Social Cohesion in the Views of Islam and Buddhism: A Textual Analysis
Social Cohesion is a subject that is to be considered as a contemporary pluralistic society and in the context of globalization. So, the main objective of this article is to analyze the concept of social cohesion from the religious scop of Islam and Buddhism. This study contributes to objectively clarifying the similarities between the two paths and explaining their phenomenological parallels and structural affinities. Within this context, the paper focuses on exploring the views of Islam and Buddhism towards social cohesion to use as textual evidence for resolving religious conflicts and ethnic unrest in places where Muslims and Buddhists live together. To achieve this end, the research comparatively examines the dynamics of social cohesion as described in Islam and Buddhism with the concern of the inner dimension and outer dimension of the subject matter. This research applies qualitative methodology, in which the researchers use data that includes textual analysis on written materials such as books, articles, and internet sources. The findings reveal that both religions share a similar scope of social cohesion which contains theoretically accepting diversity, and loving compassion with others practically. Both religions prioritize human dignity as the main standard in social cohesion. This study guides to eliminate misunderstandings about religions: Islam, and Buddhism and to succeed in a process of reconciliation and for peaceful engagement among the diverse religious groups.
Akpinar, Snjezana Veljacic. 2015. Buddhist Meditations on Islamic Contemplative Paths: Less Traveled Roads and Abandoned Junctions. Buddhist Text Translation Society.
Aronson, Harvey B. 1980. Love and Sympathy in Theravāda Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass.
Berzin, Alexander. 2010. “Historical Survey of the Buddhist and Muslim Worlds’ Knowledge of Each Other’s Customs and Teachings.” The Muslim World 100 (2–3): 187–203. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-1913.2010.01313.x.
———. n.d. “Buddhist-Muslim Doctrinal Relations.” Study Buddhism. Accessed February 28, 2021.
Bodhi, Bhikkhu. 2005. In the Buddha’s Words: An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon. Wisdom Publication.
Buddharakkhita, Acharya. 1995. “Metta: The Philosophy and Practice of Universal Love.” 1995.
Conze, Edward. 1973. Buddhist Thought in India: Three Phases of Buddhist Philosophy. University of Michigan Press.
Domyo. 2018. “63 - Buddha’s Teachings 7: The Four Brahmaviharas, or Sublime Social Attitudes - Part 1.” The Zen Studies Podcast. June 19, 2018. https://zenstudiespodcast.com/brahmaviharas-1/.
Elverskog, Johan. 2010. Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Francesca. 2017. “The Four Elements of True Love According to Buddha.” UPLIFT. September 21, 2017.
Friedmann, Yohanan. 2003. Tolerance and Coercion in Islam: Interfaith Relations in the Muslim Tradition. Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511497568.
Gokhale, Pradeep. n.d. “Brahmavihāra: The Buddhist Approach to the Other.” Accessed March 3, 2021.
Gravers, Mikael. 2015. “Anti-Muslim Buddhist Nationalism in Burma and Sri Lanka: Religious Violence and Globalized Imaginaries of Endangered Identities.” Contemporary Buddhism 16 (1): 1–27.
Harvey, Peter. 2001. Buddhism. Bloomsbury Academic.
———. 2012. An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge University Press.
Hosein, Imran Nazar. 2001. Islam and Buddhism In the Modern World. Masjidh Dar al-Qurān.
Ikeda, Daisaku, and Majid Tehranian. 2003. Global Civilization. A Buddhist-Islamic Dialogue. London: British Academic Press.
Kipgen, Nehginpao. 2014. “Addressing the Rohingya Problem.” Journal of Asian and African Studies 49 (2): 234–47.
Kumar, Pintu. 2011. “The Ancient Nālandā Mahāvihāra: The Beginning of Institutional Education.” The Journal of the World Universities Forum 4 (1): 65–80.
Mahinda Palihawadana. 2006. “THE THERAVADA ANALYSIS OF CONFLICTS.” In Buddhism, Conflict and Violence in Modern Sri Lanka, 83–93. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203007365-13.
Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved October 11, 2020, from https://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary
Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall. 1975. English translation of The Holy Quran. Islamabad: Shalimar Recording Co. Ltd.,
Numsuk, Abdullah. 1999. Buddhism: Its History, Doctrines, and Its Relationship with Sῡfīsm. Maktaba Adwa us-Salaf.
Nyanaponika. 1999. The Four Sublime States. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society.
Phillips, Axelrod, and Alan Charles, eds. 2004. “Religious Wars.” In Encyclopedia of Wars, 03:1484–85.
Pansiya Panas Jathaka Katha Potha. (2017, January 27). Retrieved November 12, 2020, from http://dahamyathra.info/jathaka-katha-523-550/
Rakesh, Saksana. n.d. Buddhism and Its Messege of Peace.
Ramli, Ahmad Faizuddin, Jaffary Awang, and Zaizul Ab Rahman. 2018.
“Muslim Scholar’s Discourse on Buddhism: A Literature on Buddha’s
Position.” Edited by S.L. Chong. SHS Web of Conferences 53: 04001. https://doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/20185304001.
S. Lopez, Donald. 2014. “Nirvana.” Encyclopedia Britannica. March 31, 2014. https://www.britannica.com/topic/nirvana-religion.
Selim, Mohammad. 2011. “The Premises and Promises of the Buddhist-Muslim Dialogue,” 11.
Stewart, J. J. 2014. “Muslim-Buddhist Conflict in Contemporary Sri Lanka.” South Asia Research 34 (3): 241–60.
Tanabe, Juichiro. 2016. “Buddhism and Peace Theory: Exploring a Buddhist Inner Peace.” International Journal of Peace Studies 21: 14.
The Dhammapada A Translation (Bhikkhu, T. Trans.), 1997. Retrieved November 11, 2020, from https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/dhp/dhp.intro.than.html
The Dhammapada: Verses and Stories (D. Mya Tin, Trans.) 1986. Retrieved November 11, 2020, from https://www.tipitaka.net/tipitaka/dhp/
Wahid, Abdurrahman, and Daisaku Ikelda. 2015. The Wisdom of Tolerance: A Philosophy of Generosity and Peace. I.B. Tauris.
Weiner, Eugene, ed. 1998. Coexistence Work: A New Profession in the Handbook of Inter-Ethnic Coexistence. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.
Yahya, Harun. 2005. Islam and Buddhism. India: Islamic Book Service.
Yusuf, Imtiyaz. 2007. “The Southern Thailand Conflict and the Muslim World.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 319–39.
Yusuf, Imtiyaz. 2009. “Dialogue Between Islam and Buddhism through the Concepts Ummatan Wasaṭan (The Middle Nation) and Majjhima-Patipada (The Middle Way).” Islamic Studies 48 (3): 367–94.
Yusuf, S.M. 1955. “The Early Contacts between Islam and Buddhism.” University of Ceylon Review 13 (January): p1-28.