Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management <p>Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management is biannually published journal by Kulliyah of Architecture and Enviromental Design.</p> <p><strong>Currently Indexed by:</strong><br /> Google Scholar<br /> Open Access</p> <p><strong>Ethical Statement:</strong><br />The manuscript must represent original work by the author(s). None of the material should be covered by any copyright; if copyrighted material exceeding approximately 100 words from a journal article or approximately 500 words from a book is used, the author has obtained written permission for its use. Further, this work should not infringe any intellectual property rights/secrecy laws of any person/organization/government/public or private agency, nor should it contain any defamatory matter.</p> <p>IIUM Press does not bear any responsibility for verifying copyright permissions provided by the author. Any breach of copyright laws will result in retraction of the published manuscript <strong>as well as reporting to relevant authorities in the authors' institutions.</strong></p> <p style="bottom: 0px; zoom: 1;"><strong>Publication Charges:</strong><br />There are no charges for submission of a manuscript as well as no charges for article processing or publication.</p> <p style="bottom: 0px; zoom: 1;"><strong>Privacy Statement:</strong><br />The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p><strong>Disclaimer</strong>: Opinions expressed in articles and creative pieces published in this Journal are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the editors, the editorial board or the publisher.</p> International Islamic University Malaysia en-US Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2231-9514 EDITORIAL <p><em><span class="fontstyle1">Assalamu'alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh</span></em></p> <p><span class="fontstyle1">Dear All,</span></p> <p><span class="fontstyle1">Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management (JAPCM), Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design is one the official journals of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), under IIUM Press. It embarked in 2011 and is dedicated to the publication of original articles on the specialized fields of Architecture, Planning, Landscape Architecture, Quantity Surveying, Building Technology and Engineering, Applied Arts and Design, Construction Management and those related to the Built Environment. JAPCM is also the ardent forum for the reports of research that bridged the Built Environment and the Islamic worldview.</span></p> <p> </p> <p><span class="fontstyle1">Prof. Ar. Dr. Abdul Razak Sapian </span></p> <p><span class="fontstyle1">Editor-in-Chief</span></p> Abdul Razak Sapian Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 13 1 i v 10.31436/japcm.v13i1.782 COMPARATIVE PLANNING FOR PORT CITIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA AND PERSIAN GULF <p>Increasing population growth and rapid development of ports are among the challenges of city ports. Today, the relationship between cities and ports has weakened, the historical and cultural connection between ports and cities has been severed, and more decisions are being made on the scale of global management. Ports have lost their former place in the lives of local people. This article compares the ports of the Persian Gulf and Southeast Asia cities. Based on the existing literature, the comparative method is used in economic, environmental, and physical aspects, and the comparative method the similarities and differences between these two geographical regions. The differences and similarities depend on places and countries' planning and policy methods.</p> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> Sayyed Nouroddin Amiri Norzailawati Mohd Noor Nurin Fadhlina Mohd Anafi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 13 1 1 16 10.31436/japcm.v13i1.707 STRATEGIES BY THE CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES IN MALAYSIA TO SURVIVE FROM THE IMPACTS OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC <p>Many construction firms in Malaysia suffer a significant setback when the economy crashes due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Following the imposition of restricted movement orders in Malaysia, most construction projects in the country have been put on hold or delayed. This paper identifies the impacts of Covid-19 pandemic on the construction companies in Malaysia, and the appropriate strategies to be adopted by the construction companies to survive from the impacts of Covid-19 pandemic. The main data used in this paper were from literature reviews and questionnaire survey. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software is used for data analysis to achieve the objectives of this study. The major findings indicate that the significant impacts of Covid-19 pandemic are project delay, tight Covid-19 regulatory compliance, and enhance of site safety due to SOPs. The strategies adopted by the construction companies, among others, are stricter site management to reduce material waste, and stricter financial management. This research is deemed to be appropriate to facilitate the construction companies in Malaysia several strategies they can adopt for them to may remain significant to the industry.</p> Nurul Anis Fadhilah Norhaidin Tan Chin Keng Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 13 1 17 28 10.31436/japcm.v13i1.705 AN INVESTIGATION ON SUSTAINABLE REFURBISHMENT PRACTICE OF BUILDING WORKS IN MALAYSIA <div><span lang="EN-GB">Refurbishment is one of the solutions to address the environmental issues that the construction industry is currently facing. Even though so many existing buildings have gone through refurbishment works, many of the buildings still lack consideration to incorporate sustainable elements. Realizing that sustainable refurbishment is one of many ways to solve environmental problems, this research aims to address major barriers faced by the construction players and develop strategies to improve the practice of sustainable refurbishment of existing buildings, specifically in the Malaysian context. Semi-structured interview approach was conducted with six selected practitioners who are dependable to give their perspectives on this research area. The result of the analysis established that the lack of clients’ requirements and high upfront costs has been established as the main problems in the implementation of sustainable refurbishment in Malaysia. Apart from that, the interviewees agreed to the main strategies: strengthening the Government's regulations, elevating the company’s image, and reducing the operational cost of sustainable refurbishment works.