Operationalizing Distributive Justice from the Perspective of Islamic Economics
Keywords:Distribution, Equity, Islamic heritage, Justice, Model
The idea of distributive justice is an important subject matter immensely debated in studies of philosophy, political, behavioral and social sciences; it has yet to be thoroughly analyzed in economics. Despite its relevance, works in the formulation of models of distributive justice in Islamic Economics are lacking relative to those available in Western scholarship. The existing scholarly products deal mainly with limited applied aspects of distributive justice. Alternatively, the current conceptual paper is an inaugural analysis of the notion of distributive justice from the sources of Islamic heritage (Turath). The effort is aimed at guiding practitioners and policymakers to find solutions to economic distributional problems in the Muslim world in particular. This research attempts to critically review accessible Islamic Economic literature written on distributive justice and propose a model of distributive justice using the operationalization method introduced by Sekaran and Bougie (2010). It begins with a brief survey of related works by exploring justice and distribution separately. Next the concept of distributive justice is translated into principles and observable dimensions found in the sources of revealed knowledge. Lastly the findings are presented in the form of the proposed model of distributive justice based solely on evidence in the Holy QurÊ¾Än and á¸¤adÄ«th. Recommendations are made for expanding the model to fit the special needs of different Islamic economies battling severe distributive injustices stemming from the reliance on conventional theories. Empirical analysis to further defend the viability of the proposed model of distributive justice is highly valued.
Abdelbaki, H.H. â€œThe Impact of ZakÄt on Poverty and Income Inequality in Bahrain.â€ Review of Integrative Business & Economics Research 2, no. 1 (2013): 133-54.
Al-Jarhi, M.A.M. â€œTowards an Islamic Macro Model of Distribution: A Comparative Approach.â€ Journal of Research in Islamic Economics, (1985): 1-29.
Al-Sadr, M.B. (1982). Iqtisaduna (Our Economics). Beirut: Dir al-Ta'aruf.
Al-Zarqa, M. Anas (1984). â€œRedistribution Systems in Islam.â€ Journal of Research in Islamic Economics 2, no. 1 (1982) 1404 H.
Hussain, Dilwar, Siddidui Ataullah, and Yahya Birt. (2011). British Secularism and Religion of Islam, Society and the State. KUBE Publishing Ltd, UK.
Chapra, Umer. (2008). The Islamic Vision of Development in the Light of MaqÄá¹£id Al-SharÄ«ah.
Haneef, Mohamed Aslam. Contemporary Islamic Economic Thought: A Selected Comparative Analysis. Alhoda UK, 1995.
Hasan, Zubair. Distributional Equity in Islam in Distributive Justice and Need Fulfillment in an Islamic Economy. Edited by Munawar Iqbal. Islamabad: International Institute of Islamic Economics, 1988.
Hashmi, S.H. â€œThe Problem of Poverty in Islamic Ethics.â€ Religious and Secular Perspectives (2010): 180-203.
Ibrahim, P. (2006). Economic Role of ZakÄt in Reducing Income Inequality and Poverty in Selangor. PhD Thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
Islahi, A.A. â€œIslamic Distributive Scheme: A Concise Statement.â€ Journal of Objective Studies 5, no. 1 (1993): 98-111.
_________, Contributions of Muslim Scholars to Economic Thought Analysis (11-905 A.H./632-1500 A.D.). Islamic Economic Research Centre. Jeddah: King Abdul Aziz University Press, 2004.
Iqbal, Munawar. Distributive Justice and Need Fulfillment in an Islamic Economy. International Institute of Islamic Economics, Islamabad, and The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, U.K., 1988.
Khan, M.F. â€œFactors of Production and Factor Markets in Islamic Framework.â€ Islamic Economics 2, no. 1 (1990): 25-46.
Majid, Khadduri. The Islamic Conception of Justice. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.
Marranchi, Gabriele. Muslim Societies and the Challenge of Secularization: An Interdisciplinary Approach. New York: Springer Science and Business Media, 2010.
Masud, K. â€œThe Construction and Deconstruction of Secularism as an Ideology in Contemporary Muslim Thought.â€ Asian Journal of Social Science 33, no. 3 (2005): 363-83.
Monzer Kahf. (2002). Allocation of Outputs to Factors of Production and the Implicit Islamic concept of Market Justice. Seminar on the Theory of Functional Distribution of Income, Lawrence, Kansas. Organized by IRTI.
Qutb, Sayyid. (1946). Social Justice in Islam. Translated by B. Hardie Islamic Publications International: Revised Ed. (2000).
Rahman, F. Major Themes of the Qur'Ã¤n. Chicago: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1980.
______. â€œIslam and the Problem of Economic Justice.â€ Journal of Islamic Economics 1, no. 6 (1995): 14-58.
Riffat, Hassan. â€œReligious Human Rights in QurÊ¾Än.â€ http://www.irfi.org/articles/articles_101_150/religious_human_rights_in_ the_qu.html
Saad, Norma Md., â€œSelecting High-income Generating Activities for Micro-entrepreneurs: The Case Study of Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia.â€ International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 1 no. 5 (2011): 258-64.
Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein. The Just Ruler in Shiâ€›ite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Salim, S. (2015). â€œWilayat al-Hisba; A Means to Achieve Justice and Maintain High Ethical Standards in Societies.â€ Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 6, no. 4 (2015): 201-6.
Salleh, M.S. â€œPhilosophical Foundations of Islamic Development: Khurshid Ahmadâ€™s Conception Revisited.â€ International Journal of Education and Research (IJER) 1, no. 7 (2013).
Sekaran, U., and R. Bougie, Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. John Wiley & Sons. 127-8, 2010.
Shafi, M. Justice and Equity in the Qurâ€™an. First written for Dar al Islam Teachersâ€™ Institutes Alumni News Letter, 2000.
Siddiqi, M.N. â€œThe Guarantee of a Minimum Level of Living in an Islamic State.â€ Distributive Justice and Need Fulfillment in an Islamic Economy. The Islamic Foundation, Leicester (1988): 251-86.
Yazdi, Ayatollah Muhammad Taqi Misbah. An Outline of Law from a Qurâ€™Änic Perspective. Summarized and Paraphrased by Karim Aghili (1934).
Yusuf Ali. The Meaning of the Noble Qurâ€™an. English- QurÊ¾Än with commentaries, 2006.