Appraising the Legal Position of Parents Under The Qiṣāṣ Law: Immunity or A Waiver
تقييم الوضع القانوني للوالدين في القصاص: بين الحصانة والإعفاء
Islam always enjoins the believer to be their brother’s keeper. They should protect, respect, and preserve the honor and integrity of their fellow human beings. The religion does not allow any harm to be inflicted upon any person without following the due process of the law. Islām considers the concept of rendering “justice for all” as a very significant element in its criminal justice system. Thus, the Islāmic law of crimes and torts (jināyāt) spares no expense and defines all the crimes and as well as their prescribed punishments. The law punishes offenders equally regardless of their biological status, sex, affiliation, or background. However, in some circumstances, the law mitigates punishments in favor of specific people without exonerating them in toto from liability. Mitigation of punishment in Islām therefore, cannot be seen as a grant of immunity since the main objective of the law is to maintain justice amongst all. In recent times, many people hide under the guise of the law in order to take advantage of their actions. Many cases of murder and grievous bodily injuries were alleged to have committed by persons whose responsibilities were to provide protection to their murdered or injured victims. Parents are known to be producers and protectors of their progeny, but quite number of them nowadays are alleged to have committed or aided or abetted the crimes of murder or infliction of bodily harm against their progeny. Hence, this fact cannot be detached from the misconception that is deeply involved in demarcating between “immunity” and “a waiver” under the law of Qiṣāṣ. It is based on this fact that the paper examines the position of parents vis-a-vis the law of Qiṣāṣ with a view to differentiate the concept of “waiver” from that of “immunity”.
Keywords: Islāmic Criminal Law, Law of Qiṣāṣ, Immunity of Parents, Waiver
ꜤAbd Al-Qadīr Ꜥaudah, Criminal Law Of Islām (Jināyāt), Vol. Iv, New Delhi, India, 1999.
ꜤAbd Al-Raḥmān Ibn Muḥammad Al-Jazīrī, Kitāb Al-Fiqh Ꜥalā Al-Madhāhib Al-Arba‘Ah (Nd) Vol.5.
ꜤAbd Al-Wahhāb Ibn Ꜥalī Al-Baghdādī Al-Mālikī, Kitāb Al-Talqinu FĪ Al-Fiqh Al-Mālikī, Abū Uwāiz Mohammad (Ed), Dār Al-Kutb Al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirūt, Lebanon, 1st Edition, Vol. 2, 2004.
Abū Bakar Ibn MasꜤūd Ꜥalā’udddīn, BadāiꜤal- SanāiꜤ Fi Al-Tartīb Al- SharāiꜤ, Dār Al- Kutb Al-Ꜥilmiyyah, Vol. 7, 1986.
Aḥmad Ibn Ꜥalī Ibn Ḥajar, Fatḥ Al-Bāri; Sharh Ṣaḥīḥ Al-Bukhārī, Dār Al-MaꜤrifah, Beirūt, Lebanon (1959), Vol. 12, Ḥadīth No. 6469.
Al-Ḥilālī, Muḥammad Taqī Al-Dīn And Khan, Muḥammad Muḥsin; Translation Of The Meanings Of The Noble Qur’Ān, In The English Language, Madina: Saudi Arabia, King Fahad Complex,1982.
Ꜥalī Ibn Khallāf (Ibnū Battāl), Sharḥ Saḥīḥ Al-Bukhārī, Maktabah Al-Rursd, Riyārd, Saudi Arabia, 2nd Edition, Vol. 8.
Al-Māwardī, Ꜥalī Ibn Moḥammad, Al-Thāwī FĪ Fiqh Al-ShāfiꜤī, Dār Al-Kutb Al -Ꜥilmiyyah, 1st Edition, Vol. 12, 1994.
Al-Murdawī, Ꜥalī Ibn Sulaymān, Al-Inîāf FĪ Ma‘Arifat Al-Rājiḥ Min Al- Khilāf Ꜥalā Madhhab Al-Imām Aḥmad Ibn Hanbal, Dār Al-Iḥyā’ Al-Turāth Al-‘Arabī, Beirūt, Lebanon, 1st Edition, Vol. 9, (1419 AH) Or (1998 AD).
Al-Samarqandī Ꜥalā’ Addīn, Tuḥfat Al-Fuqahā’, Dār Al-Kutb Al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirūt, Lebanon, Vol. 3, 1984.
Al-Sarakhasī (Shamsuddīn Abū Bakr Muḥammad), Al- Mabîūï, Khalīl Maḥyuddīn (Ed), Dār Al-Fikr, Beirūt Lebanon, (1st Version), 2000.
Anwarullāh, The Criminal Law Of Islām, A.S Noordeen, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, 1997.
Ashgar Ꜥalī Muḥammad, “Implementation Of Hudūd (Or Limits Ordained By Allāh For Serious Crimes) In Malaysia” International Journal Of Humanities And Social Science Vol. 2 No. 3; February 2012.
Fatwā No. 30793, 17th April, 2003, Available At Http://Fatwa.Islāmweb.Net/Fatwa/Index.Php?Page=Showfatwa&Option=Fatwaid&Id=30793, Accessed On 08/11/2014.
Fatwā Nūr Ꜥalā Al-Darab, No.187507, Available At Http://Islāmqa.Info/Ar/187507, Accessed On 09/11/2014.
Hakīm F.B Et Al., Policing Muslim Communities: Comparative International Context, Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012.
Hakīm F.B; Haberfeld M.R; Verma A, The Concept Of Punishment Under Shari‘Ah, At 14-16, Available At Http://Wwwa.Springer.Com/978-1-4614-3551-8.
Ibn ‘Uthaimīn, Legal Position Of Parents In Respect Of Killing The Child, Available At Http://Www.Ibnothaimeen.Com/All/Noor/Article3459.Shtml, Accessed On 15/09/2014.
