Rahmatullah al-Kairanawi and His work entitled “Izhar al-Ḥaq”; External Criticism toward Gospel
Keywords:Cristicism, Bibles, Rahmatullah, Izhar al-Haq
This study is focused on the critique of Rahmatullah on the Bibles through his book entitled “The Truth Revealed", which was classified as a result of the debate that was known to prevail over the Reverend (Karl Gothlib Pfander) in his debate called "The Great Debate" in 1854. This study based on external criticism in Bibles. The researcher followed the analytical approach by extrapolating his views in his book by demonstrating the truth and by gathering opinions for scholars who had studied them. Despite the many criticisms that have been put to Bibles, the result has been that Rahmatullah is unique in Bible criticism in that her lesson and detail in the Bible's truth have demonstrated the interruption of the bond and its narrative, as well as his critique in illustrating the differences between Bibles in terms of style and expression, indicating that he was invented in external criticism. This study also resulted that Rahmatullah criticism influenced by the approach of criticism used among hadith scholars in hadith criticism. The study suggested that all those who study the books of revelation, or who establish councils and dialogue with non-Muslim among Christian and others, whether from academic scholars, institutions and the department of religious research of the government, should use this approach to establish the truthfulness of the Books of Revelation during their studies in order to reach the desired right and goal.
Al-Kīrānawī, Rahimatullah Al-Hindī. Izhār Al-Haq. Port Saʿīd: Maktabah Al-Thaqāfah Al-Dīnīyyah. 1991 M.
ʿItir, Nūr Al-Dīn Muhanmmad Al-Halbī. Manhaj Al-Naqad fī ʿUlūm Al-Ḥadīth. Dimashq: Dār Al-Fikr. Vol: 3. 1997 M
ʿAbd Al-Kabīr Husīn Ṣāleh. Rahmatullah Al-Kīrānawī Al-Hindī fī Kitābihi Izhār Al-Haq, Al- Naqdu Al-Islāmī Lilʿahdi Al-Qadīm wa Al-ʿahdi Al-Jadīd, Majalah Al-Hikmah, issue 2:9. 2017 M.
Al-Kīrānawī, Rahimatullah Al-Hindī. Izhār Al-Haq. Vol: 1, Al-Saʿūdiyyah: Al- Raāsah Al-ʿĀmmah Liidārāt Al-Buḥūth Al-ʿIlmiyyah wa Al-Iftā’ wa Al- Daʿwah wa Al-Irshād. 1991 M.
Al-Hindī, Al-Saīd ʿAbd Allah. Waqāiʿ Al-Munāẓoroh Al-Latī Jarat Baina Al-Sheīkh Rahmatullah Al-Hindī wa Al-Qissīs Fandar Al-Inklīzī. Terjamah: Rifāᶜī Al- Khawlī Al-Kātib. Vol 1, Beirūt: Dār al-Bashā`ir al-Islāmiyyah. 1996 M.
Malkāwī, Muhammad ʿAbd al-Qādir. Al-Munāẓoroh al-Kubrā Bayna al-Sheīkh Rahmatullah wa al-Duktūr al-Qissīs Fandar. Al-Riyāḍ: Dār Ibn Taymiyyah, Vol 1. 1985 M.
Al-Qarnī, ʿĀliyyah Binti Ṣāleh, Juhūd al-Sheīkh Raḥmatullah al-Hindī fī al-Difāʿ an al-ʿAqīdah, Bahath Takmīlī Linaīli Darajah al-Mājester, Kuliyyah ‘Uṣūl al-Dīn, Jāmiʿah Um al-Qurā, Makkah al-Mukarramah, 1426 H.
Alārū, ʿAbd al-Razāq Bin ʿAbd al-Majīd. Maṣādir al-Naṣrāniyyah Dirāsah wa Naqdān, Vol 1, Al-Riyāḍ: Dār al-Tawhīd Lilnashar. 2007 M.
Ibn Hazm, Abī Muḥammad ʿAlī Bin Aḥmad, Vol. 3, Al-Fisal fī al-Milal wa al-‘Ahwā’ wa al-Nihal. Tahqīq: Ahmad Shams al-Dīn. Beirūt: Dār al-Kutub al-ᶜĪmiyyah. 2007 M.
Ibn Taymiyyah, Abī al-ʿAbbās Taqī al-Dīn Aḥmad. Al-Jawāb al-Ṣaḥīḥ Li man Baddala Dīn al-Masīḥ. Vol 1, Beirūt: Al-Maktabah al-ʿlmiyyah, Taḥqīq: Muhammad Hasan Muhammad Hasan Ismāʿīl. 2003 M.
Al-Kalām, Yūsuf. Tārīkh wa ʿAqā`id al-Kitāb al-Muqaddas Bayna Ishkāliyyah al- Taqnīn wa al-Taqdīs. Vol 1, Dimasyq: Dār Ṣafhāt. 2009 M.
Al-Khalaf, Saʿūd ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz. Dirāsāt fī al-Adyān al-Yahūdiyyah wa al-Naṣrāniyyah, Vol 5, Al-Riyāḍ: Dār ‘Aḍwā’ al-Salaf. 2006 M.
Al-Juhanī, Māniʿ Bin Hammād Al-Mawsūʿah al-Muyassarah fī al-Adyān wa al- Madhāhib wa al-Ahzāb al-Muʿāṣoroh, Vol 5, Al-Riyāḍ: Dār al-Nadwah al- ʿĀliyyah Lilṭibāʿah wa al-Nashr wa al-Tawzīʿ, 2003 M.
Nakhbah Min al-Lāhuṭiyyīn. Murshid al-Ṭālibīn ila al-Kitāb al-Muqaddas al-Thamīn. Vol 3, Beirūt. 1869 M.
Al-Kitāb al-Muqaddas. Vol 2, Beirūt: Jamᶜiyyāt al-Kitāb al-Muqaddis fī al- Mashriq. 1991 M
Conrad Hackett And David Mcclendon. “Christians remain world’s largest religious group, but they are declining in Europe” , 5 april 2017. Accessed 14th February 2021. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/05/christians-remain- worlds- largest-religious-group-but-they-are-declining-in-europe/
Al-Amir, Ahmed. Who Wrote the Bible? 2017 M.
Kelber. Warner H. The Oral And The Written Gospel: The Hermeneutics Of Speaking And Writing In The Synoptic Tradition, Mark, Paul, And Q- Indiana University Press, 22 November 1997.
Samuel I. Feigin. The Original Language of the Gospels Source: Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3 July, Published by: University of Chicago Press.