• Mohd Hafizam Mustaffa KAED
  • Irina Safitri Zen
  • M. Zainora Asmawi


The study analyzes the carbon emission absolute number and intensity for Melaka state as a response to the Malaysia voluntary reduction target of up to 40 percent in terms of emissions intensity of gross domestic product, GDP by the year 2030 compared to 2005 levels. It is manifested in the vision of Melaka Green Technology city state by 2020. The Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions, GPC method deploys to calculate greenhouse gas, GHGs emission resulted from the various development activity in Melaka. This method classified GHG emissions into four (4) mains sectors: stationary energy, transportation, waste, and agriculture, forestry, and other land use (AFOLU) by using secondary data from related government agencies at the state level. The computation by BASIC+ reporting level resulted from an output of GHGs emission translated into carbon emission. Steady increase of GHG emissions was captured from 8,859,802 tCO2e (2013) to 8,911,173 tCO2e (2017). Further, carbon emission intensity calculates by gathering the carbon emission absolute number to Melaka’s population. The emission per-capita increase from 6.19 tCO2e (2013) to 6.88 tCO2e (2017), indicates each person contributes to the increment of GHGs emissions for Melaka state. However, the decrease of emission intensity records from 0.189 tCO2e (2013) to 0.176 tCO2e (2017) compared to an increase in population growth. The study concludes certain influences of the aggressive green technology initiative effect, such as renewable energy, LED street lighting, solar valley, smart metering in the building, electric public bus, no plastic bag, waste recycling to the overall carbon emission intensity of Melaka Green technology City State.




How to Cite

Mustaffa, T. M. H., Zen, I. S. ., & Asmawi, M. Z. . (2022). CARBON EMISSION INTENSITY FOR MELAKA GREEN TECHNOLOGY CITY STATE. Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management, 12(1). Retrieved from