Layer-By-Layer Coating of Sesame Oil in Alginate-Chitosan Beads for Enteric Coating and Sustained Release


  • Somaia Abueta Dermatopharmaceutics Research Group, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Hazrina Ab Hadi Dermatopharmaceutics Research Group, Kulliyyah Of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Abd Almonem Doolaanea Research and Development, Sabrena Experience, 1500 Dragon Street, Suite 160, Dallas, Texas 75207, USA.
  • Abdullah Mohammed Aloqyli Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Batterjee Medical College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.



Enteric coating, Sustained release, Layer-by-Layer, Sesame oil, Chitosan, Alginate


Introduction: Medical uses of alginate-chitosan beads have been growing widely in recent years due to their varied applications in pharmaceutical and biomedical technology. Moreover, a variety of research have used drug encapsulation in the alginate-chitosan matrix to facilitate the enteric coating and sustained release of therapeutic molecules. Sesame oil has various medical applications as it contains a significant amount of lignans, which enhance its antioxidant function and anti-inflammatory effects for external or internal medical uses. In addition, it has contributed to the treatment of several inflammatory bowel diseases. Layer-by-layer assembly provides an effective coating for drugs, improving the oil instability in the gastric media, preventing drug leakage, and elongating the release time for sesame oil. This study aims to encapsulate sesame oil in alginate-chitosan beads and to optimize the formulation for enteric coating.

Method: Consuming sesame oil directly will not enable gastrointestinal tract to obtain the desired quantity of active ingredients in the oil due to the early degradation of oil. Therefore, the beads were prepared by using the external gelation method with layer-by-layer technique to provide multicoated layers. To illustrate, the usage of layer-by-layer assembly for the encapsulated alginate-sesame oil beads was accomplished by alginate and chitosan polysaccharides. A stability test was held to ensure the formulation stability during the study. In addition, the beads were characterized for particle size, roundness, and in-vitro drug release in different simulated buffers.

Results: This study revealed that the layer-by-layer approach is a viable method to obtain a sesame oil alginate-chitosan bead formulation for enteric coating and sustained release. Formulation coated layer-by-layer provided a successful pass of the stomach system whereas 68% of cumulative drug release occurred in the intestine within 5 h. To illustrate, during 135 min uncoated beads showed a cumulative drug release of 65% while the same percentage was achieved in 255 min for coated beads.

Conclusion: Sesame oil alginate-chitosan beads could be introduced as a promising carrier for encapsulating essential oils with favourable features.


Ahmad Raus, R., Wan Nawawi, W. M. F., & Nasaruddin, R. R. (2021). Alginate and alginate composites for biomedical applications. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 16(3), 280-306. doi:

Akhila, H., & Beevy, S. (2015). Quantification of seed oil and evaluation of antioxidant properties in the wild and cultivated species of Sesamum L. (Pedaliaceae). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7, 136-142.

Alkekhia, D., Hammond, P. T., & Shukla, A. (2020). Layer-by-Layer Biomaterials for Drug Delivery. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, 22(1), 1-24. doi:10.1146/annurev-bioeng-060418-052350

Almurisi, S. H., Doolaanea, A. A., Akkawi, M. E., Chatterjee, B., Ahmed Saeed Aljapairai, K., & Islam Sarker, M. Z. (2020). Formulation development of paracetamol instant jelly for pediatric use. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 46(8), 1373-1383. doi:10.1080/03639045.2020.1791165

Atanasov, A. G., Zotchev, S. B., Dirsch, V. M., Orhan, I. E., Banach, M., Rollinger, J. M., . . . the International Natural Product Sciences, T. (2021). Natural products in drug discovery: advances and opportunities. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 20(3), 200-216. doi:10.1038/s41573-020-00114-z

Azad, A. K., Al-Mahmood, S. M. A., Chatterjee, B., Wan Sulaiman, W. M. A., Elsayed, T. M., & Doolaanea, A. A. (2020). Encapsulation of Black Seed Oil in Alginate Beads as a pH-Sensitive Carrier for Intestine-Targeted Drug Delivery: In Vitro, In Vivo and Ex Vivo Study. Pharmaceutics, 12(3), 219.

Bakshi, P. S., Selvakumar, D., Kadirvelu, K., & Kumar, N. S. (2020). Chitosan as an environment friendly biomaterial – a review on recent modifications and applications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 150, 1072-1083. doi:

Chai, F., Sun, L., He, X., Li, J., Liu, Y., Xiong, F., . . . Zheng, C. (2017). Doxorubicin-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles coated with chitosan/alginate by layer by layer technology for antitumor applications. Int J Nanomedicine, 12, 1791-1802. doi:10.2147/ijn.s130404

Choukaife, H., Doolaanea, A. A., & Alfatama, M. (2020). Alginate Nanoformulation: Influence of Process and Selected Variables. Pharmaceuticals, 13(11), 335.

Choukaife, H. A.-O., Doolaanea, A. A.-O., & Alfatama, M. Alginate Nanoformulation: Influence of Process and Selected Variables. LID - 10.3390/ph13110335 [doi] LID - 335. (1424-8247 (Print)).

