The Effect and Applications of the Legal Maxim Custom is an Arbitrator in Iraqi Civil Law: An Analytical Study
أثر قاعدة العادة محكَّمة في القانون المدني العراقي وتطبيقاتها: دراسة تحليلية
Keywords:Effect, Islamic Legal Maxim, Custom Is An Arbitrator, Civil Law, Iraq
The legal maxims are an integral part of Islamic jurisprudence. These maxims combine the various issues of jurisprudence, from different sections and diverse topics, so that the particulars (al-juz’iyyāt) are referred to the universals (al-kulliyyāt) and the branches (al-furūʿ) to the basic principles (al-uṣūl). Hence, the research seeks to clarify the impact of a major Islamic legal maxim which is “Custom is an arbitrator” in the Iraqi civil law, using the inductive, analytical and descriptive methods. The research has shown that since this maxim and other maxims branching from it have been mentioned and referred to in the law, these maxims therefore have profoundly affected Iraqi civil law. Then, the study reviews the most prominent articles of the Iraqi civil law which are applications of this major maxim and its subsidiary maxims, especially in the selling and buying, lease, sharecropping contract and work contract. The research concludes that the Islamic legal maxim “Custom is an arbitrator” and its subsidiary maxims influenced the Iraqi civil law and made it strong in its formulation and articles. This research recommends the codifiers and decision-makers of the Islamic world to return to the wellspring of Islamic legal maxims and use them in codifying laws in various spheres of life.
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