Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management <p>Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management is biannually published journal by Kulliyah of Architecture and Enviromental Design.</p> <p><strong>Currently Indexed by:</strong><br /> Google Scholar<br /> Open Access</p> <p><strong>Ethical Statement:</strong><br />The manuscript must represent original work by the author(s). None of the material should be covered by any copyright; if copyrighted material exceeding approximately 100 words from a journal article or approximately 500 words from a book is used, the author has obtained written permission for its use. Further, this work should not infringe any intellectual property rights/secrecy laws of any person/organization/government/public or private agency, nor should it contain any defamatory matter.</p> <p>IIUM Press does not bear any responsibility for verifying copyright permissions provided by the author. Any breach of copyright laws will result in retraction of the published manuscript <strong>as well as reporting to relevant authorities in the authors' institutions.</strong></p> <p style="bottom: 0px; zoom: 1;"><strong>Publication Charges:</strong><br />There are no charges for submission of a manuscript as well as no charges for article processing or publication.</p> <p style="bottom: 0px; zoom: 1;"><strong>Privacy Statement:</strong><br />The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p><strong>Disclaimer</strong>: Opinions expressed in articles and creative pieces published in this Journal are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the editors, the editorial board or the publisher.</p> International Islamic University Malaysia en-US Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2231-9514 EDITORIAL <div class="main_entry"> <section class="item abstract"> <p>Editorial for Volume 12 Issue 1</p> </section> </div> Aniza Abu Bakar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 12 1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ON INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS ASCRIBED TO IMPROPER WASTE MANAGEMENT IN KABUL <p>This study focuses on ensuring a sustainable and livable environment in the 8th district informal settlement of Kabul. It seeks to look at the environmental impacts of improper waste management on informal settlement in Kabul city. The study analyses current waste management situation and challenges and environmental effects on informal settlers in the city. A qualitative methodology approach with direct observation and interview were used for data collection. A total of three experts was interviewed from relevant authorities, and purposive sampling used for selecting respondents. Thematic and template analysis techniques were used for data analysis. The findings of this study revealed that waste management situation was not frequent; lack of infrastructure and facilities, poverty, rapid urbanization, lack of municipality technical capacity, funds, and experts were the main factors to improper waste management. Waste was not collected correctly due to weak accessibility and imperfect nature of roads. Waste burning for house heating in winter and residents of informal settlements were not aware of considering environmental and health issues. Improper waste management creates severe environmental impacts such as land and water pollution, air pollution, infectious diseases, unpleasant smells, drains blockage, and loss of biodiversity. The study concluded with suggestions that infrastructure must be improved, residents should be educated about environment protection, municipality contribution, and community contribution should be ensured as well as a sustainable redevelopment model is suggested to eradicate informal settlement and ensure a sustainable environment. Findings will serve as the basis for information that policymakers should concentrate on when planning a course of action or inaction to improve the waste management systems in informal settlements.</p> Zuhra Junaida binti Mohamad Husny Mohamad Husny Rahmatullah Ibrahimy Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 12 1 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT: EVALUATION IN KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ <p>In the construction industry, material waste contributes to a major problem, and the necessity for managing material waste is vital. The main objective of this research was to determine the significant factors that contribute to construction wastes in the Kurdistan region of Iraq, particularly in the city of Sulaymaniyah. The construction industry provides a foundation for future construction projects and thus it is significant to avoid and eliminate the causes of material wastes in the construction process. The objective of the study is to investigate the practice of material waste in the building construction sector with the goal of motivating the performance of managing construction projects in Iraq’s Kurdistan region. The survey questionnaire was the main technique used for conducting and collecting primary data from relevant governmental bodies and construction companies with a study sample of 50 respondents. The result of the analysis demonstrated that the conventional construction method was the most common method utilised for construction. Also, the result illustrated that the main sources and causes of material waste were weak strategy for waste minimisation, lack of staff's awareness on waste management practices, and poor materials storage system. The most wasteful materials were also determined, which included formworks (from timber/wood), tile, sand, and concrete. Apart from that, the result found that possible measures which might contribute to the minimisation of material wastes included the implementation of effective site management and supervision techniques, employing skilled labour, and on-site material storage that is appropriate.