Anti-Biofilm and Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties of Ethanol and Aqueous Extracts of Orthosiphon Stamineus and Andrographis Paniculata Leaves and Stems
Introduction: Quorum sensing controls a wide spectrum of processes and phenotypic behaviours including biofilm formation that helps in the survival and virulence of bacteria in hosts. Thus, anti-quorum sensing is suggested to combat bacterial infections. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-biofilm forming and anti-quorum sensing activities which may contribute to the anti-bacterial effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus and Andrographis paniculata leaves and stems. Materials and method: General biofilm assay protocol with modification was used for the biofilm assay to test the effect of different concentration (2 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml) of extracts on the biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Optical density of crystal violet/acetic acid solution was measured at 595 nm and the percentage of biofilm inhibition was calculated. In quorum quenching assay, visualization of reporter strain AI1-QQ.1 growth will be used for the detection of bio-molecules interfering with acyl homoserine lactone (AHL). Results: Extracts with the highest ability to inhibit biofilm formation were ethanol extract of O.stamineus stem and A.paniculata leaves with 77.84% at extracts concentration of 3 mg/ml. Aqueous extract of O.stamineus leaves showed the least potential with 13.41% inhibition. However, aqueous extract of A.paniculata showed zero inhibition at 3 mg/ml and two extracts (aqueous extract of O.stamineus and A.paniculata leaves) gave negative value at concentration of 3 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml, respectively. Quorum quenching assay has yet to be done. Conclusion: It could be concluded that most of the extracts possess anti-biofilm property.
How to Cite
All material submitted for publication is assumed to be submitted exclusively to the IIUM Medical Journal Malaysia (IMJM) unless the contrary is stated. Manuscript decisions are based on a double-blinded peer review process. The Editor retains the right to determine the style and if necessary, edit and shorten any material accepted for publication.
IMJM retain copyright to all the articles published in the journal. All final ‘proof’ submissions must be accompanied by a completed Copyright Assignment Form, duly signed by all authors. The author(s) or copyright owner(s) irrevocably grant(s) to any third party, in advance and in perpetuity, the right to use, reproduce or disseminate the research article in its entirety or in part, in any format or medium, provided that no substantive errors are introduced in the process, proper attribution of authorship and correct citation details are given, and that the bibliographic details are not changed. If the article is reproduced or disseminated in part, this must be clearly and unequivocally indicated.