Standard Versus Real Versus Fake Braces: An Elemental Composition Analysis
Introduction: Orthodontic fixed appliance is now considered as fashion accessory and a symbol of wealth. Due to overwhelming demand, 'fake' and 'real' braces services have been offered through social media by unqualified personnel using poor quality orthodontic brackets and cases of metal toxicity from using these type of braces has been reported. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to explore the elemental analysis of several types of 'fake', 'real' and standard braces. The metal composition of 9 upper right central incisor brackets were measured using high pressure environmental scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (ESEM/EDX). The quantitative analysis of the percentage of weight concentration of the elements were calculated. Results: The elemental analysis using ANOVA revealed that there was no statistically difference metal weight composition between 'fake', 'real' and standard braces. All brackets were manufactured from different types of alloys. Nonetheless, no toxic elements such as plumbum or mercury were detected in the composition of 'fake' and 'real' braces. Conclusion(s): In conclusion, the metal compositions of 'fake' and 'real' braces were not statistically different from conventional brackets and no pernicious elements were detected.
How to Cite
All material submitted for publication is assumed to be submitted exclusively to the IIUM Medical Journal Malaysia (IMJM) unless the contrary is stated. Manuscript decisions are based on a double-blinded peer review process. The Editor retains the right to determine the style and if necessary, edit and shorten any material accepted for publication.
IMJM retain copyright to all the articles published in the journal. All final ‘proof’ submissions must be accompanied by a completed Copyright Assignment Form, duly signed by all authors. The author(s) or copyright owner(s) irrevocably grant(s) to any third party, in advance and in perpetuity, the right to use, reproduce or disseminate the research article in its entirety or in part, in any format or medium, provided that no substantive errors are introduced in the process, proper attribution of authorship and correct citation details are given, and that the bibliographic details are not changed. If the article is reproduced or disseminated in part, this must be clearly and unequivocally indicated.