IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijrcs <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p><em>IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies (IJRCS)</em> is a peer-reviewed online scholarly journal in English, published biannually in June and December by the Kulliyah (Faculty) of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong>: IJRCS offers an international platform for awakening the civilisational potential of the Islamic heritage. The aim and scope of the Journal covers the wide-ranging themes and issues that deal with religion and civilisational studies, and embraces both Islamic and conventional approaches. It accommodates the diverse approaches within civilisational studies including revitalising synergies between Islamic and other civilisations, renewal of Muslim societies, the conceptual and societal transformation of Muslims and other societies, and the prospects of dialogue and peaceful co-existence of world civilisations. A comparative study of religion and civilisational studies are given high consideration.</p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing</strong>: IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies is currently registered on MyJurnal (Malaysia).</p> <p>IJRCS invites scholarly contributions of research articles, viewpoints and book reviews mainly holistic in nature from Malaysian and international academicians, and Postgraduate students.</p> </div> IIUM Press en-US IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies 2637-112X Copyright Page https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijrcs/article/view/320 Alwi Alatas Copyright (c) 2024 IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 6 2 10.31436/ijrcs.v6i2.320 Editorial https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijrcs/article/view/318 Fauziah Fathil Copyright (c) 2024 IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 6 2 89 92 10.31436/ijrcs.v6i2.318 The Summary of Islamic Political Thought (Ikhtisar Pemikiran Politik Islam) https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijrcs/article/view/303 Makmor Tumin Copyright (c) 2024 IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 6 2 233 236 10.31436/ijrcs.v6i2.303 Major Trends in the Study of Malay Statecraft since 1900 https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijrcs/article/view/290 <p>This study aims to make a comprehensive survey on the existing literature related to Malay statecraft (ketatanegaraan) and the relevant studies that have been conducted and published in Malaya (then Malaysia) since 1900. Statecraft is related to the legitimacy and the idea and concept of the sovereignty of the ruler as understood and practised within the Malay society. Through this historiographical survey, this study has identified several major trends or approaches adopted by scholars in studying Malay statecraft. Among the trends that have been identified is studying Malay statecraft based on the specific genre of “Mirrors for Princes” literature. This trend was later expanded by studying the elements of statecraft that existed in Malay historical narratives, hikayat (folktale) and legal texts. These scholars have significantly contributed to enrich the materials in this field and were able to establish Malay statecraft studies as a distinguished field of study. Regardless, it has been identified that several aspects need to be improved and focused on by scholars to further widen the scopes and strengthen Malay statecraft studies. Hence, this study calls for the redefinition of scopes and frameworks for Malay statecraft studies to ensure its sustainability and relevancy in the contemporary era.</p> Mohamad Hazizie Sulkafle Copyright (c) 2024 IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 6 2 93 119 10.31436/ijrcs.v6i2.290 The Transformation of Islamic Studies: An Ethical and Methodological Analysis https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijrcs/article/view/297 <p>The field of Islamic Studies, like any other discipline, necessitates ongoing research and refinement. However, the nature of this research- whether theoretical, empirical, or a combination of both- remains a critical question. This inquiry prompts a reconsideration of Islamic Studies, prompting a re-evaluation of its scope and methodological foundations. Historically rooted in a limited perspective that framed Islam solely as a religious phenomenon, this paper contends that such a narrow conception fails to capture the comprehensive essence of Islam, as portrayed in the Qur’an. Islam, according to the Qur’an, is a holistic worldview encompassing a way of life, a source of values, morals, laws, and universal principles crucial for cultural and civilisational development. The argument presented herein posits that the scope of Islamic Studies must transcend the confines of traditional religious studies. Instead, it advocates for a paradigm shift towards a more comprehensive examination that includes issues related to worldview, way of life, culture, and civilisation. This paper asserts the imperative need for a transformative approach in Islamic Studies, advocating for a broader research program that addresses the multifaceted dimensions of Islam. Utilising a qualitative method of content analysis, this paper aims to explore and analyse the scope and objectives of Islamic Studies, identifying research problems that extend beyond conventional religious frameworks. Ultimately, the paper seeks to situate Islamic Studies within a broader cultural and civilisational context, emphasising its role in fostering human and social development. </p> Mohd Mumtaz Ali Copyright (c) 2024 IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 6 2 120 138 10.31436/ijrcs.v6i2.297 Emerging Social Waqf Model for the Welfare of Pandemic Orphans https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijrcs/article/view/296 <p>The increasing number of COVID-19 orphans in Malaysia poses an alarming threat to the socio-economic fabric of the nation. Hence, policymakers are confronted with this escalating dilemma, as the surging population of COVID-19 orphans could lead to a rise in problems, such as child sexual abuse, children dropping out of school and suicide. The pandemic of orphans as one of the hidden tragedies of COVID-19 has triggered the need for a sustainable social intervention that can guarantee the socio-economic protection and psycho-emotional care of orphans, especially in Muslim societies. Moreover, the reported number of orphans in the world is over 140 million children, with almost six million pandemic orphans arising from COVID-19 deaths across the globe. Recent studies also suggest that some of the children in orphanages in Malaysia are malnourished from skipping breakfast, lack dental care and even basic needs because of limited funding. Nevertheless, social waqf has been