</span></div> Luqman Hakim Mohd Sopery Mohd Fairullazi Ayob Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 13 1 29 39 10.31436/japcm.v13i1.735 DATA QUALITY ISSUES THAT HINDER THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN) FOR COST ESTIMATION OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN MALAYSIA <p>The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) which is one of the Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools, has been identified as a great technique to be used for construction cost estimation in the project. With the optimum quality of data input into the ANN model, it could produce an optimum and reliable cost estimation output. Nonetheless, the construction industry is lack of breadth and depth of data that is required as input into ANN. Though many online databases have been made available for data consumers, data quality problems remain unresolved. Thus, this study aims to identify data quality issues that can hinder the implementation of ANN for cost estimation of a construction project. A literature review and semi-structured interview were employed for the data collection of this research. The content analysis method was used to analyse the information obtained through the literature review. Meanwhile, the data collected from the semi-structured interview with nine (9) respondents were analysed using both content analysis and descriptive statistics analysis methods. The findings revealed six data quality issues that can hinder the ANN implementation for cost estimation of construction projects in Malaysia which are inaccurate data, outdated data, data access barriers, insufficient data, noise in training data, and data input degree of influence. Academically, this study contributes to the body of knowledge about the implementation of ANN for cost estimation of construction projects in Malaysia.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Artificial Neural Network, Artificial Intelligence, Cost Estimation, Data Quality.</p> Alya Farhani Mohd Zammari Mohd Fairullazi Ayob Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 13 1 40 53 10.31436/japcm.v13i1.731 INVENTORY OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE SHOPHOUSES IN JALAN MENDALING, KAJANG OLD TOWN <p><span class="fontstyle0">This study sheds light on the current condition of heritage shophouses in Jalan Mendaling, Kajang, underscoring the urgency of their preservation. By recognizing these structures' architectural value and historical significance, it is hoped that appropriate measures will be taken to conserve and protect Kajang's unique heritage for future generations. Located in the southeastern part of Selangor, Malaysia, Kajang stands as one of the oldest towns in the region, with a rich historical background. Formerly a bustling trading center and tin mining area, Kajang now holds significant cultural heritage through its assortment of shophouses, reflecting the town's past architectural styles. These shophouses, constructed in various designs, including Early Shophouse, Eclectic Shophouse, and Neoclassical, play a pivotal role in shaping Kajang's distinctive identity. This research aims to assess the existing state and architectural characteristics of heritage shophouses in Jalan Mendaling, Kajang. Through observation, the study highlights the pressing need for preservation and intervention by relevant authorities to safeguard these invaluable structures. Regrettably, many shophouses have undergone renovations that compromise authenticity, demanding immediate attention to ensure long-term conservation. Nevertheless, the research successfully identified seven shophouses that have remarkably maintained their original façades, thus retaining their historical significance and architectural allure. Data collection for this research involved the utilization of a comprehensive checklist. Initial observations revealed a total of 42 shop lots on Jalan Mendaling, Kajang, out of which only 39 retained their structures. Consequently, the final phase of observation concentrated on a select group of seven shop lots that preserved the original façades and architectural elements, signifying the true essence of heritage without substantial alterations influenced by modern practices. The findings of this research possess significant implications for raising awareness regarding the importance of conserving and preserving heritage shophouses. Furthermore, the outcomes can be utilized to formulate comprehensive guidelines tailored explicitly for the conservation and preservation of heritage shophouses in Kajang, ensuring the sustainable safeguarding of these cultural treasures.</span> </p> Amir Ridhwan Mohamed Nayeem Asif Fadzidah Abdullah Zeenat Begam Yusof Aida Kesuma Azmin Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 13 1 54 63 10.31436/japcm.v13i1.783 VISUAL COMFORT ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS WINDOW-SHADINGS FOR OFFICE BUILDINGS IN KABUL, AFGHANISTAN <p>This research studies the visual comfort of various window-shadings for office buildings in Kabul, Afghanistan. Visual comfort is vital in ensuring the overall health and well-being of building occupants, particularly in offices where occupants work for long hours, depending on lighting to perform their visual tasks efficiently. The absence of visual comfort is proven to affect the health and productivity of the occupants negatively. Shading devices are great solar protection systems for enhancing visual comfort in indoor spaces, especially in locations with higher solar radiation exposure and latitudes such as Kabul. They should be well-designed and accurately selected to avoid any adverse effects. Hence, this research first studies and identifies different window shadings for improving visual comfort in Kabul, then analyzes the simulated shading devices through comparative analysis, and finally evaluates the most suitable of these shadings for visual comfort enhancement in office buildings in Kabul, Afghanistan.</p> Jaihoon Jahish Fadzidah Abdullah Aliyah Nur Zafirah Sanusi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2023-09-11 2023-09-11 13 1 64 76 A REVIEW ON METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF THE PIGMENTS AND INKS IN ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPT <p>Ink and pigment significantly impact historical context because of their extensive colour palette. In modern and contemporary times, the utilization of coloured minerals and other natural materials, as well as synthetic pigments and inks, contributed to creating an accessible colour palette. Therefore, this paper will review the current methods used to examine pigment and ink properties and characteristics. It is found that the instrumental analyses that have been used are spectroscopy and microscopic analysis through non-destructive and destructive approaches. The destructive analysis showed that a positive test that confirms the presence of an element is usually more reliable than a negative test that confirms its absence, while ink formulation and chemical composition are not evaluated using non-destructive ink analysis procedures. This study is crucial to identify the suitable analytical approaches that can be implemented in pigment and ink analysis on the illuminated manuscript through various case studies from other researchers' work experience.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nawal Mash’al Rajabi Abdul Razak Harlina Md. Sharif Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2023-09-11 2023-09-11 13 1 77 89