• Asif Ali



Due to prohibition of figurative representation in Islam, Arabic calligraphy has been a highest form of art on the surface of monuments. Before the advent of Islam, Arabic writings were not having well developed and definite styles, but revelation of Quran in Arabic opened new vistas for Arabic calligraphy. In the early decades of Islam, the Arabic calligraphy first developed to write Holy Quran on leather, bones, leaves, parchment etc. and, later this art became the part of precious objects, paintings and monuments. Along with other forms of art, the Arabic calligraphy also enriched architecture of the Islamic world. With the spread of Islam in different regions of world the art of calligraphy transmitted to new territories and consequently various styles of calligraphy were developed. The early Muslim rulers in India, the Sultans developed this art and later Mughals enriched and flourished it to its peak. The Arabic calligraphic art on Indian monuments are in the form of Quranic verses, Hadith or inscriptions mentioning information regarding monument and its builder. In this paper authors will investigate the visual and aesthetic characteristics of art of Arabic calligraphy in Mughal architecture of North India. The monuments studied here are from three capital cities of Mughal Empire in North India, viz. Agra, Delhi and Fatehpur Sikri. The study shall assist to conserve and restore the calligraphic inscriptions in Mughal buildings as they are deteriorating day by day due to negligence. It will also help designers, architects and calligraphers as calligraphy is still associated as one of the important element of contemporary religious buildings




How to Cite

Ali, A. (2018). ARABIC CALLIGRAPHY ON MUGHAL MONUMENTS OF NORTH INDIA. Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management (JAPCM), 7(1).