receiving significant attention as an Islamic social intervention to cater to vulnerable members of society. Studies have shown that Islamic religious institutions and organisations have been sustained through the waqf system. The enormity of the challenge posed by the COVID-19 orphans is such that some activists have been calling on the government to adopt the children into its social scheme. Overwhelmed by the socio-economic challenges arising from the pandemic, the government has also been appealing to private stakeholders to extend their social mission to the care of pandemic orphans. It also requires funding for individual families willing to provide care and protection for orphans. Hence, this highlights the need for an appropriate intervention to take care of the pandemic orphans. </p> <p>This study conducts a qualitative analysis of the potential of social waqf interventions for orphans’ care. Extensive desk research on the classical evidence of the socio-economic protection of orphans in Islam was detailed. The study explores the Islamic guidelines for fostering orphans through <em>kafala</em> (custody), for fostering orphans and children without biological parents. From the findings, the study proposed a Waqf model useful for providing social welfare intervention and adequate financial support for the sustainable care of orphans' needs through social workers, orphanages, foster care families, and further empowerment of orphans with needy single parents.</p> Saheed Busari Copyright (c) 2024 IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 6 2 139 158 10.31436/ijrcs.v6i2.296 In Awe of the Holy City: Mecca in the Eyes of Five Medieval Travellers https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijrcs/article/view/298 <p>This paper elaborates and analyses the situation of Mecca between the 11th to 16th centuries based on travel accounts of five medieval travellers: Ibn Khusraw (1004–1072), Ibn Jubayr (1145–1217), Ibn Battuta (1304–1369), Ma Huan (1380–1460) and di Varthema (1470–1512). Moreover, by thoroughly consulting primary sources scored by above-mentioned travellers and other relevant secondary sources, this study aims to ascertain the importance of Mecca, in the given period, in the eye of Muslims and non-Muslim travellers. As the holiest city in Islam, which is also associated with Muslim religious pilgrimages, Mecca has a long and intriguing history throughout the ages. Furthermore, more often than not, during the medieval period, the pilgrimages to Mecca, which are usually conducted during the Islamic month of Dzulhijjah, were haunted by challenges and dangers posed by natural and social environments in and around Mecca, thus made the journey experiences of above-mentioned travellers all the more challenging, precious and memorable. However, at the end of the day, their hardships paid off and their praises proclaimed since they found themselves drenched in joy and in awe of the beauty and greatness of the Holy City. This research uses historical methodology, focusing on primary texts written by the five pilgrims mentioned above. This study provides a more comprehensive picture of the condition of the Holy City of Mecca in the era under study.</p> Aditya Pratama Alwi Alatas Copyright (c) 2024 IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 6 2 159 183 10.31436/ijrcs.v6i2.298 Unveiling Historical Trajectory and Civilisational Evolution: A Comparative Examination through the Lenses of Ibn Khaldun and Oswald Spengler https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijrcs/article/view/300 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Abstract: This research article examines the comparative perspectives of Ibn Khaldun and Oswald Spengler regarding the progression of history and the advancement of civilisations. This article aims to argue that Ibn Khaldun and Oswald Spengler shared a similar perspective on the progression and decline of nations and civilisations. At the same time, they had different perspectives as they lived in distinct historical periods. The study posits that their perspectives on history, society and civilisation are characterised by a reduced level of subjectivity and a greater emphasis on rationality. The analysis reveals that despite their shared cyclical historical patterns, there exist notable disparities on the mechanisms behind the growth of civilisations and the conceptualisation of civilisation’s lifespan. The interpretations and definitions of history and civilisation put forward by Ibn Khaldun and Oswald Spengler have had a profound impact on the field of human sciences, fostering notable advancements. To attain a high level of accuracy, this study uses qualitative research techniques as a means to accomplish its aims. Ibn Khaldun and Oswald Spengler possessed a comprehensive perspective of culture and history and the processes through which history unfolds. When discussing history, individuals tend to adopt a particular perspective and contemplate on the various facets of the subject matter. A comprehensive examination is warranted to enhance comprehension of their theoretical framework and grasp of the aforementioned topic.. </p> </div> </div> </div> zhilwan Tahir Abdulwahed Jala Nori Nuri Copyright (c) 2024 IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 6 2 184 212 10.31436/ijrcs.v6i2.300 The Power Struggle Between the Military Junta and Democracy in Myanmar https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijrcs/article/view/309 <p>Ever since the first coup by the military forces in 1962, Myanmar has stood out among the Southeast Asian nations due to the prolonged political turmoil between the ever-powerful junta and the rising forces of the people, assisted by the National League for Democracy (NLD) party who demanded democracy. These clashes have profoundly affected the country’s socio-economic and politics for decades. Hence, to find the root of this long-ongoing conflict, this paper examines the historical timeline of the friction between the two factions, the military junta (Tatmadaw), and the general population from the post-independent years until now. The study analyses various aspects, including the ethnic tension, the formation of Tatmadaw, the events leading to three military coups, and the people with their multiple uprisings. This paper also sheds light on the leading party, NLD, especially on the central figure, Aung San Suu Kyi, who became the voice of democracy. Overall, this study mainly used the library research method and a content-analysis approach to gather information and assess the dynamic relations between the two forces and how the power struggle remains well into the 21st century.</p> Amirah Syuhada Shahruddin Fauziah Fathil Copyright (c) 2024 IIUM Journal of Religion and Civilisational Studies 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 6 2 213 232 10.31436/ijrcs.v6i2.309