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Management, material, waste, construction.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mahmood Agha Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 12 1 INVENTORY OF MALAY ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE IN GOMBAK DISTRICT, SELANGOR <p>Gombak District in the Klang valley contributes considerable importance to the history of Malay settlement which traces back to hundreds of years. This led to the existence of Malay architectural heritage in the Gombak district. Hence, this research seeks to discover the Malay architectural heritage that still retains the Malay traditional features and design identity. The traditional Malay buildings in Gombak were identified and later documented in an inventory form. The research involved a combination of literature review, onsite inventory, and face to face semi-structured interview methods. Thirty-nine (39) Malay traditional houses and masjids from 13 villages in Gombak are identified, which were built more than 80 years while a few were 140 years old. The research also revealed that 35 of the heritage buildings are still sturdy and preserved. Proactive preservation initiatives and conservation efforts need to be carried out immediately to conserve the traditional Malay houses and masjids to be appreciated by future generations.</p> Nurul Hamiruddin Salleh Mohammad Zaim Abdullah Nurlelawati Ab Jalil Muhammad Ihsan Shaharil Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 12 1 CARBON EMISSION INTENSITY FOR MELAKA GREEN TECHNOLOGY CITY STATE <p>The study analyzes the carbon emission absolute number and intensity for Melaka state as a response to the Malaysia voluntary reduction target of up to 40 percent in terms of emissions intensity of gross domestic product, GDP by the year 2030 compared to 2005 levels. It is manifested in the vision of Melaka Green Technology city state by 2020. The Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions, GPC method deploys to calculate greenhouse gas, GHGs emission resulted from the various development activity in Melaka. This method classified GHG emissions into four (4) mains sectors: stationary energy, transportation, waste, and agriculture, forestry, and other land use (AFOLU) by using secondary data from related government agencies at the state level. The computation by BASIC+ reporting level resulted from an output of GHGs emission translated into carbon emission. Steady increase of GHG emissions was captured from 8,859,802 tCO<sub>2</sub>e (2013) to 8,911,173 tCO<sub>2</sub>e (2017). Further, carbon emission intensity calculates by gathering the carbon emission absolute number to Melaka’s population. The emission per-capita increase from 6.19 tCO<sub>2</sub>e (2013) to 6.88 tCO<sub>2</sub>e (2017), indicates each person contributes to the increment of GHGs emissions for Melaka state. However, the decrease of emission intensity records from 0.189 tCO<sub>2</sub>e (2013) to 0.176 tCO<sub>2</sub>e (2017) compared to an increase in population growth. The study concludes certain influences of the aggressive green technology initiative effect, such as renewable energy, LED street lighting, solar valley, smart metering in the building, electric public bus, no plastic bag, waste recycling to the overall carbon emission intensity of Melaka Green technology City State.</p> Ts Mohd Hafizam Mustaffa Irina Safitri Zen M. Zainora Asmawi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 12 1 ARCHITECTURAL UPCYCLING: BUILDINGS FROM WASTE & UNCONVENTIONAL MATERIALS <p>Repurposing building materials has been practised since old civilisations, but recently, it has transcended to utilising not only building materials but to general waste items not typically used in construction. The practice is coined as architectural upcycling. Due to its unconventional nature, several drawbacks exist: the challenge of appropriating the item for its architectural purpose, the limitation on the type of buildings it can be applied to, and the scarcity of research that establishes a guide on architectural upcycling. This research aims to provide an insight on how to achieve the excellent practice of architectural upcycling through design considerations based on the type of buildings fit for this practice. The design considerations are outlined from reviewing previous studies, and the types of small-scale structures typically suitable are identified. Sixteen case studies are chosen from four small-scale typologies: community buildings, single residences, lodgings, and pavilions. Variables observed are the role of the material, functionality, modification, ability to be disassembled, and material expression. It is found that the buildings from the four typologies exhibit different approaches to addressing these considerations. The findings serve to guide designers in achieving successful upcycling practice based on the typologies studied.</p> Edora Mohamad Suhaimi Mohd Hafiz Mohammad Zin Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 12 1