Cong, Z., Shi, Y., Wang, Y., Wang, Y., Niu, J., Chen, N., & Xue, H. (2018). A novel controlled drug delivery system based on alginate hydrogel/chitosan micelle composites. Int J Biol Macromol, 107(Pt A), 855-864. doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.09.065

Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, R., & Razavi, R. (2022). Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of free/bound phenolic compounds of sesame and properties of encapsulated nanoparticles in different wall materials. Food Science & Nutrition, 10(2), 525-535. doi:

Gheorghita Puscaselu, R., Lobiuc, A., Dimian, M., & Covasa, M. (2020). Alginate: From Food Industry to Biomedical Applications and Management of Metabolic Disorders. Polymers, 12(10), 2417.

Hariyadi, D. M., & Islam, N. (2020). Current Status of Alginate in Drug Delivery. Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2020, 8886095. doi:10.1155/2020/8886095

Jayaraj, P., Narasimhulu, C. A., Rajagopalan, S., Parthasarathy, S., & Desikan, R. (2020). Sesamol: a powerful functional food ingredient from sesame oil for cardioprotection. Food Funct, 11(2), 1198-1210. doi:10.1039/c9fo01873e

Kheirati Rounizi, S., Akrami Mohajeri, F., Moshtaghi Broujeni, H., Pourramezani, F., Jambarsang, S., Kiani, H., & Khalili Sadrabad, E. (2021). The chemical composition and heavy metal content of sesame oil produced by different methods: A risk assessment study. Food Science & Nutrition, 9(6), 2886-2893. doi:

Kowalska, M., & ?bikowska, A. (2016). Study of Stability of Sesame Oil-In-Water Emulsions Determined using an Optical Analyzer and Measurement of Particle Size and Distribution. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 37(10), 1408-1414. doi:10.1080/01932691.2015.1111143

Lotfipour, F., Mirzaeei, S., & Maghsoodi, M. (2012). Evaluation of the effect of CaCl2 and alginate concentrations and hardening time on the characteristics of Lactobacillus acidophilus loaded alginate beads using response surface analysis. Adv Pharm Bull, 2(1), 71-78. doi:10.5681/apb.2012.010

Luo, X., Song, H., Yang, J., Han, B., Feng, Y., Leng, Y., & Chen, Z. (2020). Encapsulation of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 in a chitosan-alginate matrix by combining layer-by-layer assembly with CaCl2 cross-linking for an effective treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 189, 110818. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2020.110818

Mekky, R. H., Abdel-Sattar, E., Segura-Carretero, A., & Contreras, M. d. M. (2019). Phenolic Compounds from Sesame Cake and Antioxidant Activity: A New Insight for Agri-Food Residues’ Significance for Sustainable Development. Foods, 8(10), 432.

Narin, C., Ertugrul, U., Tas, O., Sahin, S., & Oztop, M. H. (2020). Encapsulation of pea protein in an alginate matrix by cold set gelation method and use of the capsules in fruit juices. Journal of Food Science, 85(10), 3423-3431. doi:

Ostovan, M., Fazljou, S. M. B., Khazraei, H., Araj Khodaei, M., & Torbati, M. (2020). The anti-inflammatory effect of Pistacia lentiscus in a rat model of colitis. Journal of Inflammation Research, 369-376.

Shafabakhsh, R., Yousefi, B., Asemi, Z., Nikfar, B., Mansournia, M. A., & Hallajzadeh, J. (2020). Chitosan: A compound for drug delivery system in gastric cancer-a review. Carbohydrate Polymers, 242, 116403. doi:

Shende, P., Patil, A., & Prabhakar, B. (2020). Layer-by-layer technique for enhancing physicochemical properties of actives. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 56. doi:10.1016/j.jddst.2020.101519

Valaei, A., Azadeh, F., Mostafavi Niaki, S. T., Salehi, A., Shakib Khoob, M., Mirebrahimi, S. H. o., . . . Hosseini, S. M. (2022). Antioxidant and Anticancer Potentials of the Olive and Sesame Mixture against Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Wistar Rats. BioMed Research International, 2022, 5440773. doi:10.1155/2022/5440773

Voli?, M., Paji?-Lijakovi?, I., Djordjevi?, V., Kneževi?-Jugovi?, Z., Pe?inar, I., Stevanovi?-Daji?, Z., . . . Bugarski, B. (2018). Alginate/soy protein system for essential oil encapsulation with intestinal delivery. Carbohydrate Polymers, 200, 15-24. doi:

Wong, S. K., Lawrencia, D., Supramaniam, J., Goh, B. H., Manickam, S., Wong, T. W., . . . Tang, S. Y. (2021). In vitro Digestion and Swelling Kinetics of Thymoquinone-Loaded Pickering Emulsions Incorporated in Alginate-Chitosan Hydrogel Beads. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.752207

Zhang, X., Xu, Y., Zhang, X., Wu, H., Shen, J., Chen, R., . . . Guo, S. (2019). Progress on the layer-by-layer assembly of multilayered polymer composites: Strategy, structural control and applications. Progress in Polymer Science, 89, 76-107. doi:




How to Cite

Abueta , S. ., Ab Hadi, H., Doolaanea, A. A. ., & Aloqyli, A. M. . (2024). Layer-By-Layer Coating of Sesame Oil in Alginate-Chitosan Beads for Enteric Coating and Sustained Release. Journal of Pharmacy, 4(1), 23–32.



Original Articles