The Foundation of al-Qawāʿid al-Fiqhiyyah According to Four Madhhabs
Keywords:Rules, al-Qawāʿid al- Fiqhiyyah, Mujtahid, istinbāṭ, madhhab.
Islamic legal maxim (al-Qāʿidah al-Fiqhiyya) is a universal rule, case or law that is practiced or taken in all parts of the same cases of law. Islamic legal maxim is one of the means for mujtahid or fāqih to formulate the law. Therefore, they need to comprehend the legal maxim, at least the grand legal maxims (al-qawāʿid al-fiqhiyya al-asasiyya or al-qawāʿid al-fiqhiyya al-kubrā) which are universal central rules that become a reference to the specific maxims (al-qawāʿid al-furūʿiyya). This paper aims to clarify the notion of the Islamic legal maxims, particularly the grand general maxims, and their use as arguments in the making (istinbāṭ) of law in the legal schools (madhāhib). The schools of fiqh discussed in this paper are the four schools, namely the Hānafīya, Mālikīya, Shāfiʿīya and Hanbālīya schools. According to these madhāhib, there are five legal maxims that are agreed to be grand legal maxims, and there are two that are disagreed legal maxims to be grand legal maxims.
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