Ibn Qudāmah, Mufiq Al-Dīn Ꜥabdullāh Ibn Aḥmad Ibn Muḥammad, Al-Mughnī, Maktab Al-Qāhirah, Vol. 10, 1968.
Jamal Aḥmed Bādī. Sharḥ Arba’īn An- Nawawī: Commentry Of Forty Ḥadīth An – Nawawī, Ḥadīth No. 17, At P 89. Retrieved On 19th October 2013,
Javed Ahmad Ghāmidī & Shehzad Salīm, “The Penal Law In Islām”, Dār Al-Tazkīr Islāmic Literature In Contemporary Language, Lahore, Pakistan (Nd).
M. Mukarram Ahmed, Crimes And Punishment Under The Islāmic Law, Anmol Publication, PVT. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 2008.
Mamman Lawan, Ibrahim N. Sada, Shahir Sardar Ali, An Introduction To Criminal Justice: A Teaching And Learning Manual, The Higher Education Academy, UK Center For Legal Education, 2011.
Muḥammad Ibn Aḥmad Ibn Rurshd, Bidāyat Al-Mujtahid Wa Nihāyat Al-Muqtaîid, Dār Al-Ḥadīth, Vol. 4, 2004.
Muḥammad Ibn Idrīs Al-Shāfi’ī, Al-‘Umm, Dār Al-MaꜤrifah, Beirūt, Lebanon, Vol.6, (1393 AH) Or (1973 AD).
Muḥammad Ibn Yazīd Al-Qazwīnī, Sunan Ibn Mājah, Dār Al-Fikr, Beirūt, Lebanon, Vol. 2, Ḥadīth No.2661, At 888.
Moḥammed Taufīq Ladan, Introduction To Jurisprudence: Classical And Islāmic, Malt House Law Books, Lagos Nigeria, 2006.
Muḥammad Ibn Ꜥīsā Al-Tirmidhī, Sunan Al-Tirmidhī (Al-JāmiꜤ Al-Saḥīḥ), Dār Al-Ihyā’ Al-Turātha Al-Ꜥarabī, Vol. 4, Ḥadīth No.1400.
Muḥammad Ibn IsmāꜤīl, Sahīh Al-Bukhārī, Ebook 4 Ḥadīth Collections: Bukhari, Muslim, Malik And Dawūd, Http://Www.Imaanstar.Com.
Muḥammad Nasr Al-Dīn Al-Bāni, Available At Http://Www.Mahaja.Com/Showthread.Php?3043, Accessed On 15/09/2014.
Muḥammad Nasr Al-Dīn Al-Bāni, Irwā’ Al-Ghalīl Fī Takhrīj Al-Hādith Al-Manār Al-Sabīl, Al-Maktab Al-Islāmī, Beirūt Lebanon, 2nd Edition, (1985), Vol. 7.
Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjāj, Saḥīh Al-Muslim, Dār Al-Iḥyā’ Al- Turāth Al- Ꜥarabī, Beirūt Lebanon, Vol. 3, Ḥadīth No.1678.
Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjāj, Saḥīḥ Al- Muslim, Ebook 4 Ḥadīth Collections: Bukhārī, Muslim, Mālik And Da’Ūd, Http://Www.Imaanstar.Com.
Musnad Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal, Muassat Al-Risālah, 2nd Edition, (1999), Ḥadīth No. 147, Vol. 1.
Rudolph Peters, Crimes And Punishments In Islāmic Law, Theory And Practice From Sixteenth To Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2005.
Sayyid Qutb, Social Justice In Islām; Translated By John B. Hardie, Revised By Hamid Algar, Islāmic Publication International, New York, USA. (ND)
School Of Law, Defining Future Of Legal Education, Round Table Discussion On “Qisās” And “Diyat” Law Within The Criminal Justice System, Pakistan, September 21st 2013.
Stephanie Palo, “A Charade Of Change: Qisās And Diyat Ordinance Allows Honor Killings To Go Unpunished In Pakistan”, University Of California, Davis [Vol. 15:1 2008] A Charade Of Change.
Tahir H. Watsi, “The Law On Honour Killing: A British Innovation In The Criminal Law Of The Indian Subcontinent And Its Subsequent Metamorphosis Under Pakistan Penal Code”, A Research Journal Of South Asian Studies Vol. 25, No. 2, July-December 2010.
Yaḥyā Ibn Sharaf, Muḥyiddīn, Rawdat Al-Ṭālibīn WaꜤ Umdat Al- Muftīn, Al-Maktabah Al-Islāmī, Beirūt, Lebanon, 1991.
Yūsuf Ibn Ꜥabdullāh Ibn Muḥammad Ibn Ꜥabd Al-Bārī Al-Qurtubī, Al-Kāfī FĪ Fiqh Al-Madīnah, Maktabah Al-Riyārd Al-Hadīthah, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, 2nd Edition, Vol. 2.
Copyright (c) 2018 IIUM Press
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The IIUM journal follows the open access policy.
Consent to publish: The Author(s) agree to publish their articles with IIUM Press.
Declaration: The Author(s) declare that the article has not been published before in any form and that it is not concurrently submitted to another publication, and also that it does not infringe on anyone’s copyright. The Author(s) holds the IIUM Press and Editors of the journal harmless against all copyright claims.
Transfer of copyright: The Author(s) hereby agree to transfer the copyright of the article to IIUM Press, which shall have the exclusive and unlimited right to publish the article in any form, including in electronic media. However, the Author(s) will reserve the right to reproduce the article for educational and scientific purposes provided that the written consent of the Publisher is obtained. For the article with more than one author, the corresponding author confirms that he/she is authorized by his/her co-author(s) to grant this transfer of copyright.