PVA-PEG Hydrogel Incorporated with Cellulose Nanofibril of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches and Antibacterial Agent Curcumin


  • Nur Huda Syazwani Jafri Department of Chemical Engineering and Sustainability, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Arif Asri Department of Chemical Engineering and Sustainability, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Dzun Noraini Jimat Department of Chemical Engineering and Sustainability, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Sharifah Imihezri Syed Shaharuddin Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia.




Cellulose nanofibrils, curcumin, PVA-PEG hydrogel, freeze-thaw method, optimisation, antimicrobial


Introduction:  The compelling characteristics of hydrogel films, resembling biological tissues, have sparked significant interest for their use in wound healing dressings.

Materials and methods: Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and antibacterial agent of curcumin was incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel prepared via few cycles of freeze-thaw methods. The CNFs were extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) using alkaline-deep eutectic solvent (alkaline-DES) assisting with ultrasonication. The inclusion of CNFs and curcumin were optimized by varying their concentrations and moisture retention content (MRC) was determined as a response.

Results: The PVA-PEG/CNF-curcumin hydrogel achieved a 44.84% MRC via an optimal hydrogel composition comprising 6% (v/w) CNF and 5% (v/w) curcumin. Other physio-chemical properties of the developed hydrogel such as swelling behaviours, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), hydrogel porosity, chemical structural, and antimicrobial resistance were determined as well to observe the effect of incorporating of CNFs and curcumin. The optimized PVA-PEG/CNF-curcumin hydrogel formulation demonstrated a swelling capacity of 26.44%, enhanced porosity of 48%, and a WVTR of 76.73 g/m²h, showed its potential as a promising dressing material with improved characteristics. The PVA-PEG/CNFs-curcumin hydrogel was observed to have high moisture retention content and demonstrated good resistance to gram-positive bacteria (B. subtilis) and lower resistance to gram-negative bacteria (E. coli).

Conclusion: In conclusion, the incorporation of CNFs and curcumin into PVA-PEG hydrogel demonstrated promising characteristics, highlighting its potential as an effective and versatile wound healing dressing with notable antimicrobial properties.


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How to Cite

Jafri, N. H. S., Asri, A., Jimat, A. P. D. D. N., & Syed Shaharuddin, S. I. . (2024). PVA-PEG Hydrogel Incorporated with Cellulose Nanofibril of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches and Antibacterial Agent Curcumin. Journal of Pharmacy, 4(1), 116–128. https://doi.org/10.31436/jop.v4i1.267



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