J. D., Milne, T., Fang, M. L., & Amari, E. (2012). The effectiveness of interventions for reducing stigma related to substance use disorders: a systematic review. Addiction, 107(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03601.x
Mamede, S., Schmidt, H. G., & Penaforte, J. C. (2008). Effects of reflective practice on the accuracy of medical diagnoses. Medical education, 42(5), 468-475. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03030.x
Mann, K., Gordon, J., & MacLeod, A. (2009). Reflection and reflective practice in health professions education: a systematic review. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. 14:595-621. http://dx.doi. org/ 10.1007/s10459-007-9090-2.
Marinho, P., Fernandes, P., & Pimentel, F. (2021). The digital portfolio as an assessment strategy for learning in higher education. Distance Education 42(2): 253-267. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623943.2018.1437399.
Mezirow, J. (1990). Fostering critical reflection in adulthood (pp. 1-20). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Muzyk, A. J., Peedin, E., Lipetzky, J., Parker, H., McEachern, P. M., &Thomas, K. (2017). Substance use education in US schools of pharmacy: A systematic review of the literature, Substance Abuse, 38(4): 455-463. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2017.1341448
Ramli, A., Joseph, L., & Lee, S. W. (2013). Learning pathways during clinical placement of physiotherapy students: a Malaysian experience of using learning contracts and reflective diaries. Journal of educational evaluation for health professions, 10, 6. https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2013.10.6
Sattler, S., Escande, A., Racine, E., & Göritz S.A. (2017). Public Stigma Toward People with Drug Addiction: A Factorial Survey Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 78(3): 415–425.
Thomas, K., & Muzyk, A. J. (2018). Surveys of substance use disorders education in US pharmacy programs. The mental health clinician, 8(1), 14–17. https://doi.org/10.9740/mhc.2018.01.014
Tsingos, C., Bosnic-Anticevich, S., Lonie, J. M., & Smith, L. (2015). A Model for Assessing Reflective Practices in Pharmacy Education. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 79(8), 124. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe798124
van Boekel, L. C., Brouwers, E. P., van Weeghel, J., & Garretsen, H. F. (2013). Stigma among health professionals towards patients with substance use disorders and its consequences for healthcare delivery: systematic review. Drug and alcohol dependence, 131(1-2), 23–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.018
Zimmerman, S.S., Hanson, D.J., Stube, J.E., Jedlicka, J.S., & Fox, L. (2007). Using the power of student reflection to enhance professional development. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Science, 5(2):7
Zimmerman, D. H., & Wieder, D. L. (1977). The Diary: Diary-Interview Method. Urban Life, 5(4), 479–498. https://doi.org/10.1177/089124167700500406
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 IIUM Press
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Journal of Pharmacy at https://journals.iium.edu.my/ktn/index.php/jp is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.