Muslim Dynamics in America: Challenges and Opportunities


  • Dinar Kania Paramadina Post Graduate School of Diplomacy
  • Ariesa Ulfa Paramadina Post Graduate School of Diplomacy



American Muslims are faced with immense challenges, yet there are also opportunities within these challenges that have resulted in the emergence of various Muslim intellectual organisations in the United States of America. This paper aims to describe and analyse the challenges and opportunities for Muslims in America and the role of American Muslim intellectual organisations in both domestic and global issues. The result shows that Muslims in the United States (US) still need to bear the issue of Islamophobia with its related physical and psychological threats. American Muslims will also need to face the ideological and intellectual challenges to revitalise Islamic teachings so that Islam can be properly understood by the American society. The influence of Islamophobia in US government policy and foreign policy are enormous, especially since it relates to counterterrorism policy. However, opportunities for American Muslims to gain higher education and careers in various fields remain wide open. The contribution of Muslim intellectual organisations to the American society and global society has always been present and cannot be neglected. Concerning the future, intellectual Muslims in the US who currently tend to unite and work together seem to be intensifying their research and education programmes as well as consolidating various Muslim communities in the US.


Abdelaziz, R. (2018, May 1). Muslims Are Internalizing Islamophobia, And Negative Media Coverage Is To Blame. Huffpost. Retrieved from

Abedin, M. J. (2019). The Principles of ISIS’s Ideology: An Academic Debate. European Journal of Political Science Studies, 3(1), 143–158.

Bazian, H. (2018). Islamophobia, “Clash of civilisations”, and forging a Post-Cold War Order! Religions, 9(9), 1–13.

Beydoun, K. (2016). Islamophobia: Toward a Legal Definition and Framework. Columbia Law Review, 116(November), 108–125.Retrieved from

Challet, A. (2015). Thinking Outside the Mosque. Boom : The Journal of California, 5(4).

Criminal Justice Information Services Division. (2018). 2018 Hate Crime Statistic. Retrieved from -

Department of Defense USA. (2001). Quadrennial Defense Review Report. Quadrennial Defense Review: Assessing U.S. Defense and Security. Retrieved from

Elliot, A. (2011, March 17). Why Yasir Qadhi Wants to Talk About Jihad. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Financing The Future. (2019). Statement of Fiqh Council of North Amerika on Fossil Fuel. Retrieved from

Gallup. (2011). Islamophobia: Understanding Anti-Muslim Sentiment in the West. Retrieved from

Goodwin, D., Chenhall, E. & Bilbrey, J. (2015). Statistical analysis of religious discrimination complaints through the Equal Employment Opportunity Comission. Journal of Legal Issues and Cases in Business 3(January). Merit Resolution of Religious Discrimination Charges Based on Reasonable Cause Resolved Through the EEOC (

Ghumman, S., & Jackson, L. (2010). The downside of religious attire: The Muslim headscarf and expectations of obtaining employment. Journal of Organisational Behavior 31. 4-23.

Hannini, D. (2016). The “Spiritualisation” of Islam in America (Master’s Thesis). Retrieved from

Hassan, M. H. (2017). The Danger of Takfir (Excommunication): Exposing IS’ Takfir Ideology. Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses, 9(4), 3–12.

Husin. (2018). Pendidikan Agama Islam di Amerika Serikat (Lembaga Pendidikan Islam). Al-Madrasah: Jurnal Pendidikan Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, 2(2), 1–20.

Imam Omar Suleiman: He got Arrested on Capitol Hill. (2018). Retrieved from

Kashani, M. (2014). Seekers of Sacred Knowledge: Zaytuna College and the Education of American Muslims. (PhD Thesis). retrieved from

Khalik, S. (2015). Sejarah perkembangan Islam di Amerika. Al Daulah, 4(2), 312–326.

Kishi, K. (2017). Assault against Muslim in U.S. Surpass 2001 Level. Retrieved from

Kusuma, A. J., & Muhammad, A. (2019). Analisis Perkembangan Norma Internasional “War on Terror” dalam Perspektif Realis, Liberalis dan Konstruktivis. Indonesian Perspective, 4(1), 1–19.

Massoud, M. F. & Moore, K. (2015). Rethinking Shari’a. Boom: The Journal of California, 5(4), 94–99.

Mogahed, D. and Mahmood, A. (2019). American Muslim Pool 2019: Predicting and Preventing Islamophobia. Retrieved from

O’Leary, M. E. (2009). An American Musim Envisions a New Kind of Learning. Retrieved from

Omar Soleiman. (2020). Retrieved from

PEW Research Center. (2017). U.S. Muslims Concerned Abaout Their Place in Society, but Continue to Believe in the American Dream: Findings from PEW Research Center’s 2017 Survey of U.S. Muslims. Retrieved from

Shipoli, E. A. (2018). Islam, Securitisation, and US Foreign Policy. Washington DC: Palgrave Macmillan.

Syahrin, M. A. (2019). Mengugat Kebijakan Keimigrasion Donald Trump : Diskursus Kedaulatan Negara dalam Perlindungan HAM. Opinio Juris, 8(2), 15–31.

The Official Goverment Featured Commission Publication. (2004). The 11/9 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon United States (9/11 Report). Retrieved from

Timur, F. G. C., & Syakirin, J. (2018). Peran Community Resilience di Amerika Serikat dan Inggris dalam Upaya Kontra Terorisme. Jurnal Sospol, 4(1), 21-36.

What is the Truth about American Muslims? (n.d.). Retrieved from

U.S. Equal Employement Opportunity Commission. (n.d.). Religion-Based Charges. Washington DC. Retrieved from

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2013). Swift Aviation to Pay $50,000 to Settle EEOC National Origin and Religious Discrimination Lawsuit. Retrieved from

Yaqeen Institute. (n.d.). About Us. Retrieved from

Zaytuna College. (n.d.). About Zaytuna College. Retrieved from

Zulian, I. (2019). Analisis Pengaruh Islomophobia Terhadap Kebijakan Luar Negeri Amerika Serikat di Pemerintahan Donald Trump. Jurnal PIR Vol.3 No. 2 Februari 2019, 3(2), 140–155.




How to Cite

Kania, D., & Ulfa, A. . (2020). Muslim Dynamics in America: Challenges and Opportunities. IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies, 3(2), 154–180.